How to format your references using the Journal of Translational Autoimmunity citation style

This is a short guide how to format citations and the bibliography in a manuscript for Journal of Translational Autoimmunity. For a complete guide how to prepare your manuscript refer to the journal's instructions to authors.

Using reference management software

Typically you don't format your citations and bibliography by hand. The easiest way is to use a reference manager:

PaperpileThe citation style is built in and you can choose it in Settings > Citation Style or Paperpile > Citation Style in Google Docs.
EndNoteFind the style here: output styles overview
Mendeley, Zotero, Papers, and othersThe style is either built in or you can download a CSL file that is supported by most references management programs.
BibTeXBibTeX syles are usually part of a LaTeX template. Check the instructions to authors if the publisher offers a LaTeX template for this journal.

Journal articles

Those examples are references to articles in scholarly journals and how they are supposed to appear in your bibliography.

Not all journals organize their published articles in volumes and issues, so these fields are optional. Some electronic journals do not provide a page range, but instead list an article identifier. In a case like this it's safe to use the article identifier instead of the page range.

A journal article with 1 author
M. Jardine, Astronomy. Sunscreen for the young Earth, Science. 327 (2010) 1206–1207.
A journal article with 2 authors
J. Xie, D.L. Black, A CaMK IV responsive RNA element mediates depolarization-induced alternative splicing of ion channels, Nature. 410 (2001) 936–939.
A journal article with 3 authors
M. Du, Z. Wang, H. Hu, Measuring memory with the order of fractional derivative, Sci. Rep. 3 (2013) 3431.
A journal article with 4 or more authors
C.M. Somers, B.E. McCarry, F. Malek, J.S. Quinn, Reduction of particulate air pollution lowers the risk of heritable mutations in mice, Science. 304 (2004) 1008–1010.

Books and book chapters

Here are examples of references for authored and edited books as well as book chapters.

An authored book
R.M. Heiberger, Computation for the Analysis of Designed Experiments, John Wiley & Sons, Inc., Hoboken, NJ, 2015.
An edited book
B. Apolloni, R.J. Howlett, L. Jain, eds., Knowledge-Based Intelligent Information and Engineering Systems: 11th International Conference, KES 2007, XVII Italian Workshop on Neural Networks, Vietri sul Mare, Italy, September 12-14, 2007. Proceedings, Part II, Springer, Berlin, Heidelberg, 2007.
A chapter in an edited book
J.S.S. Melo, L.M. Brasil, R. Balaniuk, E. Ferneda, J.S. Santana, Intelligent Tutoring Systems Based on Ontologies and 3D Visualization Platforms in the Teaching of the Human Anatomy, in: O. Dössel, W.C. Schlegel (Eds.), World Congress on Medical Physics and Biomedical Engineering, September 7 - 12, 2009, Munich, Germany: Vol. 25/12 General Subjects, Springer, Berlin, Heidelberg, 2009: pp. 16–19.

Web sites

Sometimes references to web sites should appear directly in the text rather than in the bibliography. Refer to the Instructions to authors for Journal of Translational Autoimmunity.

Blog post
E. Andrew, The World’s New Sustainable Development Goals, IFLScience. (2015). (accessed October 30, 2018).


This example shows the general structure used for government reports, technical reports, and scientific reports. If you can't locate the report number then it might be better to cite the report as a book. For reports it is usually not individual people that are credited as authors, but a governmental department or agency like "U. S. Food and Drug Administration" or "National Cancer Institute".

Government report
Government Accountability Office, Airline Mergers: Issues Raised by the Proposed Merger of American Airlines and US Airways, U.S. Government Printing Office, Washington, DC, 2013.

Theses and dissertations

Theses including Ph.D. dissertations, Master's theses or Bachelor theses follow the basic format outlined below.

Doctoral dissertation
D.L. McAvoy, Coming of age with Shakespeare: The convergence of American youth culture and high culture since the 1980s, Doctoral dissertation, Indiana University, 2012.

News paper articles

Unlike scholarly journals, news papers do not usually have a volume and issue number. Instead, the full date and page number is required for a correct reference.

New York Times article
K.D. Brownell, M. Nestle, The Sweet And Lowdown On Sugar, New York Times. (2004) A23.

In-text citations

References should be cited in the text by sequential numbers in square brackets:

This sentence cites one reference [1].
This sentence cites two references [1,2].
This sentence cites four references [1–4].

About the journal

Full journal titleJournal of Translational Autoimmunity
ISSN (print)2589-9090

Other styles