How to format your references using the Journal of Translational Autoimmunity citation style

This is a short guide how to format citations and the bibliography in a manuscript for Journal of Translational Autoimmunity. For a complete guide how to prepare your manuscript refer to the journal's instructions to authors.

Using reference management software

Typically you don't format your citations and bibliography by hand. The easiest way is to use a reference manager:

PaperpileThe citation style is built in and you can choose it in Settings > Citation Style or Paperpile > Citation Style in Google Docs.
EndNoteFind the style here: output styles overview
Mendeley, Zotero, Papers, and othersThe style is either built in or you can download a CSL file that is supported by most references management programs.
BibTeXBibTeX syles are usually part of a LaTeX template. Check the instructions to authors if the publisher offers a LaTeX template for this journal.

Journal articles

Those examples are references to articles in scholarly journals and how they are supposed to appear in your bibliography.

Not all journals organize their published articles in volumes and issues, so these fields are optional. Some electronic journals do not provide a page range, but instead list an article identifier. In a case like this it's safe to use the article identifier instead of the page range.

A journal article with 1 author
J.M. Hayes, Geochemistry. Earth’s redox history, Science. 334 (2011) 1654–1655.
A journal article with 2 authors
M. Shim, P. Guyot-Sionnest, n-type colloidal semiconductor nanocrystals, Nature. 407 (2000) 981–983.
A journal article with 3 authors
R.D. Truog, A.S. Kesselheim, S. Joffe, Research ethics. Paying patients for their tissue: the legacy of Henrietta Lacks, Science. 337 (2012) 37–38.
A journal article with 4 or more authors
P. Kareiva, S. Watts, R. McDonald, T. Boucher, Domesticated nature: shaping landscapes and ecosystems for human welfare, Science. 316 (2007) 1866–1869.

Books and book chapters

Here are examples of references for authored and edited books as well as book chapters.

An authored book
D.R. Aronson, Evidence-Based Technical Analysis, John Wiley & Sons, Inc., Hoboken, NJ, 2006.
An edited book
P.V. Devarajan, S. Jain, eds., Targeted Drug Delivery : Concepts and Design, Springer International Publishing, Cham, 2015.
A chapter in an edited book
R. Jijun, Evolving Media Interactions between China and Africa, in: X. Zhang, H. Wasserman, W. Mano (Eds.), China’s Media and Soft Power in Africa: Promotion and Perceptions, Palgrave Macmillan US, New York, NY, 2016: pp. 47–61.

Web sites

Sometimes references to web sites should appear directly in the text rather than in the bibliography. Refer to the Instructions to authors for Journal of Translational Autoimmunity.

Blog post
E. Andrew, Watch Two Astronauts Live On Their Spacewalk Outside The ISS, IFLScience. (2014). (accessed October 30, 2018).


This example shows the general structure used for government reports, technical reports, and scientific reports. If you can't locate the report number then it might be better to cite the report as a book. For reports it is usually not individual people that are credited as authors, but a governmental department or agency like "U. S. Food and Drug Administration" or "National Cancer Institute".

Government report
Government Accountability Office, Commuter Rail: Commuter Rail Issues Should Be Considered in Debate over Amtrak, U.S. Government Printing Office, Washington, DC, 2006.

Theses and dissertations

Theses including Ph.D. dissertations, Master's theses or Bachelor theses follow the basic format outlined below.

Doctoral dissertation
F.G. Giuseffi, Investigation of the Influence of the Socratic Method on Leadership Skills among JROTC Cadet Leaders at a Military Boarding School, Doctoral dissertation, Lindenwood University, 2014.

News paper articles

Unlike scholarly journals, news papers do not usually have a volume and issue number. Instead, the full date and page number is required for a correct reference.

New York Times article
J. Williams, Hey, Modernity, They’re Just Not Into You, New York Times. (2017) C2.

In-text citations

References should be cited in the text by sequential numbers in square brackets:

This sentence cites one reference [1].
This sentence cites two references [1,2].
This sentence cites four references [1–4].

About the journal

Full journal titleJournal of Translational Autoimmunity
ISSN (print)2589-9090

Other styles