How to format your references using the Journal of Traditional and Complementary Medicine citation style

This is a short guide how to format citations and the bibliography in a manuscript for Journal of Traditional and Complementary Medicine. For a complete guide how to prepare your manuscript refer to the journal's instructions to authors.

Using reference management software

Typically you don't format your citations and bibliography by hand. The easiest way is to use a reference manager:

PaperpileThe citation style is built in and you can choose it in Settings > Citation Style or Paperpile > Citation Style in Google Docs.
EndNoteDownload the output style file
Mendeley, Zotero, Papers, and othersThe style is either built in or you can download a CSL file that is supported by most references management programs.
BibTeXBibTeX syles are usually part of a LaTeX template. Check the instructions to authors if the publisher offers a LaTeX template for this journal.

Journal articles

Those examples are references to articles in scholarly journals and how they are supposed to appear in your bibliography.

Not all journals organize their published articles in volumes and issues, so these fields are optional. Some electronic journals do not provide a page range, but instead list an article identifier. In a case like this it's safe to use the article identifier instead of the page range.

A journal article with 1 author
Hapgood M. Astrophysics: Prepare for the coming space weather storm. Nature. 2012;484(7394):311-313.
A journal article with 2 authors
Parren PWHI, Burton DR. Immunology. Two-in-one designer antibodies. Science. 2009;323(5921):1567-1568.
A journal article with 3 authors
Guedes JD, Bocinsky RK, Butler EE. Asian archaeology. Comment on "Agriculture facilitated permanent human occupation of the Tibetan Plateau after 3600 B.P. ". Science. 2015;348(6237):872.
A journal article with 7 or more authors
Chambers SA, Droubay T, Jennison DR, Mattsson TR. Laminar growth of ultrathin metal films on metal oxides: Co on hydroxylated alpha-Al2O3(0001). Science. 2002;297(5582):827-831.

Books and book chapters

Here are examples of references for authored and edited books as well as book chapters.

An authored book
Henriksen RN. Scale Invariance. Weinheim, Germany: Wiley-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA; 2015.
An edited book
Luca A de. Teoria Degli Automi Finiti. Vol 68. (D’Alessandro F, ed.). Milano: Springer; 2013.
A chapter in an edited book
Gerosa M, Marconi A, Pistore M, Traverso P. An Open Platform for Children’s Independent Mobility. In: Helfert M, Krempels K-H, Klein C, Donellan B, Guiskhin O, eds. Smart Cities, Green Technologies, and Intelligent Transport Systems: 4th International Conference, SMARTGREENS 2015, and 1st International Conference VEHITS 2015, Lisbon, Portugal, May 20-22, 2015, Revised Selected Papers. Communications in Computer and Information Science. Cham: Springer International Publishing; 2015:50-71.

Web sites

Sometimes references to web sites should appear directly in the text rather than in the bibliography. Refer to the Instructions to authors for Journal of Traditional and Complementary Medicine.

Blog post
O`Callaghan J. Life “Not As We Know It” Could Exist On Mars, Titan And Other Worlds. IFLScience.


This example shows the general structure used for government reports, technical reports, and scientific reports. If you can't locate the report number then it might be better to cite the report as a book. For reports it is usually not individual people that are credited as authors, but a governmental department or agency like "U. S. Food and Drug Administration" or "National Cancer Institute".

Government report
Government Accountability Office. Health Information Technology: HHS Should Assess the Effectiveness of Its Efforts to Enhance Patient Access to and Use of Electronic Health Information. Washington, DC: U.S. Government Printing Office; 2017.

Theses and dissertations

Theses including Ph.D. dissertations, Master's theses or Bachelor theses follow the basic format outlined below.

Doctoral dissertation
Simon JT. Classification of Mechanical and Electrical Response of High Performance Fiber Reinforced-Geopolymer Composites (HPFR-GPC). 2017.

News paper articles

Unlike scholarly journals, news papers do not usually have a volume and issue number. Instead, the full date and page number is required for a correct reference.

New York Times article
Dao J, Walsh MW. Retiree Plans For Military Face Scrutiny. New York Times. September 19, 2011:A1.

In-text citations

References should be cited in the text by sequential numbers in superscript:

This sentence cites one reference 1.
This sentence cites two references 1,2.
This sentence cites four references 1–4.

About the journal

Full journal titleJournal of Traditional and Complementary Medicine
AbbreviationJ. Tradit. Complement. Med.
ISSN (print)2225-4110

Other styles