How to format your references using the Journal of Traditional and Complementary Medicine citation style

This is a short guide how to format citations and the bibliography in a manuscript for Journal of Traditional and Complementary Medicine. For a complete guide how to prepare your manuscript refer to the journal's instructions to authors.

Using reference management software

Typically you don't format your citations and bibliography by hand. The easiest way is to use a reference manager:

PaperpileThe citation style is built in and you can choose it in Settings > Citation Style or Paperpile > Citation Style in Google Docs.
EndNoteDownload the output style file
Mendeley, Zotero, Papers, and othersThe style is either built in or you can download a CSL file that is supported by most references management programs.
BibTeXBibTeX syles are usually part of a LaTeX template. Check the instructions to authors if the publisher offers a LaTeX template for this journal.

Journal articles

Those examples are references to articles in scholarly journals and how they are supposed to appear in your bibliography.

Not all journals organize their published articles in volumes and issues, so these fields are optional. Some electronic journals do not provide a page range, but instead list an article identifier. In a case like this it's safe to use the article identifier instead of the page range.

A journal article with 1 author
Xu X. Journal club. A palaeontologist considers the evolution of birds’ mechanism of breathing. Nature. 2010;464(7291):961.
A journal article with 2 authors
Wilson TJ, Lilley DMJ. Biochemistry. The evolution of ribozyme chemistry. Science. 2009;323(5920):1436-1438.
A journal article with 3 authors
Huang S, Pollack HN, Shen PY. Temperature trends over the past five centuries reconstructed from borehole temperatures. Nature. 2000;403(6771):756-758.
A journal article with 7 or more authors
Morrish TA, Garcia-Perez JL, Stamato TD, Taccioli GE, Sekiguchi J, Moran JV. Endonuclease-independent LINE-1 retrotransposition at mammalian telomeres. Nature. 2007;446(7132):208-212.

Books and book chapters

Here are examples of references for authored and edited books as well as book chapters.

An authored book
Duffy DJ. Finite Difference Methods in Financial Engineering. John Wiley & Sons Ltd; 2006.
An edited book
Howell FM, Porter JR, Matthews SA, eds. Recapturing Space: New Middle-Range Theory in Spatial Demography. Vol 1. 1st ed. 2016. Springer International Publishing; 2016.
A chapter in an edited book
Han J, Cho Y, Kim E, Choi J. A Ubiquitous Workflow Service Framework. In: Gavrilova ML, Gervasi O, Kumar V, et al., eds. Computational Science and Its Applications - ICCSA 2006: International Conference, Glasgow, UK, May 8-11, 2006, Proceedings, Part IV. Lecture Notes in Computer Science. Springer; 2006:30-39.

Web sites

Sometimes references to web sites should appear directly in the text rather than in the bibliography. Refer to the Instructions to authors for Journal of Traditional and Complementary Medicine.

Blog post
Andrew E. What Is This Bizarre Slimy Green Creature? IFLScience. Published June 8, 2015. Accessed October 30, 2018.


This example shows the general structure used for government reports, technical reports, and scientific reports. If you can't locate the report number then it might be better to cite the report as a book. For reports it is usually not individual people that are credited as authors, but a governmental department or agency like "U. S. Food and Drug Administration" or "National Cancer Institute".

Government report
Government Accountability Office. For-Profit Schools: Experiences of Undercover Students Enrolled in Online Classes at Selected Colleges. U.S. Government Printing Office; 2011.

Theses and dissertations

Theses including Ph.D. dissertations, Master's theses or Bachelor theses follow the basic format outlined below.

Doctoral dissertation
Satterlee RT. A case study of undergraduate student employment at a private university: Exploring the effects of social class and institutional context. Published online 2009.

News paper articles

Unlike scholarly journals, news papers do not usually have a volume and issue number. Instead, the full date and page number is required for a correct reference.

New York Times article
Leland J. The ‘Oldest Old’ Brave Another Year. New York Times. December 30, 2016:MB1.

In-text citations

References should be cited in the text by sequential numbers in superscript:

This sentence cites one reference 1.
This sentence cites two references 1,2.
This sentence cites four references 1–4.

About the journal

Full journal titleJournal of Traditional and Complementary Medicine
AbbreviationJ. Tradit. Complement. Med.
ISSN (print)2225-4110

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