How to format your references using the Journal of Traditional and Complementary Medicine citation style

This is a short guide how to format citations and the bibliography in a manuscript for Journal of Traditional and Complementary Medicine. For a complete guide how to prepare your manuscript refer to the journal's instructions to authors.

Using reference management software

Typically you don't format your citations and bibliography by hand. The easiest way is to use a reference manager:

PaperpileThe citation style is built in and you can choose it in Settings > Citation Style or Paperpile > Citation Style in Google Docs.
EndNoteDownload the output style file
Mendeley, Zotero, Papers, and othersThe style is either built in or you can download a CSL file that is supported by most references management programs.
BibTeXBibTeX syles are usually part of a LaTeX template. Check the instructions to authors if the publisher offers a LaTeX template for this journal.

Journal articles

Those examples are references to articles in scholarly journals and how they are supposed to appear in your bibliography.

Not all journals organize their published articles in volumes and issues, so these fields are optional. Some electronic journals do not provide a page range, but instead list an article identifier. In a case like this it's safe to use the article identifier instead of the page range.

A journal article with 1 author
Adam D. Chemistry journal reacts to dispute. Nature. 2001;412(6848):669.
A journal article with 2 authors
Soldner F, Jaenisch R. Medicine. iPSC disease modeling. Science. 2012;338(6111):1155-1156.
A journal article with 3 authors
Morewedge CK, Huh YE, Vosgerau J. Thought for food: imagined consumption reduces actual consumption. Science. 2010;330(6010):1530-1533.
A journal article with 7 or more authors
Gao PX, Ding Y, Mai W, Hughes WL, Lao C, Wang ZL. Conversion of zinc oxide nanobelts into superlattice-structured nanohelices. Science. 2005;309(5741):1700-1704.

Books and book chapters

Here are examples of references for authored and edited books as well as book chapters.

An authored book
Horrocks G. Greek. Wiley-Blackwell; 2010.
An edited book
Busco C, Frigo ML, Riccaboni A, Quattrone P, eds. Integrated Reporting: Concepts and Cases That Redefine Corporate Accountability. Springer International Publishing; 2013.
A chapter in an edited book
Schuck S. Resisting Complacency: My Teaching Through an Outsider’s Eyes. In: Schuck S, Pereira P, eds. What Counts in Teaching Mathematics: Adding Value to Self and Content. Springer Netherlands; 2011:61-73.

Web sites

Sometimes references to web sites should appear directly in the text rather than in the bibliography. Refer to the Instructions to authors for Journal of Traditional and Complementary Medicine.

Blog post
Andrew E. NASA Announces Plans To Send Astronauts To Mars In Mid-2030s. IFLScience. Published December 2, 2014. Accessed October 30, 2018.


This example shows the general structure used for government reports, technical reports, and scientific reports. If you can't locate the report number then it might be better to cite the report as a book. For reports it is usually not individual people that are credited as authors, but a governmental department or agency like "U. S. Food and Drug Administration" or "National Cancer Institute".

Government report
Government Accountability Office. Administration of the Emergency School Aid Act by OE. U.S. Government Printing Office; 1975.

Theses and dissertations

Theses including Ph.D. dissertations, Master's theses or Bachelor theses follow the basic format outlined below.

Doctoral dissertation
Robinson-Scott D. Policy analysis of the Chafee Foster Care Independence Act of 1999. Published online 2010.

News paper articles

Unlike scholarly journals, news papers do not usually have a volume and issue number. Instead, the full date and page number is required for a correct reference.

New York Times article
Yablonsky L. Clay Mates. New York Times. August 22, 2010:M2160.

In-text citations

References should be cited in the text by sequential numbers in superscript:

This sentence cites one reference 1.
This sentence cites two references 1,2.
This sentence cites four references 1–4.

About the journal

Full journal titleJournal of Traditional and Complementary Medicine
AbbreviationJ. Tradit. Complement. Med.
ISSN (print)2225-4110

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