How to format your references using the Journal of Traditional and Complementary Medicine citation style

This is a short guide how to format citations and the bibliography in a manuscript for Journal of Traditional and Complementary Medicine. For a complete guide how to prepare your manuscript refer to the journal's instructions to authors.

Using reference management software

Typically you don't format your citations and bibliography by hand. The easiest way is to use a reference manager:

PaperpileThe citation style is built in and you can choose it in Settings > Citation Style or Paperpile > Citation Style in Google Docs.
EndNoteDownload the output style file
Mendeley, Zotero, Papers, and othersThe style is either built in or you can download a CSL file that is supported by most references management programs.
BibTeXBibTeX syles are usually part of a LaTeX template. Check the instructions to authors if the publisher offers a LaTeX template for this journal.

Journal articles

Those examples are references to articles in scholarly journals and how they are supposed to appear in your bibliography.

Not all journals organize their published articles in volumes and issues, so these fields are optional. Some electronic journals do not provide a page range, but instead list an article identifier. In a case like this it's safe to use the article identifier instead of the page range.

A journal article with 1 author
Orbach RL. Retrospective. John Harmen Marburger III (1941-2011). Science. 2011;333(6047):1233.
A journal article with 2 authors
Saunders LR, Verdin E. Cell biology. Stress response and aging. Science. 2009;323(5917):1021-1022.
A journal article with 3 authors
Wahl ER, Ritson DM, Ammann CM. Comment on “Reconstructing past climate from noisy data.” Science. 2006;312(5773):529; author reply 529.
A journal article with 7 or more authors
Pebay-Peyroula E, Dahout-Gonzalez C, Kahn R, Trézéguet V, Lauquin GJM, Brandolin G. Structure of mitochondrial ADP/ATP carrier in complex with carboxyatractyloside. Nature. 2003;426(6962):39-44.

Books and book chapters

Here are examples of references for authored and edited books as well as book chapters.

An authored book
Kubicek CP. Fungi and Lignocellulosic Biomass. Wiley-Blackwell; 2012.
An edited book
Penfold PL, Provis JM, eds. Macular Degeneration. Springer; 2005.
A chapter in an edited book
Campbell HEAE, Wehlau DL. Examples. In: Wehlau DL, ed. Modular Invariant Theory. Encyclopaedia of Mathematical Sciences. Springer; 2011:59-81.

Web sites

Sometimes references to web sites should appear directly in the text rather than in the bibliography. Refer to the Instructions to authors for Journal of Traditional and Complementary Medicine.

Blog post
Hale T. NASA-Funded 3D Pizza Printer Now Works At Tourist Attractions. IFLScience.


This example shows the general structure used for government reports, technical reports, and scientific reports. If you can't locate the report number then it might be better to cite the report as a book. For reports it is usually not individual people that are credited as authors, but a governmental department or agency like "U. S. Food and Drug Administration" or "National Cancer Institute".

Government report
Government Accountability Office. NORAD’s Information Processing Improvement Program: Will It Enhance Mission Capability? U.S. Government Printing Office; 1978.

Theses and dissertations

Theses including Ph.D. dissertations, Master's theses or Bachelor theses follow the basic format outlined below.

Doctoral dissertation
Pan A. The Mental Health and Well-Being of College Students in Cambodia. Doctoral dissertation. California State University, Long Beach; 2017.

News paper articles

Unlike scholarly journals, news papers do not usually have a volume and issue number. Instead, the full date and page number is required for a correct reference.

New York Times article
Wagner J. Even With Little Shut-Eye, Mets Turn Lights Out on Reds. New York Times. September 6, 2016:B9.

In-text citations

References should be cited in the text by sequential numbers in superscript:

This sentence cites one reference 1.
This sentence cites two references 1,2.
This sentence cites four references 1–4.

About the journal

Full journal titleJournal of Traditional and Complementary Medicine
AbbreviationJ. Tradit. Complement. Med.
ISSN (print)2225-4110

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