How to format your references using the Journal of the Asia Pacific Economy citation style

This is a short guide how to format citations and the bibliography in a manuscript for Journal of the Asia Pacific Economy. For a complete guide how to prepare your manuscript refer to the journal's instructions to authors.

Using reference management software

Typically you don't format your citations and bibliography by hand. The easiest way is to use a reference manager:

PaperpileThe citation style is built in and you can choose it in Settings > Citation Style or Paperpile > Citation Style in Google Docs.
EndNoteDownload the output style file
Mendeley, Zotero, Papers, and othersThe style is either built in or you can download a CSL file that is supported by most references management programs.
BibTeXBibTeX syles are usually part of a LaTeX template. Check the instructions to authors if the publisher offers a LaTeX template for this journal.

Journal articles

Those examples are references to articles in scholarly journals and how they are supposed to appear in your bibliography.

Not all journals organize their published articles in volumes and issues, so these fields are optional. Some electronic journals do not provide a page range, but instead list an article identifier. In a case like this it's safe to use the article identifier instead of the page range.

A journal article with 1 author
Bloom, Barry R. 2011. “WHO Needs Change.” Nature 473 (7346): 143–145.
A journal article with 2 authors
Kim, Seung K., and Eric J. Rulifson. 2004. “Conserved Mechanisms of Glucose Sensing and Regulation by Drosophila Corpora Cardiaca Cells.” Nature 431 (7006): 316–320.
A journal article with 3 authors
Akihiko, Takaya, Yushi Morioka, and Swadhin K. Behera. 2014. “Role of Climate Variability in the Heatstroke Death Rates of Kanto Region in Japan.” Scientific Reports 4 (July): 5655.
A journal article with 11 or more authors
Mao, C., T. H. LaBean, J. H. Relf, and N. C. Seeman. 2000. “Logical Computation Using Algorithmic Self-Assembly of DNA Triple-Crossover Molecules.” Nature 407 (6803): 493–496.

Books and book chapters

Here are examples of references for authored and edited books as well as book chapters.

An authored book
Collings, Steven. 2015. Interpretation and Application of UK GAAP. Chichester, UK: John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.
An edited book
Batten, Lynn, Gang Li, Wenjia Niu, and Matthew Warren, eds. 2014. Applications and Techniques in Information Security: 5th International Conference, ATIS 2014, Melbourne, VIC, Australia, November 26-28, 2014. Proceedings. Vol. 490. Communications in Computer and Information Science. Berlin, Heidelberg: Springer.
A chapter in an edited book
Kulsrisombat, Niramon. 2008. “De Facto Urban Regeneration: A Case Study of Chiang Mai City, Thailand.” In Sustainable City Regions: Space, Place and Governance, edited by Tetsuo Kidokoro, Noboru Harata, Leksono Probo Subanu, Johann Jessen, Alain Motte, and Ethan Paul Seltzer, 77–100. CSUR-UT Series: Library for Sustainable Urban Regeneration. Tokyo: Springer Japan.

Web sites

Sometimes references to web sites should appear directly in the text rather than in the bibliography. Refer to the Instructions to authors for Journal of the Asia Pacific Economy.

Blog post
Andrews, Robin. 2017. “We Finally Know When One Of The Most Explosive Eruptions Ever Took Place.” IFLScience. IFLScience.


This example shows the general structure used for government reports, technical reports, and scientific reports. If you can't locate the report number then it might be better to cite the report as a book. For reports it is usually not individual people that are credited as authors, but a governmental department or agency like "U. S. Food and Drug Administration" or "National Cancer Institute".

Government report
Government Accountability Office. 2015. Accessible Communications: FCC Should Evaluate the Effectiveness of Its Public Outreach Efforts. GAO-15-574. Washington, DC: U.S. Government Printing Office.

Theses and dissertations

Theses including Ph.D. dissertations, Master's theses or Bachelor theses follow the basic format outlined below.

Doctoral dissertation
James, Tenisha Celita. 2017. “African American Students in a California Community College: Perceptions of Cultural Congruity and Academic Self-Concept within a Black Culture Center.” Doctoral dissertation, Malibu, CA: Pepperdine University.

News paper articles

Unlike scholarly journals, news papers do not usually have a volume and issue number. Instead, the full date and page number is required for a correct reference.

New York Times article
Walsh, Mary Williams. 2016. “U.S. Judge Voids Puerto Rico’s New Tax on Walmart.” New York Times, March 29.

In-text citations

References should be cited in the text by name and year in parentheses:

This sentence cites one reference (Bloom 2011).
This sentence cites two references (Bloom 2011; Kim and Rulifson 2004).

Here are examples of in-text citations with multiple authors:

  • Two authors: (Kim and Rulifson 2004)
  • Three authors: (Akihiko, Morioka, and Behera 2014)
  • 4 or more authors: (Mao et al. 2000)

About the journal

Full journal titleJournal of the Asia Pacific Economy
AbbreviationJ. Asia Pac. Econ.
ISSN (print)1354-7860
ISSN (online)1469-9648
Geography, Planning and Development
Political Science and International Relations

Other styles