How to format your references using the Journal of the Asia Pacific Economy citation style

This is a short guide how to format citations and the bibliography in a manuscript for Journal of the Asia Pacific Economy. For a complete guide how to prepare your manuscript refer to the journal's instructions to authors.

Using reference management software

Typically you don't format your citations and bibliography by hand. The easiest way is to use a reference manager:

PaperpileThe citation style is built in and you can choose it in Settings > Citation Style or Paperpile > Citation Style in Google Docs.
EndNoteDownload the output style file
Mendeley, Zotero, Papers, and othersThe style is either built in or you can download a CSL file that is supported by most references management programs.
BibTeXBibTeX syles are usually part of a LaTeX template. Check the instructions to authors if the publisher offers a LaTeX template for this journal.

Journal articles

Those examples are references to articles in scholarly journals and how they are supposed to appear in your bibliography.

Not all journals organize their published articles in volumes and issues, so these fields are optional. Some electronic journals do not provide a page range, but instead list an article identifier. In a case like this it's safe to use the article identifier instead of the page range.

A journal article with 1 author
Reimer, Paula J. 2012. “Atmospheric Science. Refining the Radiocarbon Time Scale.” Science (New York, N.Y.) 338 (6105): 337–338.
A journal article with 2 authors
Courseaux, A., and J. L. Nahon. 2001. “Birth of Two Chimeric Genes in the Hominidae Lineage.” Science (New York, N.Y.) 291 (5507): 1293–1297.
A journal article with 3 authors
Rawson, Frankie J., Alison J. Downard, and Keith H. Baronian. 2014. “Electrochemical Detection of Intracellular and Cell Membrane Redox Systems in Saccharomyces Cerevisiae.” Scientific Reports 4 (June): 5216.
A journal article with 11 or more authors
Coull, Jeffrey A. M., Simon Beggs, Dominic Boudreau, Dominick Boivin, Makoto Tsuda, Kazuhide Inoue, Claude Gravel, Michael W. Salter, and Yves De Koninck. 2005. “BDNF from Microglia Causes the Shift in Neuronal Anion Gradient Underlying Neuropathic Pain.” Nature 438 (7070): 1017–1021.

Books and book chapters

Here are examples of references for authored and edited books as well as book chapters.

An authored book
Pardoux, Étienne. 2008. Markov Processes and Applications: Algorithms, Networks, Genome and Finance. Wiley Series in Probability and Statistics. Chichester, UK: John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.
An edited book
Liu, Derong, Huaguang Zhang, Marios Polycarpou, Cesare Alippi, and Haibo He, eds. 2011. Advances in Neural Networks – ISNN 2011: 8th International Symposium on Neural Networks, ISNN 2011, Guilin, China, May 29–June 1, 2011, Proceedings, Part III. Vol. 6677. Lecture Notes in Computer Science. Berlin, Heidelberg: Springer.
A chapter in an edited book
Ouzzani, Mourad, and Athman Bouguettaya. 2011. “Web Services Query Execution and Optimization.” In Semantic Web Services for Web Databases, edited by Athman Bouguettaya, 57–76. New York, NY: Springer.

Web sites

Sometimes references to web sites should appear directly in the text rather than in the bibliography. Refer to the Instructions to authors for Journal of the Asia Pacific Economy.

Blog post
Fang, Janet. 2014. “World’s Fastest Camera Takes 4.4 TRILLION Frames Per Second.” IFLScience. IFLScience.


This example shows the general structure used for government reports, technical reports, and scientific reports. If you can't locate the report number then it might be better to cite the report as a book. For reports it is usually not individual people that are credited as authors, but a governmental department or agency like "U. S. Food and Drug Administration" or "National Cancer Institute".

Government report
Government Accountability Office. 1986. [Comments on NASA Agreement With Firm for Commercial Launch Services]. B-223684. Washington, DC: U.S. Government Printing Office.

Theses and dissertations

Theses including Ph.D. dissertations, Master's theses or Bachelor theses follow the basic format outlined below.

Doctoral dissertation
Smith, Steven Michael. 2017. “The Relationship Between Political Affiliation and Student Achievement in the Areas of Reading and Mathematics, with Respect to Black Students.” Doctoral dissertation, St. Charles, MO: Lindenwood University.

News paper articles

Unlike scholarly journals, news papers do not usually have a volume and issue number. Instead, the full date and page number is required for a correct reference.

New York Times article
Gorman, James. 2017. “More Than the Sum of Its Parts.” New York Times, February 13.

In-text citations

References should be cited in the text by name and year in parentheses:

This sentence cites one reference (Reimer 2012).
This sentence cites two references (Reimer 2012; Courseaux and Nahon 2001).

Here are examples of in-text citations with multiple authors:

  • Two authors: (Courseaux and Nahon 2001)
  • Three authors: (Rawson, Downard, and Baronian 2014)
  • 4 or more authors: (Coull et al. 2005)

About the journal

Full journal titleJournal of the Asia Pacific Economy
AbbreviationJ. Asia Pac. Econ.
ISSN (print)1354-7860
ISSN (online)1469-9648
Geography, Planning and Development
Political Science and International Relations

Other styles