How to format your references using the Journal of the Asia Pacific Economy citation style

This is a short guide how to format citations and the bibliography in a manuscript for Journal of the Asia Pacific Economy. For a complete guide how to prepare your manuscript refer to the journal's instructions to authors.

Using reference management software

Typically you don't format your citations and bibliography by hand. The easiest way is to use a reference manager:

PaperpileThe citation style is built in and you can choose it in Settings > Citation Style or Paperpile > Citation Style in Google Docs.
EndNoteDownload the output style file
Mendeley, Zotero, Papers, and othersThe style is either built in or you can download a CSL file that is supported by most references management programs.
BibTeXBibTeX syles are usually part of a LaTeX template. Check the instructions to authors if the publisher offers a LaTeX template for this journal.

Journal articles

Those examples are references to articles in scholarly journals and how they are supposed to appear in your bibliography.

Not all journals organize their published articles in volumes and issues, so these fields are optional. Some electronic journals do not provide a page range, but instead list an article identifier. In a case like this it's safe to use the article identifier instead of the page range.

A journal article with 1 author
Martínez, José L. 2008. “Antibiotics and Antibiotic Resistance Genes in Natural Environments.” Science (New York, N.Y.) 321 (5887): 365–367.
A journal article with 2 authors
Ramesh, K. V., and Prashant Goswami. 2014. “Assessing Reliability of Regional Climate Projections: The Case of Indian Monsoon.” Scientific Reports 4 (February): 4071.
A journal article with 3 authors
Wang, Zhen, Attila Szolnoki, and Matjaž Perc. 2013. “Optimal Interdependence between Networks for the Evolution of Cooperation.” Scientific Reports 3: 2470.
A journal article with 11 or more authors
Varpula, Aapo, Sampo J. Laakso, Tahvo Havia, Jukka Kyynäräinen, and Mika Prunnila. 2014. “Harvesting Vibrational Energy Using Material Work Functions.” Scientific Reports 4 (October): 6799.

Books and book chapters

Here are examples of references for authored and edited books as well as book chapters.

An authored book
Wilson, Richard C. 2010. The Hedge Fund Book. Hoboken, NJ: John Wiley & Sons, Inc.
An edited book
Lajtha, Abel, Moussa B. H. Youdim, Peter Riederer, Sylvia A. Mandel, and Leontino Battistin, eds. 2007. Handbook of Neurochemistry and Molecular Neurobiology: Degenerative Diseases of the Nervous System. Boston, MA: Springer US.
A chapter in an edited book
Böcking, Till, and J. Justin Gooding. 2007. “Biomimetic Membranes in Biosensor Applications.” In Nanobiotechnology of Biomimetic Membranes, edited by Donald K. Martin, 127–166. Fundamental Biomedical Technologies. Boston, MA: Springer US.

Web sites

Sometimes references to web sites should appear directly in the text rather than in the bibliography. Refer to the Instructions to authors for Journal of the Asia Pacific Economy.

Blog post
Carpineti, Alfredo. 2016. “Spiral Around New Star Hints At A New Planet Formation Mechanism.” IFLScience. IFLScience.


This example shows the general structure used for government reports, technical reports, and scientific reports. If you can't locate the report number then it might be better to cite the report as a book. For reports it is usually not individual people that are credited as authors, but a governmental department or agency like "U. S. Food and Drug Administration" or "National Cancer Institute".

Government report
Government Accountability Office. 1998. Federal Research: Two Political Science Grants Awarded by the National Science Foundation. RCED-98-91R. Washington, DC: U.S. Government Printing Office.

Theses and dissertations

Theses including Ph.D. dissertations, Master's theses or Bachelor theses follow the basic format outlined below.

Doctoral dissertation
Joshi, Toyanath. 2010. “Understanding Gold Nanoisland Formation Using Transport Measurement.” Doctoral dissertation, Long Beach, CA: California State University, Long Beach.

News paper articles

Unlike scholarly journals, news papers do not usually have a volume and issue number. Instead, the full date and page number is required for a correct reference.

New York Times article
Greenhouse, Linda. 2007. “Justices Reject Suit on Federal Money for Faith-Based Office.” New York Times, June 26.

In-text citations

References should be cited in the text by name and year in parentheses:

This sentence cites one reference (Martínez 2008).
This sentence cites two references (Martínez 2008; Ramesh and Goswami 2014).

Here are examples of in-text citations with multiple authors:

  • Two authors: (Ramesh and Goswami 2014)
  • Three authors: (Wang, Szolnoki, and Perc 2013)
  • 4 or more authors: (Varpula et al. 2014)

About the journal

Full journal titleJournal of the Asia Pacific Economy
AbbreviationJ. Asia Pac. Econ.
ISSN (print)1354-7860
ISSN (online)1469-9648
Geography, Planning and Development
Political Science and International Relations

Other styles