How to format your references using the Journal of the Asia Pacific Economy citation style

This is a short guide how to format citations and the bibliography in a manuscript for Journal of the Asia Pacific Economy. For a complete guide how to prepare your manuscript refer to the journal's instructions to authors.

Using reference management software

Typically you don't format your citations and bibliography by hand. The easiest way is to use a reference manager:

PaperpileThe citation style is built in and you can choose it in Settings > Citation Style or Paperpile > Citation Style in Google Docs.
EndNoteDownload the output style file
Mendeley, Zotero, Papers, and othersThe style is either built in or you can download a CSL file that is supported by most references management programs.
BibTeXBibTeX syles are usually part of a LaTeX template. Check the instructions to authors if the publisher offers a LaTeX template for this journal.

Journal articles

Those examples are references to articles in scholarly journals and how they are supposed to appear in your bibliography.

Not all journals organize their published articles in volumes and issues, so these fields are optional. Some electronic journals do not provide a page range, but instead list an article identifier. In a case like this it's safe to use the article identifier instead of the page range.

A journal article with 1 author
Blaxter, Mark. 2010. “Genetics. Revealing the Dark Matter of the Genome.” Science (New York, N.Y.) 330 (6012): 1758–1759.
A journal article with 2 authors
O’Connell, Lauren A., and Hans A. Hofmann. 2012. “Evolution of a Vertebrate Social Decision-Making Network.” Science (New York, N.Y.) 336 (6085): 1154–1157.
A journal article with 3 authors
Zachos, James C., Gerald R. Dickens, and Richard E. Zeebe. 2008. “An Early Cenozoic Perspective on Greenhouse Warming and Carbon-Cycle Dynamics.” Nature 451 (7176): 279–283.
A journal article with 11 or more authors
Wang, Jinfeng, Ji Qi, Hui Zhao, Shu He, Yifei Zhang, Shicheng Wei, and Fangqing Zhao. 2013. “Metagenomic Sequencing Reveals Microbiota and Its Functional Potential Associated with Periodontal Disease.” Scientific Reports 3: 1843.

Books and book chapters

Here are examples of references for authored and edited books as well as book chapters.

An authored book
Naylor, Wayne, Diane Laverty, and Jane Mallett. 2008. The Royal Marsden Hospital Handbook of Wound Management in Cancer Care. Oxford, UK: Blackwell Science Ltd.
An edited book
Gilchrist, M. D., ed. 2005. IUTAM Symposium on Impact Biomechanics: From Fundamental Insights to Applications. Vol. 124. Solid Mechanics and Its Applications. Dordrecht: Springer Netherlands.
A chapter in an edited book
Sergeyev, Yaroslav D., Roman G. Strongin, and Daniela Lera. 2013. “Ideas for Acceleration.” In Introduction to Global Optimization Exploiting Space-Filling Curves, edited by Roman G. Strongin and Daniela Lera, 91–116. SpringerBriefs in Optimization. New York, NY: Springer.

Web sites

Sometimes references to web sites should appear directly in the text rather than in the bibliography. Refer to the Instructions to authors for Journal of the Asia Pacific Economy.

Blog post
Luntz, Stephen. 2014. “Computer Games Hook Colorblind Roo Relatives.” IFLScience. IFLScience.


This example shows the general structure used for government reports, technical reports, and scientific reports. If you can't locate the report number then it might be better to cite the report as a book. For reports it is usually not individual people that are credited as authors, but a governmental department or agency like "U. S. Food and Drug Administration" or "National Cancer Institute".

Government report
Government Accountability Office. 2014. The Air Force’s Evolved Expendable Launch Vehicle Competitive Procurement. GAO-14-377R. Washington, DC: U.S. Government Printing Office.

Theses and dissertations

Theses including Ph.D. dissertations, Master's theses or Bachelor theses follow the basic format outlined below.

Doctoral dissertation
Butler, Maia L. 2017. “Floating Homelands: Postnational Constructions of Home in Contemporary Africana Women’s Literature.” Doctoral dissertation, Lafayette, LA: University of Louisiana.

News paper articles

Unlike scholarly journals, news papers do not usually have a volume and issue number. Instead, the full date and page number is required for a correct reference.

New York Times article
Hubbard, Ben. 2017. “An American in Syria, Offering a Window on Jihad.” New York Times, March 10.

In-text citations

References should be cited in the text by name and year in parentheses:

This sentence cites one reference (Blaxter 2010).
This sentence cites two references (Blaxter 2010; O’Connell and Hofmann 2012).

Here are examples of in-text citations with multiple authors:

  • Two authors: (O’Connell and Hofmann 2012)
  • Three authors: (Zachos, Dickens, and Zeebe 2008)
  • 4 or more authors: (Wang et al. 2013)

About the journal

Full journal titleJournal of the Asia Pacific Economy
AbbreviationJ. Asia Pac. Econ.
ISSN (print)1354-7860
ISSN (online)1469-9648
Geography, Planning and Development
Political Science and International Relations

Other styles