How to format your references using the Journal of the Asia Pacific Economy citation style

This is a short guide how to format citations and the bibliography in a manuscript for Journal of the Asia Pacific Economy. For a complete guide how to prepare your manuscript refer to the journal's instructions to authors.

Using reference management software

Typically you don't format your citations and bibliography by hand. The easiest way is to use a reference manager:

PaperpileThe citation style is built in and you can choose it in Settings > Citation Style or Paperpile > Citation Style in Google Docs.
EndNoteDownload the output style file
Mendeley, Zotero, Papers, and othersThe style is either built in or you can download a CSL file that is supported by most references management programs.
BibTeXBibTeX syles are usually part of a LaTeX template. Check the instructions to authors if the publisher offers a LaTeX template for this journal.

Journal articles

Those examples are references to articles in scholarly journals and how they are supposed to appear in your bibliography.

Not all journals organize their published articles in volumes and issues, so these fields are optional. Some electronic journals do not provide a page range, but instead list an article identifier. In a case like this it's safe to use the article identifier instead of the page range.

A journal article with 1 author
Zerhouni, Elias A. 2006. “Research Funding. NIH in the Post-Doubling Era: Realities and Strategies.” Science (New York, N.Y.) 314 (5802): 1088–1090.
A journal article with 2 authors
Sauvageau, Guy, and R. Keith Humphries. 2010. “Medicine. The Blood Stem Cell Holy Grail?” Science (New York, N.Y.) 329 (5997): 1291–1292.
A journal article with 3 authors
Naya, Y., M. Yoshida, and Y. Miyashita. 2001. “Backward Spreading of Memory-Retrieval Signal in the Primate Temporal Cortex.” Science (New York, N.Y.) 291 (5504): 661–664.
A journal article with 11 or more authors
Gupta, Priti, Pratiksha D. Dongare, Sameer Grover, Sudipta Dubey, Hitesh Mamgain, Arnab Bhattacharya, and Mandar M. Deshmukh. 2014. “A Facile Process for Soak-and-Peel Delamination of CVD Graphene from Substrates Using Water.” Scientific Reports 4 (January): 3882.

Books and book chapters

Here are examples of references for authored and edited books as well as book chapters.

An authored book
Michaud, Thomas. 2017. Innovation, Between Science and Science Fiction. Hoboken, NJ: John Wiley & Sons, Inc.
An edited book
Hermans, Hubert, ed. 2016. Assessing and Stimulating a Dialogical Self in Groups, Teams, Cultures, and Organizations. Cham: Springer International Publishing.
A chapter in an edited book
Wu, Jiahai, Huangfu Yang, Xiaowei Gao, Juncai Ma, and Kuien Liu. 2014. “Where to Find Help When You Are in an Emergency?” In Web-Age Information Management: WAIM 2014 International Workshops: BigEM, HardBD, DaNoS, HRSUNE, BIDASYS, Macau, China, June 16-18, 2014, Revised Selected Papers, edited by Yueguo Chen, Wolf-Tilo Balke, Jianliang Xu, Wei Xu, Peiquan Jin, Xin Lin, Tiffany Tang, and Eenjun Hwang, 31–43. Lecture Notes in Computer Science. Cham: Springer International Publishing.

Web sites

Sometimes references to web sites should appear directly in the text rather than in the bibliography. Refer to the Instructions to authors for Journal of the Asia Pacific Economy.

Blog post
Hamilton, Kristy. 2015. “Hypnotic Time-Lapse Videos Showcase The Seldom Seen Movements of Nature.” IFLScience. IFLScience.


This example shows the general structure used for government reports, technical reports, and scientific reports. If you can't locate the report number then it might be better to cite the report as a book. For reports it is usually not individual people that are credited as authors, but a governmental department or agency like "U. S. Food and Drug Administration" or "National Cancer Institute".

Government report
Government Accountability Office. 2004. Mass Transit: FTA Needs to Better Define and Assess Impact of Certain Policies on New Starts Program. GAO-04-748. Washington, DC: U.S. Government Printing Office.

Theses and dissertations

Theses including Ph.D. dissertations, Master's theses or Bachelor theses follow the basic format outlined below.

Doctoral dissertation
Becker, Liza A. 2010. “Noncredit to Credit Transitions: The Role of Cultural Capital and Habitus for Adult Immigrant Learners in the Community College.” Doctoral dissertation, Long Beach, CA: California State University, Long Beach.

News paper articles

Unlike scholarly journals, news papers do not usually have a volume and issue number. Instead, the full date and page number is required for a correct reference.

New York Times article
Clarey, Christopher. 2016. “Halep Puts Up a Fight, but Williams Rolls On.” New York Times, September 8.

In-text citations

References should be cited in the text by name and year in parentheses:

This sentence cites one reference (Zerhouni 2006).
This sentence cites two references (Zerhouni 2006; Sauvageau and Humphries 2010).

Here are examples of in-text citations with multiple authors:

  • Two authors: (Sauvageau and Humphries 2010)
  • Three authors: (Naya, Yoshida, and Miyashita 2001)
  • 4 or more authors: (Gupta et al. 2014)

About the journal

Full journal titleJournal of the Asia Pacific Economy
AbbreviationJ. Asia Pac. Econ.
ISSN (print)1354-7860
ISSN (online)1469-9648
Geography, Planning and Development
Political Science and International Relations

Other styles