How to format your references using the Journal of the Asia Pacific Economy citation style

This is a short guide how to format citations and the bibliography in a manuscript for Journal of the Asia Pacific Economy. For a complete guide how to prepare your manuscript refer to the journal's instructions to authors.

Using reference management software

Typically you don't format your citations and bibliography by hand. The easiest way is to use a reference manager:

PaperpileThe citation style is built in and you can choose it in Settings > Citation Style or Paperpile > Citation Style in Google Docs.
EndNoteDownload the output style file
Mendeley, Zotero, Papers, and othersThe style is either built in or you can download a CSL file that is supported by most references management programs.
BibTeXBibTeX syles are usually part of a LaTeX template. Check the instructions to authors if the publisher offers a LaTeX template for this journal.

Journal articles

Those examples are references to articles in scholarly journals and how they are supposed to appear in your bibliography.

Not all journals organize their published articles in volumes and issues, so these fields are optional. Some electronic journals do not provide a page range, but instead list an article identifier. In a case like this it's safe to use the article identifier instead of the page range.

A journal article with 1 author
Hublin, Jean-Jacques. 2013. “Palaeontology: Free Digital Scans of Human Fossils.” Nature 497 (7448): 183.
A journal article with 2 authors
Brochier, Céline, and Hervé Philippe. 2002. “Phylogeny: A Non-Hyperthermophilic Ancestor for Bacteria.” Nature 417 (6886): 244.
A journal article with 3 authors
Yan, Wei, Cory Smith, and Linzhao Cheng. 2013. “Expanded Activity of Dimer Nucleases by Combining ZFN and TALEN for Genome Editing.” Scientific Reports 3: 2376.
A journal article with 11 or more authors
Pearce, Erika L., Matthew C. Walsh, Pedro J. Cejas, Gretchen M. Harms, Hao Shen, Li-San Wang, Russell G. Jones, and Yongwon Choi. 2009. “Enhancing CD8 T-Cell Memory by Modulating Fatty Acid Metabolism.” Nature 460 (7251): 103–107.

Books and book chapters

Here are examples of references for authored and edited books as well as book chapters.

An authored book
Di Stefano, Michael. 2005. Distributed Data Management for Grid Computing. Hoboken, NJ: John Wiley & Sons, Inc.
An edited book
Almeida, Pedro R., Bernardo R. Quintella, Maria J. Costa, and Andrew Moore, eds. 2007. Developments in Fish Telemetry: Proceedings of the Sixth Conference on Fish Telemetry Held in Europe. Vol. 195. Developments in Hydrobiology 195. Dordrecht: Springer Netherlands.
A chapter in an edited book
Asada, Masahiko. 2016. “The NPT and the IAEA Additional Protocol.” In Nuclear Non-Proliferation in International Law: Volume II - Verification and Compliance, edited by Jonathan L. Black-Branch and Dieter Fleck, 95–130. The Hague: T.M.C. Asser Press.

Web sites

Sometimes references to web sites should appear directly in the text rather than in the bibliography. Refer to the Instructions to authors for Journal of the Asia Pacific Economy.

Blog post
Andrew, Elise. 2014. “Astronomers Capture A Rare Wolf-Rayet Star Just Hours After It Dramatically Explodes.” IFLScience. IFLScience.


This example shows the general structure used for government reports, technical reports, and scientific reports. If you can't locate the report number then it might be better to cite the report as a book. For reports it is usually not individual people that are credited as authors, but a governmental department or agency like "U. S. Food and Drug Administration" or "National Cancer Institute".

Government report
Government Accountability Office. 2006. Geostationary Operational Environmental Satellites: Additional Action Needed to Incorporate Lessons Learned from Other Satellite Programs. GAO-06-1129T. Washington, DC: U.S. Government Printing Office.

Theses and dissertations

Theses including Ph.D. dissertations, Master's theses or Bachelor theses follow the basic format outlined below.

Doctoral dissertation
Strand, Karen. 2014. “Applying Public Relations Theory to Assess Service-Learning Relationships.” Doctoral dissertation, Tampa, FL: University of South Florida.

News paper articles

Unlike scholarly journals, news papers do not usually have a volume and issue number. Instead, the full date and page number is required for a correct reference.

New York Times article
Feeney, Kelly. 2007. “Spanish Cuisine (From Scratch).” New York Times, January 7.

In-text citations

References should be cited in the text by name and year in parentheses:

This sentence cites one reference (Hublin 2013).
This sentence cites two references (Hublin 2013; Brochier and Philippe 2002).

Here are examples of in-text citations with multiple authors:

  • Two authors: (Brochier and Philippe 2002)
  • Three authors: (Yan, Smith, and Cheng 2013)
  • 4 or more authors: (Pearce et al. 2009)

About the journal

Full journal titleJournal of the Asia Pacific Economy
AbbreviationJ. Asia Pac. Econ.
ISSN (print)1354-7860
ISSN (online)1469-9648
Geography, Planning and Development
Political Science and International Relations

Other styles