How to format your references using the Journal of the Asia Pacific Economy citation style

This is a short guide how to format citations and the bibliography in a manuscript for Journal of the Asia Pacific Economy. For a complete guide how to prepare your manuscript refer to the journal's instructions to authors.

Using reference management software

Typically you don't format your citations and bibliography by hand. The easiest way is to use a reference manager:

PaperpileThe citation style is built in and you can choose it in Settings > Citation Style or Paperpile > Citation Style in Google Docs.
EndNoteDownload the output style file
Mendeley, Zotero, Papers, and othersThe style is either built in or you can download a CSL file that is supported by most references management programs.
BibTeXBibTeX syles are usually part of a LaTeX template. Check the instructions to authors if the publisher offers a LaTeX template for this journal.

Journal articles

Those examples are references to articles in scholarly journals and how they are supposed to appear in your bibliography.

Not all journals organize their published articles in volumes and issues, so these fields are optional. Some electronic journals do not provide a page range, but instead list an article identifier. In a case like this it's safe to use the article identifier instead of the page range.

A journal article with 1 author
Strong, Michael. 2005. “Scientists and Societies. Community Outreach.” Nature 434 (7031): 418.
A journal article with 2 authors
Knight, J. C., and P. St J. Russell. 2002. “Applied Optics. New Ways to Guide Light.” Science (New York, N.Y.) 296 (5566): 276–277.
A journal article with 3 authors
Aronov, Dmitriy, Aaron S. Andalman, and Michale S. Fee. 2008. “A Specialized Forebrain Circuit for Vocal Babbling in the Juvenile Songbird.” Science (New York, N.Y.) 320 (5876): 630–634.
A journal article with 11 or more authors
Eigenbrode, Jennifer L., Roger E. Summons, Andrew Steele, Caroline Freissinet, Maëva Millan, Rafael Navarro-González, Brad Sutter, et al. 2018. “Organic Matter Preserved in 3-Billion-Year-Old Mudstones at Gale Crater, Mars.” Science (New York, N.Y.) 360 (6393): 1096–1101.

Books and book chapters

Here are examples of references for authored and edited books as well as book chapters.

An authored book
Baban, Tharwat M. 2016. Shallow Foundations. Chichester, UK: John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.
An edited book
Kadirkamanathan, Visakan, Guido Sanguinetti, Mark Girolami, Mahesan Niranjan, and Josselin Noirel, eds. 2009. Pattern Recognition in Bioinformatics: 4th IAPR International Conference, PRIB 2009, Sheffield, UK, September 7-9, 2009. Proceedings. Vol. 5780. Lecture Notes in Computer Science. Berlin, Heidelberg: Springer.
A chapter in an edited book
Fardoun, Habib M., Daniyal M. Alghazzawi, Sebastián Romero López, Victor M. R. Penichet, and Jose A. Gallud. 2012. “Online Social Networks Impact in Secondary Education.” In International Workshop on Evidence-Based Technology Enhanced Learning, edited by Pierpaolo Vittorini, Rosella Gennari, Ivana Marenzi, Fernando de la Prieta, and Juan M. Corchado Rodríguez, 37–45. Advances in Intelligent and Soft Computing. Berlin, Heidelberg: Springer.

Web sites

Sometimes references to web sites should appear directly in the text rather than in the bibliography. Refer to the Instructions to authors for Journal of the Asia Pacific Economy.

Blog post
Hale, Tom. 2017. “Stick Man Drawing Moves Around When Splashed With Water.” IFLScience. IFLScience.


This example shows the general structure used for government reports, technical reports, and scientific reports. If you can't locate the report number then it might be better to cite the report as a book. For reports it is usually not individual people that are credited as authors, but a governmental department or agency like "U. S. Food and Drug Administration" or "National Cancer Institute".

Government report
Government Accountability Office. 1988. Leo Herbert, GAO, 1956-1974. OP-7-OH. Washington, DC: U.S. Government Printing Office.

Theses and dissertations

Theses including Ph.D. dissertations, Master's theses or Bachelor theses follow the basic format outlined below.

Doctoral dissertation
Zaegel, Barbara M. 2012. “An Evaluation of the School-Wide Positive Behavior Intervention and Support Check In/Check Out Behavior Education Program.” Doctoral dissertation, St. Charles, MO: Lindenwood University.

News paper articles

Unlike scholarly journals, news papers do not usually have a volume and issue number. Instead, the full date and page number is required for a correct reference.

New York Times article
MacFARQUHAR, Neil. 2017. “Opposition Leader Tests Public Support for Bid to Topple Putin.” New York Times, June 9.

In-text citations

References should be cited in the text by name and year in parentheses:

This sentence cites one reference (Scott 2014).
This sentence cites two references (Katsnelson 2013; Shlesinger 2001).

Here are examples of in-text citations with multiple authors:

  • Two authors: (Knight and Russell 2002)
  • Three authors: (Aronov, Andalman, and Fee 2008)
  • 4 or more authors: (Nomura et al. 2006)

About the journal

Full journal titleJournal of the Asia Pacific Economy
AbbreviationJ. Asia Pac. Econ.
ISSN (print)1354-7860
ISSN (online)1469-9648
Geography, Planning and Development
Political Science and International Relations

Other styles