How to format your references using the Journal of the American Heart Association citation style

This is a short guide how to format citations and the bibliography in a manuscript for Journal of the American Heart Association (JAHA). For a complete guide how to prepare your manuscript refer to the journal's instructions to authors.

Using reference management software

Typically you don't format your citations and bibliography by hand. The easiest way is to use a reference manager:

PaperpileThe citation style is built in and you can choose it in Settings > Citation Style or Paperpile > Citation Style in Google Docs.
EndNoteDownload the output style file
Mendeley, Zotero, Papers, and othersThe style is either built in or you can download a CSL file that is supported by most references management programs.
BibTeXBibTeX syles are usually part of a LaTeX template. Check the instructions to authors if the publisher offers a LaTeX template for this journal.

Journal articles

Those examples are references to articles in scholarly journals and how they are supposed to appear in your bibliography.

Not all journals organize their published articles in volumes and issues, so these fields are optional. Some electronic journals do not provide a page range, but instead list an article identifier. In a case like this it's safe to use the article identifier instead of the page range.

A journal article with 1 author
Scarpa T. Research funding: peer review at NIH. Science. 2006;311:41.
A journal article with 2 authors
Miklius A, Cervelli P. Vulcanology: Interaction between Kilauea and Mauna Loa. Nature. 2003;421:229.
A journal article with 3 authors
Halevy I, Zuber MT, Schrag DP. A sulfur dioxide climate feedback on early Mars. Science. 2007;318:1903–1907.
A journal article with 4 or more authors
Ng WL, Lourenço MA, Gwilliam RM, Ledain S, Shao G, Homewood KP. An efficient room-temperature silicon-based light-emitting diode. Nature. 2001;410:192–194.

Books and book chapters

Here are examples of references for authored and edited books as well as book chapters.

An authored book
Paret D. Flexray and its Applications. Chichester, UK: John Wiley & Sons, Ltd; 2012.
An edited book
Severi F, ed. Teorema di Riemann-Roch e questioni connesse. Berlin, Heidelberg: Springer; 2011: 1-90 pagg. 1 figg.
A chapter in an edited book
Cimolini P, Cannell K. Supporting Technologies. In: Cannell K, ed. Agile Oracle Application Express. Berkeley, CA: Apress; 2012: 57–90.

Web sites

Sometimes references to web sites should appear directly in the text rather than in the bibliography. Refer to the Instructions to authors for Journal of the American Heart Association.

Blog post
Andrew E. Rooster-like comb discovered on duck-billed dinosaur. IFLScience. Available at Accessed October 30, 2018.


This example shows the general structure used for government reports, technical reports, and scientific reports. If you can't locate the report number then it might be better to cite the report as a book. For reports it is usually not individual people that are credited as authors, but a governmental department or agency like "U. S. Food and Drug Administration" or "National Cancer Institute".

Government report
Government Accountability Office. NextGen Air Transportation System: FAA Has Made Some Progress in Midterm Implementation, but Ongoing Challenges Limit Expected Benefits. Washington, DC: U.S. Government Printing Office; 2013.

Theses and dissertations

Theses including Ph.D. dissertations, Master's theses or Bachelor theses follow the basic format outlined below.

Doctoral dissertation
Barrios G. Outreach program to address the unmet needs of Operation Enduring Freedom and Operation Iraqi Freedom veterans: A grant proposal. 2012.

News paper articles

Unlike scholarly journals, news papers do not usually have a volume and issue number. Instead, the full date and page number is required for a correct reference.

New York Times article
Crow K. That Distinctive New-Park Odor Turns Out to Be Leaking Sewage. New York Times.

In-text citations

References should be cited in the text by sequential numbers in superscript:

This sentence cites one reference 1.
This sentence cites two references 1,2.
This sentence cites four references 1–4.

About the journal

Full journal titleJournal of the American Heart Association
AbbreviationJ. Am. Heart Assoc.
ISSN (online)2047-9980
ScopeCardiology and Cardiovascular Medicine

Other styles