How to format your references using the Journal of Socio-Economics citation style

This is a short guide how to format citations and the bibliography in a manuscript for Journal of Socio-Economics. For a complete guide how to prepare your manuscript refer to the journal's instructions to authors.

Using reference management software

Typically you don't format your citations and bibliography by hand. The easiest way is to use a reference manager:

PaperpileThe citation style is built in and you can choose it in Settings > Citation Style or Paperpile > Citation Style in Google Docs.
EndNoteFind the style here: output styles overview
Mendeley, Zotero, Papers, and othersThe style is either built in or you can download a CSL file that is supported by most references management programs.
BibTeXBibTeX syles are usually part of a LaTeX template. Check the instructions to authors if the publisher offers a LaTeX template for this journal.

Journal articles

Those examples are references to articles in scholarly journals and how they are supposed to appear in your bibliography.

Not all journals organize their published articles in volumes and issues, so these fields are optional. Some electronic journals do not provide a page range, but instead list an article identifier. In a case like this it's safe to use the article identifier instead of the page range.

A journal article with 1 author
Bagenal, F., 2007. Planetary science. A new spin on Saturn’s rotation. Science 316, 380–381.
A journal article with 2 authors
Meier, M.F., Dyurgerov, M.B., 2002. Sea level changes. How Alaska affects the world. Science 297, 350–351.
A journal article with 3 authors
Benton, R., Vannice, K.S., Vosshall, L.B., 2007. An essential role for a CD36-related receptor in pheromone detection in Drosophila. Nature 450, 289–293.
A journal article with 4 or more authors
Baimuratov, A.S., Rukhlenko, I.D., Turkov, V.K., Ponomareva, I.O., Leonov, M.Y., Perova, T.S., Berwick, K., Baranov, A.V., Fedorov, A.V., 2014. Level anticrossing of impurity states in semiconductor nanocrystals. Sci. Rep. 4, 6917.

Books and book chapters

Here are examples of references for authored and edited books as well as book chapters.

An authored book
Cannon, D.L., 2016. CISA®. John Wiley & Sons, Inc., Indianapolis, Indiana.
An edited book
Lehner, C., Renn, J., Schemmel, M. (Eds.), 2012. Einstein and the Changing Worldviews of Physics, Einstein Studies. Birkhäuser, Boston, MA.
A chapter in an edited book
Yen, H.-C., 2008. Concurrency, Synchronization, and Conflicts in Petri Nets, in: Ibarra, O.H., Ravikumar, B. (Eds.), Implementation and Applications of Automata: 13th International Conference, CIAA 2008, San Francisco, California, USA, July 21-24, 2008. Proceedings, Lecture Notes in Computer Science. Springer, Berlin, Heidelberg, pp. 33–35.

Web sites

Sometimes references to web sites should appear directly in the text rather than in the bibliography. Refer to the Instructions to authors for Journal of Socio-Economics.

Blog post
Andrew, E., 2014. Spaceship-Style Floating Lab Could Be Exploring Our Oceans In 2016 [WWW Document]. IFLScience. URL (accessed 10.30.18).


This example shows the general structure used for government reports, technical reports, and scientific reports. If you can't locate the report number then it might be better to cite the report as a book. For reports it is usually not individual people that are credited as authors, but a governmental department or agency like "U. S. Food and Drug Administration" or "National Cancer Institute".

Government report
Government Accountability Office, 2009. Telecommunications: Information on Participation in the E-rate Program (GAO-09-254SP, March 2009), an e-supplement to GAO-09-253 (No. GAO-09-254SP). U.S. Government Printing Office, Washington, DC.

Theses and dissertations

Theses including Ph.D. dissertations, Master's theses or Bachelor theses follow the basic format outlined below.

Doctoral dissertation
Thompson, K., 2015. Paid formal caregivers and caregiver burden: A quantitative study (Doctoral dissertation). California State University, Long Beach, Long Beach, CA.

News paper articles

Unlike scholarly journals, news papers do not usually have a volume and issue number. Instead, the full date and page number is required for a correct reference.

New York Times article
Hollander, S., 2002. Game and the Season End In Frustration for the Power. New York Times 85.

In-text citations

References should be cited in the text by name and year in parentheses:

This sentence cites one reference (Bagenal, 2007).
This sentence cites two references (Bagenal, 2007; Meier and Dyurgerov, 2002).

Here are examples of in-text citations with multiple authors:

  • Two authors: (Meier and Dyurgerov, 2002)
  • Three or more authors: (Baimuratov et al., 2014)

About the journal

Full journal titleJournal of Socio-Economics
AbbreviationJ. Socio Econ.
ISSN (print)1053-5357
ScopeEconomics and Econometrics

Other styles