How to format your references using the Journal of Socio-Economics citation style

This is a short guide how to format citations and the bibliography in a manuscript for Journal of Socio-Economics. For a complete guide how to prepare your manuscript refer to the journal's instructions to authors.

Using reference management software

Typically you don't format your citations and bibliography by hand. The easiest way is to use a reference manager:

PaperpileThe citation style is built in and you can choose it in Settings > Citation Style or Paperpile > Citation Style in Google Docs.
EndNoteFind the style here: output styles overview
Mendeley, Zotero, Papers, and othersThe style is either built in or you can download a CSL file that is supported by most references management programs.
BibTeXBibTeX syles are usually part of a LaTeX template. Check the instructions to authors if the publisher offers a LaTeX template for this journal.

Journal articles

Those examples are references to articles in scholarly journals and how they are supposed to appear in your bibliography.

Not all journals organize their published articles in volumes and issues, so these fields are optional. Some electronic journals do not provide a page range, but instead list an article identifier. In a case like this it's safe to use the article identifier instead of the page range.

A journal article with 1 author
Müller, B., 2011. Physics. The limits of ordinary matter. Science 332, 1513–1514.
A journal article with 2 authors
Link, C.D., Saldi, T.K., 2012. Development. Cell death by glutamine repeats? Science 335, 926–927.
A journal article with 3 authors
Alle, H., Roth, A., Geiger, J.R.P., 2009. Energy-efficient action potentials in hippocampal mossy fibers. Science 325, 1405–1408.
A journal article with 4 or more authors
Martin, K.H., Slack, J.K., Boerner, S.A., Martin, C.C., Parsons, J.T., 2002. Integrin connections map: to infinity and beyond. Science 296, 1652–1653.

Books and book chapters

Here are examples of references for authored and edited books as well as book chapters.

An authored book
Held, T., 2014. In-situ-Verfahren zur Boden- und Grundwassersanierung. Wiley-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim, Germany.
An edited book
Královič, R., Niwiński, D. (Eds.), 2009. Mathematical Foundations of Computer Science 2009: 34th International Symposium, MFCS 2009, Novy Smokovec, High Tatras, Slovakia, August 24-28, 2009. Proceedings, Lecture Notes in Computer Science. Springer, Berlin, Heidelberg.
A chapter in an edited book
Burkhardt, C.E., Leventhal, J.J., 2008. Stationary States in One Dimension II, in: Leventhal, J.J. (Ed.), Foundations of Quantum Physics. Springer, New York, NY, pp. 1–56.

Web sites

Sometimes references to web sites should appear directly in the text rather than in the bibliography. Refer to the Instructions to authors for Journal of Socio-Economics.

Blog post
Andrew, E., 2014. Scientists Recreate First Spark Of Life [WWW Document]. IFLScience. URL (accessed 10.30.18).


This example shows the general structure used for government reports, technical reports, and scientific reports. If you can't locate the report number then it might be better to cite the report as a book. For reports it is usually not individual people that are credited as authors, but a governmental department or agency like "U. S. Food and Drug Administration" or "National Cancer Institute".

Government report
Government Accountability Office, 1992. Geographic Information System: Forest Service Has Resolved GAO Concerns About Its Proposed Nationwide System (No. T-IMTEC-92-14). U.S. Government Printing Office, Washington, DC.

Theses and dissertations

Theses including Ph.D. dissertations, Master's theses or Bachelor theses follow the basic format outlined below.

Doctoral dissertation
Rivera, C., 2017. The Role of Privacy, Brand Labeling, and Cost on Condom Procurement: Using the Theory of Planned Behavior to Assess a University Policy (Doctoral dissertation). University of Louisiana, Lafayette, LA.

News paper articles

Unlike scholarly journals, news papers do not usually have a volume and issue number. Instead, the full date and page number is required for a correct reference.

New York Times article
Eder, S., Protess, B., 2017. Trump Business Pivots to Budget-Friendly Hotel Line. New York Times B1.

In-text citations

References should be cited in the text by name and year in parentheses:

This sentence cites one reference (Müller, 2011).
This sentence cites two references (Link and Saldi, 2012; Müller, 2011).

Here are examples of in-text citations with multiple authors:

  • Two authors: (Link and Saldi, 2012)
  • Three or more authors: (Martin et al., 2002)

About the journal

Full journal titleJournal of Socio-Economics
AbbreviationJ. Socio Econ.
ISSN (print)1053-5357
ScopeEconomics and Econometrics

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