How to format your references using the Journal of Rural Mental Health citation style

This is a short guide how to format citations and the bibliography in a manuscript for Journal of Rural Mental Health. For a complete guide how to prepare your manuscript refer to the journal's instructions to authors.

Using reference management software

Typically you don't format your citations and bibliography by hand. The easiest way is to use a reference manager:

PaperpileThe citation style is built in and you can choose it in Settings > Citation Style or Paperpile > Citation Style in Google Docs.
EndNoteFind the style here: output styles overview
Mendeley, Zotero, Papers, and othersThe style is either built in or you can download a CSL file that is supported by most references management programs.
BibTeXBibTeX syles are usually part of a LaTeX template. Check the instructions to authors if the publisher offers a LaTeX template for this journal.

Journal articles

Those examples are references to articles in scholarly journals and how they are supposed to appear in your bibliography.

Not all journals organize their published articles in volumes and issues, so these fields are optional. Some electronic journals do not provide a page range, but instead list an article identifier. In a case like this it's safe to use the article identifier instead of the page range.

A journal article with 1 author
Rangel, T. F. (2012). Ecology. Amazonian extinction debts. Science (New York, N.Y.), 337(6091), 162–163.
A journal article with 2 authors
Gong, C., & Maquat, L. E. (2011). lncRNAs transactivate STAU1-mediated mRNA decay by duplexing with 3’ UTRs via Alu elements. Nature, 470(7333), 284–288.
A journal article with 3 authors
Yuan, X., Xiao, S., & Taylor, T. N. (2005). Lichen-like symbiosis 600 million years ago. Science (New York, N.Y.), 308(5724), 1017–1020.
A journal article with 8 or more authors
Liu, M.-H., Blamires, S. J., Liao, C.-P., & Tso, I.-M. (2014). Evidence of bird dropping masquerading by a spider to avoid predators. Scientific Reports, 4, 5058.

Books and book chapters

Here are examples of references for authored and edited books as well as book chapters.

An authored book
Worth, S. M. (2010). The Association Guide to Going Global. John Wiley & Sons, Inc.
An edited book
Luderer, B. (2005). Mathematical Formulas for Economists (V. Nollau & K. Vetters, Eds.; Second Edition). Springer.
A chapter in an edited book
Chen, C.-C., & Tyler, C. W. (2008). Spectral Analysis of fMRI Signal and Noise. In M. Onozuka & C.-T. Yen (Eds.), Novel Trends in Brain Science: Brain Imaging, Learning and Memory, Stress and Fear, and Pain (pp. 63–76). Springer Japan.

Web sites

Sometimes references to web sites should appear directly in the text rather than in the bibliography. Refer to the Instructions to authors for Journal of Rural Mental Health.

Blog post
Hamilton, K. (2015, April 18). How Much Is The Human Body Worth? IFLScience; IFLScience.


This example shows the general structure used for government reports, technical reports, and scientific reports. If you can't locate the report number then it might be better to cite the report as a book. For reports it is usually not individual people that are credited as authors, but a governmental department or agency like "U. S. Food and Drug Administration" or "National Cancer Institute".

Government report
Government Accountability Office. (2006). Natural Gas Pipeline Safety: Integrity Management Benefits Public Safety, but Consistency of Performance Measures Should be Improved (GAO-06-946). U.S. Government Printing Office.

Theses and dissertations

Theses including Ph.D. dissertations, Master's theses or Bachelor theses follow the basic format outlined below.

Doctoral dissertation
Butler-Roberts, J. (2017). Fashioning distinction: construction of identity through dress and photography in nineteenth-century Paris [Doctoral dissertation]. California State University, Long Beach.

News paper articles

Unlike scholarly journals, news papers do not usually have a volume and issue number. Instead, the full date and page number is required for a correct reference.

New York Times article
Pilon, M. (2013, November 26). Fighter Who Faked Death Is Sent to Prison for Robbery. New York Times, B14.

In-text citations

References should be cited in the text by name and year in parentheses:

This sentence cites one reference (Rangel, 2012).
This sentence cites two references (Gong & Maquat, 2011; Rangel, 2012).

Here are examples of in-text citations with multiple authors:

  • Two authors: (Gong & Maquat, 2011)
  • Three authors: (Yuan et al., 2005)
  • 6 or more authors: (Liu et al., 2014)

About the journal

Full journal titleJournal of Rural Mental Health
AbbreviationRural Ment. Health
ISSN (print)1935-942X
ISSN (online)2163-8969

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