How to format your references using the Journal of Rural Mental Health citation style

This is a short guide how to format citations and the bibliography in a manuscript for Journal of Rural Mental Health. For a complete guide how to prepare your manuscript refer to the journal's instructions to authors.

Using reference management software

Typically you don't format your citations and bibliography by hand. The easiest way is to use a reference manager:

PaperpileThe citation style is built in and you can choose it in Settings > Citation Style or Paperpile > Citation Style in Google Docs.
EndNoteFind the style here: output styles overview
Mendeley, Zotero, Papers, and othersThe style is either built in or you can download a CSL file that is supported by most references management programs.
BibTeXBibTeX syles are usually part of a LaTeX template. Check the instructions to authors if the publisher offers a LaTeX template for this journal.

Journal articles

Those examples are references to articles in scholarly journals and how they are supposed to appear in your bibliography.

Not all journals organize their published articles in volumes and issues, so these fields are optional. Some electronic journals do not provide a page range, but instead list an article identifier. In a case like this it's safe to use the article identifier instead of the page range.

A journal article with 1 author
Ryan, M. J. (2011). Replication in field biology: the case of the frog-eating bat. Science (New York, N.Y.), 334(6060), 1229–1230.
A journal article with 2 authors
Jordan, M. I., & Mitchell, T. M. (2015). Machine learning: Trends, perspectives, and prospects. Science (New York, N.Y.), 349(6245), 255–260.
A journal article with 3 authors
Kalas, P., Graham, J. R., & Clampin, M. (2005). A planetary system as the origin of structure in Fomalhaut’s dust belt. Nature, 435(7045), 1067–1070.
A journal article with 8 or more authors
Bayindir, M., Sorin, F., Abouraddy, A. F., Viens, J., Hart, S. D., Joannopoulos, J. D., & Fink, Y. (2004). Metal-insulator-semiconductor optoelectronic fibres. Nature, 431(7010), 826–829.

Books and book chapters

Here are examples of references for authored and edited books as well as book chapters.

An authored book
Khan, M. M., & Islam, M. R. (2016). Zero Waste Engineering. John Wiley & Sons, Inc.
An edited book
Li, Y. (2015). Lasso Peptides: Bacterial Strategies to Make and Maintain Bioactive Entangled Scaffolds (S. Zirah & S. Rebuffat, Eds.). Springer.
A chapter in an edited book
Gablina, I. F., Dobretsova, I. G., & Popova, E. A. (2016). Biomineralization Processes During the Formation of Modern Oceanic Sulfide Ore and Ore-bearing Sediments. In O. V. Frank-Kamenetskaya, E. G. Panova, & D. Y. Vlasov (Eds.), Biogenic—Abiogenic Interactions in Natural and Anthropogenic Systems (pp. 43–54). Springer International Publishing.

Web sites

Sometimes references to web sites should appear directly in the text rather than in the bibliography. Refer to the Instructions to authors for Journal of Rural Mental Health.

Blog post
Fang, J. (2016, June 14). Ounce For Ounce, Birds Have More Neurons In Their Brains Than Mammals. IFLScience; IFLScience.


This example shows the general structure used for government reports, technical reports, and scientific reports. If you can't locate the report number then it might be better to cite the report as a book. For reports it is usually not individual people that are credited as authors, but a governmental department or agency like "U. S. Food and Drug Administration" or "National Cancer Institute".

Government report
Government Accountability Office. (1987). The Army’s Risk Assessment of Chemical Munitions Transportation (T-NSIAD-88-2). U.S. Government Printing Office.

Theses and dissertations

Theses including Ph.D. dissertations, Master's theses or Bachelor theses follow the basic format outlined below.

Doctoral dissertation
Barnett, J. (2017). Understanding gender differences in teachers’ level of insight as it relates to ADHD [Doctoral dissertation]. Capella University.

News paper articles

Unlike scholarly journals, news papers do not usually have a volume and issue number. Instead, the full date and page number is required for a correct reference.

New York Times article
Billard, M. (2010, October 28). A Collection’s First E-Sale. New York Times, E6.

In-text citations

References should be cited in the text by name and year in parentheses:

This sentence cites one reference (Ryan, 2011).
This sentence cites two references (Jordan & Mitchell, 2015; Ryan, 2011).

Here are examples of in-text citations with multiple authors:

  • Two authors: (Jordan & Mitchell, 2015)
  • Three authors: (Kalas et al., 2005)
  • 6 or more authors: (Bayindir et al., 2004)

About the journal

Full journal titleJournal of Rural Mental Health
AbbreviationRural Ment. Health
ISSN (print)1935-942X
ISSN (online)2163-8969

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