How to format your references using the Journal of Rural Mental Health citation style

This is a short guide how to format citations and the bibliography in a manuscript for Journal of Rural Mental Health. For a complete guide how to prepare your manuscript refer to the journal's instructions to authors.

Using reference management software

Typically you don't format your citations and bibliography by hand. The easiest way is to use a reference manager:

PaperpileThe citation style is built in and you can choose it in Settings > Citation Style or Paperpile > Citation Style in Google Docs.
EndNoteFind the style here: output styles overview
Mendeley, Zotero, Papers, and othersThe style is either built in or you can download a CSL file that is supported by most references management programs.
BibTeXBibTeX syles are usually part of a LaTeX template. Check the instructions to authors if the publisher offers a LaTeX template for this journal.

Journal articles

Those examples are references to articles in scholarly journals and how they are supposed to appear in your bibliography.

Not all journals organize their published articles in volumes and issues, so these fields are optional. Some electronic journals do not provide a page range, but instead list an article identifier. In a case like this it's safe to use the article identifier instead of the page range.

A journal article with 1 author
Polak, T. (2015). Help others--and help your career. Science (New York, N.Y.), 350(6257), 246.
A journal article with 2 authors
Jing, Z., & Wu, L. (2014). Intensified diapycnal mixing in the midlatitude western boundary currents. Scientific Reports, 4, 7412.
A journal article with 3 authors
Alkire, M. T., Hudetz, A. G., & Tononi, G. (2008). Consciousness and anesthesia. Science (New York, N.Y.), 322(5903), 876–880.
A journal article with 8 or more authors
Zhang, Y., Liu, Y., Chen, J., Guo, Q., Wang, T., & Pang, H. (2014). Cobalt vanadium oxide thin nanoplates: primary electrochemical capacitor application. Scientific Reports, 4, 5687.

Books and book chapters

Here are examples of references for authored and edited books as well as book chapters.

An authored book
Tang, C. (2016). The Data Industry: The Business and Economics of Information and Big Data. John Wiley & Sons, Inc.
An edited book
Zeng, J., Zhang, R.-Q., & Treutlein, H. R. (Eds.). (2012). Quantum Simulations of Materials and Biological Systems. Springer Netherlands.
A chapter in an edited book
Jiang, J., & Yang, G. (2010). Examining Cloud Computing from the Perspective of Grid and Computer-Supported Cooperative Work. In N. Antonopoulos & L. Gillam (Eds.), Cloud Computing: Principles, Systems and Applications (pp. 63–76). Springer.

Web sites

Sometimes references to web sites should appear directly in the text rather than in the bibliography. Refer to the Instructions to authors for Journal of Rural Mental Health.

Blog post
Andrew, E. (2014, December 15). Watch These Trees Get Swallowed By An Underwater Sinkhole. IFLScience; IFLScience.


This example shows the general structure used for government reports, technical reports, and scientific reports. If you can't locate the report number then it might be better to cite the report as a book. For reports it is usually not individual people that are credited as authors, but a governmental department or agency like "U. S. Food and Drug Administration" or "National Cancer Institute".

Government report
Government Accountability Office. (2000). Commercial Motor Vehicles: Effectiveness of Actions Being Taken to Improve Motor Carrier Safety Is Unknown (RCED-00-189). U.S. Government Printing Office.

Theses and dissertations

Theses including Ph.D. dissertations, Master's theses or Bachelor theses follow the basic format outlined below.

Doctoral dissertation
Dean, D. O. (2012). A discrete-time multiple event process survival mixture (MEPSUM) model for investigating the order and timing of multiple non-repeatable events [Doctoral dissertation]. University of North Carolina.

News paper articles

Unlike scholarly journals, news papers do not usually have a volume and issue number. Instead, the full date and page number is required for a correct reference.

New York Times article
Stewart, J. B. (2017, August 10). A Year of New Heights For the Dow, Led by Boeing. New York Times, B1.

In-text citations

References should be cited in the text by name and year in parentheses:

This sentence cites one reference (Polak, 2015).
This sentence cites two references (Jing & Wu, 2014; Polak, 2015).

Here are examples of in-text citations with multiple authors:

  • Two authors: (Jing & Wu, 2014)
  • Three authors: (Alkire et al., 2008)
  • 6 or more authors: (Zhang et al., 2014)

About the journal

Full journal titleJournal of Rural Mental Health
AbbreviationRural Ment. Health
ISSN (print)1935-942X
ISSN (online)2163-8969

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