How to format your references using the Journal of Rural Mental Health citation style

This is a short guide how to format citations and the bibliography in a manuscript for Journal of Rural Mental Health. For a complete guide how to prepare your manuscript refer to the journal's instructions to authors.

Using reference management software

Typically you don't format your citations and bibliography by hand. The easiest way is to use a reference manager:

PaperpileThe citation style is built in and you can choose it in Settings > Citation Style or Paperpile > Citation Style in Google Docs.
EndNoteFind the style here: output styles overview
Mendeley, Zotero, Papers, and othersThe style is either built in or you can download a CSL file that is supported by most references management programs.
BibTeXBibTeX syles are usually part of a LaTeX template. Check the instructions to authors if the publisher offers a LaTeX template for this journal.

Journal articles

Those examples are references to articles in scholarly journals and how they are supposed to appear in your bibliography.

Not all journals organize their published articles in volumes and issues, so these fields are optional. Some electronic journals do not provide a page range, but instead list an article identifier. In a case like this it's safe to use the article identifier instead of the page range.

A journal article with 1 author
Kaiser, J. (2000). TOXICOLOGY: Panel Urges Further Study of Biotech Corn. Science (New York, N.Y.), 290(5498), 1867a.
A journal article with 2 authors
Harrisingh, M. C., & Nitabach, M. N. (2008). Circadian rhythms. Integrating circadian timekeeping with cellular physiology. Science (New York, N.Y.), 320(5878), 879–880.
A journal article with 3 authors
Oka, Y., Ye, M., & Zuker, C. S. (2015). Thirst driving and suppressing signals encoded by distinct neural populations in the brain. Nature, 520(7547), 349–352.
A journal article with 8 or more authors
Chow, E., Lin, S. Y., Johnson, S. G., Villeneuve, P. R., Joannopoulos, J. D., Wendt, J. R., … Alleman, A. (2000). Three-dimensional control of light in a two-dimensional photonic crystal slab. Nature, 407(6807), 983–986.

Books and book chapters

Here are examples of references for authored and edited books as well as book chapters.

An authored book
Prud’homme, R. (2012). Flows and Chemical Reactions. Hoboken, NJ: John Wiley & Sons, Inc.
An edited book
Nilius, B., & Flockerzi, V. (Eds.). (2014). Mammalian Transient Receptor Potential (TRP) Cation Channels: Volume II (Vol. 223). Cham: Springer International Publishing.
A chapter in an edited book
Marschik, N., Speckert, M., & Ihme, T. (2012). Towards Adaptive Scheduling for Real-Time Image Processing. In P. Levi, O. Zweigle, K. Häußermann, & B. Eckstein (Eds.), Autonomous Mobile Systems 2012: 22. Fachgespräch Stuttgart, 26. bis 28. September 2012 (pp. 31–38). Berlin, Heidelberg: Springer.

Web sites

Sometimes references to web sites should appear directly in the text rather than in the bibliography. Refer to the Instructions to authors for Journal of Rural Mental Health.

Blog post
Luntz, S. (2015, October 15). Bees Get A Buzz From Caffeinated Flowers. Retrieved October 30, 2018, from


This example shows the general structure used for government reports, technical reports, and scientific reports. If you can't locate the report number then it might be better to cite the report as a book. For reports it is usually not individual people that are credited as authors, but a governmental department or agency like "U. S. Food and Drug Administration" or "National Cancer Institute".

Government report
Government Accountability Office. (2013). Launch Services New Entrant Certification Guide (No. GAO-13-317R). Washington, DC: U.S. Government Printing Office.

Theses and dissertations

Theses including Ph.D. dissertations, Master's theses or Bachelor theses follow the basic format outlined below.

Doctoral dissertation
Boyer, T. H. (2008). Removal of natural organic matter by anion exchange: Multiscale experimentation and mathematical modeling (Doctoral dissertation). University of North Carolina, Chapel Hill, NC.

News paper articles

Unlike scholarly journals, news papers do not usually have a volume and issue number. Instead, the full date and page number is required for a correct reference.

New York Times article
Castle, S. (2017, July 20). As Clock Ticks on Exit From E.U., Britain Seems Adrift. New York Times, p. A6.

In-text citations

References should be cited in the text by name and year in parentheses:

This sentence cites one reference (Axtell, 2001).
This sentence cites two references (Smaglik, 2003, 2004).

Here are examples of in-text citations with multiple authors:

  • Two authors: (Harrisingh & Nitabach, 2008)
  • Three authors: (Oka, Ye, & Zuker, 2015)
  • 6 or more authors: (Chini et al., 2004)

About the journal

Full journal titleJournal of Rural Mental Health
AbbreviationRural Ment. Health
ISSN (print)1935-942X
ISSN (online)2163-8969

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