How to format your references using the Journal of Rural Mental Health citation style

This is a short guide how to format citations and the bibliography in a manuscript for Journal of Rural Mental Health. For a complete guide how to prepare your manuscript refer to the journal's instructions to authors.

Using reference management software

Typically you don't format your citations and bibliography by hand. The easiest way is to use a reference manager:

PaperpileThe citation style is built in and you can choose it in Settings > Citation Style or Paperpile > Citation Style in Google Docs.
EndNoteFind the style here: output styles overview
Mendeley, Zotero, Papers, and othersThe style is either built in or you can download a CSL file that is supported by most references management programs.
BibTeXBibTeX syles are usually part of a LaTeX template. Check the instructions to authors if the publisher offers a LaTeX template for this journal.

Journal articles

Those examples are references to articles in scholarly journals and how they are supposed to appear in your bibliography.

Not all journals organize their published articles in volumes and issues, so these fields are optional. Some electronic journals do not provide a page range, but instead list an article identifier. In a case like this it's safe to use the article identifier instead of the page range.

A journal article with 1 author
Lienhardt, C. (2014). Fundamental research is the key to eliminating TB. Nature, 507(7493), 401.
A journal article with 2 authors
McGuire, J. J., & Beroza, G. C. (2012). Geophysics. A rogue earthquake off Sumatra. Science (New York, N.Y.), 336(6085), 1118–1119.
A journal article with 3 authors
Hristov, T. S., Miller, S. D., & Friehe, C. A. (2003). Dynamical coupling of wind and ocean waves through wave-induced air flow. Nature, 422(6927), 55–58.
A journal article with 8 or more authors
Yum, J.-H., Holcombe, T. W., Kim, Y., Rakstys, K., Moehl, T., Teuscher, J., … Grätzel, M. (2013). Blue-coloured highly efficient dye-sensitized solar cells by implementing the diketopyrrolopyrrole chromophore. Scientific Reports, 3, 2446.

Books and book chapters

Here are examples of references for authored and edited books as well as book chapters.

An authored book
Wahbi, M. (2013). Algorithms and Ordering Heuristics for Distributed Constraint Satisfaction Problems. Hoboken, NJ USA: John Wiley & Sons, Inc.
An edited book
Duguid, F. (2013). Volunteer Work, Informal Learning and Social Action. (K. Mündel & D. Schugurensky, Eds.) (Vol. 1). Rotterdam: SensePublishers.
A chapter in an edited book
Cameron, N., Drossopoulou, S., & Noble, J. (2013). Understanding Ownership Types with Dependent Types. In D. Clarke, J. Noble, & T. Wrigstad (Eds.), Aliasing in Object-Oriented Programming. Types, Analysis and Verification (pp. 84–108). Berlin, Heidelberg: Springer.

Web sites

Sometimes references to web sites should appear directly in the text rather than in the bibliography. Refer to the Instructions to authors for Journal of Rural Mental Health.

Blog post
Andrews, R. (2015, October 14). Why Do Capuchin Monkeys Cover Themselves In Smelly Substances? Retrieved October 30, 2018, from


This example shows the general structure used for government reports, technical reports, and scientific reports. If you can't locate the report number then it might be better to cite the report as a book. For reports it is usually not individual people that are credited as authors, but a governmental department or agency like "U. S. Food and Drug Administration" or "National Cancer Institute".

Government report
Government Accountability Office. (1990). Comments on Department of Education Use of Subsequent-Year Appropriations (No. B-236667). Washington, DC: U.S. Government Printing Office.

Theses and dissertations

Theses including Ph.D. dissertations, Master's theses or Bachelor theses follow the basic format outlined below.

Doctoral dissertation
Schmisseur, B. E. (2002). An Evaluation of Noise Reduction Effectiveness in Four Digital Hearing Aids (Doctoral dissertation). University of Cincinnati, Cincinnati, OH.

News paper articles

Unlike scholarly journals, news papers do not usually have a volume and issue number. Instead, the full date and page number is required for a correct reference.

New York Times article
Wagner, J. (2016, October 16). Dodgers’ Late-Inning Gamble Backfires in Cubs’ Timely Grand Slam. New York Times, p. SP2.

In-text citations

References should be cited in the text by name and year in parentheses:

This sentence cites one reference (Lienhardt, 2014).
This sentence cites two references (Lienhardt, 2014; McGuire & Beroza, 2012).

Here are examples of in-text citations with multiple authors:

  • Two authors: (McGuire & Beroza, 2012)
  • Three authors: (Hristov, Miller, & Friehe, 2003)
  • 6 or more authors: (Yum et al., 2013)

About the journal

Full journal titleJournal of Rural Mental Health
AbbreviationRural Ment. Health
ISSN (print)1935-942X
ISSN (online)2163-8969

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