How to format your references using the Journal of Physiotherapy citation style

This is a short guide how to format citations and the bibliography in a manuscript for Journal of Physiotherapy. For a complete guide how to prepare your manuscript refer to the journal's instructions to authors.

Using reference management software

Typically you don't format your citations and bibliography by hand. The easiest way is to use a reference manager:

PaperpileThe citation style is built in and you can choose it in Settings > Citation Style or Paperpile > Citation Style in Google Docs.
EndNoteDownload the output style file
Mendeley, Zotero, Papers, and othersThe style is either built in or you can download a CSL file that is supported by most references management programs.
BibTeXBibTeX syles are usually part of a LaTeX template. Check the instructions to authors if the publisher offers a LaTeX template for this journal.

Journal articles

Those examples are references to articles in scholarly journals and how they are supposed to appear in your bibliography.

Not all journals organize their published articles in volumes and issues, so these fields are optional. Some electronic journals do not provide a page range, but instead list an article identifier. In a case like this it's safe to use the article identifier instead of the page range.

A journal article with 1 author
Balter M. EUROPEAN SCIENCE: Pathogens Lab Chief Stripped of Duties. Science. 2000;289(5477):228b-229b.
A journal article with 2 authors
Treacy MMJ, Borisenko KB. The local structure of amorphous silicon. Science. 2012;335(6071):950-953.
A journal article with 3 authors
Nelson WA, Bjørnstad ON, Yamanaka T. Recurrent insect outbreaks caused by temperature-driven changes in system stability. Science. 2013;341(6147):796-799.
A journal article with 7 or more authors
Amelin Y, Krot AN, Hutcheon ID, Ulyanov AA. Lead isotopic ages of chondrules and calcium-aluminum-rich inclusions. Science. 2002;297(5587):1678-1683.

Books and book chapters

Here are examples of references for authored and edited books as well as book chapters.

An authored book
Halstead P. Two Oxen Ahead. John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.; 2014.
An edited book
Sawada H, Inoue N, Iwano M, eds. Sexual Reproduction in Animals and Plants. Springer Japan; 2014.
A chapter in an edited book
Shafique M, Henkel J. Adaptive Low-power Reconfigurable Processor Architecture. In: Henkel J, ed. Hardware/Software Architectures for Low-Power Embedded Multimedia Systems. Springer; 2011:123-155.

Web sites

Sometimes references to web sites should appear directly in the text rather than in the bibliography. Refer to the Instructions to authors for Journal of Physiotherapy.

Blog post
Andrew E. Europa: Attempt No Landing Here, but a Fly-By Is Fine! IFLScience. Published June 26, 2015. Accessed October 30, 2018.


This example shows the general structure used for government reports, technical reports, and scientific reports. If you can't locate the report number then it might be better to cite the report as a book. For reports it is usually not individual people that are credited as authors, but a governmental department or agency like "U. S. Food and Drug Administration" or "National Cancer Institute".

Government report
Government Accountability Office. Telecommunications: GSA Action Needs to Realize Benefits of Metropolitan Area Acquisition Program. U.S. Government Printing Office; 2002.

Theses and dissertations

Theses including Ph.D. dissertations, Master's theses or Bachelor theses follow the basic format outlined below.

Doctoral dissertation
Verkaik P. Enhancing Networking Protocols in Widely Deployed Devices. Doctoral dissertation. University of California San Diego; 2010.

News paper articles

Unlike scholarly journals, news papers do not usually have a volume and issue number. Instead, the full date and page number is required for a correct reference.

New York Times article
Feeney K. More Than Moussaka. New York Times. November 28, 2010:NJ10.

In-text citations

References should be cited in the text by sequential numbers in superscript:

This sentence cites one reference 1.
This sentence cites two references 1,2.
This sentence cites four references 1–4.

About the journal

Full journal titleJournal of Physiotherapy
AbbreviationJ. Physiother.
ISSN (print)1836-9553
ScopePhysical Therapy, Sports Therapy and Rehabilitation

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