How to format your references using the Journal of Physiotherapy citation style

This is a short guide how to format citations and the bibliography in a manuscript for Journal of Physiotherapy. For a complete guide how to prepare your manuscript refer to the journal's instructions to authors.

Using reference management software

Typically you don't format your citations and bibliography by hand. The easiest way is to use a reference manager:

PaperpileThe citation style is built in and you can choose it in Settings > Citation Style or Paperpile > Citation Style in Google Docs.
EndNoteDownload the output style file
Mendeley, Zotero, Papers, and othersThe style is either built in or you can download a CSL file that is supported by most references management programs.
BibTeXBibTeX syles are usually part of a LaTeX template. Check the instructions to authors if the publisher offers a LaTeX template for this journal.

Journal articles

Those examples are references to articles in scholarly journals and how they are supposed to appear in your bibliography.

Not all journals organize their published articles in volumes and issues, so these fields are optional. Some electronic journals do not provide a page range, but instead list an article identifier. In a case like this it's safe to use the article identifier instead of the page range.

A journal article with 1 author
Filippelli G. Oceans. A salty start to modern ocean circulation. Science. 2014;344(6189):1228-1229.
A journal article with 2 authors
Marone F, Romanowicz B. The depth distribution of azimuthal anisotropy in the continental upper mantle. Nature. 2007;447(7141):198-201.
A journal article with 3 authors
Schulte DM, Burke RP, Lipcius RN. Unprecedented restoration of a native oyster metapopulation. Science. 2009;325(5944):1124-1128.
A journal article with 7 or more authors
O’Dowd CD, Jimenez JL, Bahreini R, et al. Marine aerosol formation from biogenic iodine emissions. Nature. 2002;417(6889):632-636.

Books and book chapters

Here are examples of references for authored and edited books as well as book chapters.

An authored book
Gowler DB. James Through the Centuries. John Wiley & Sons; 2013.
An edited book
Schomburg H. Higher Education and Graduate Employment in Europe: Results from Graduate Surveys from Twelve Countries. Vol 15. (Teichler U, ed.). Springer Netherlands; 2006.
A chapter in an edited book
Hu M, Wu ZQ, Liu Y. The fish fauna of mountain streams in the Guanshan National Nature Reserve, Jiangxi, China. In: Noakes DLG, Romero A, Zhao Y, Zhou Y, eds. Chinese Fishes. Developments in Environmental Biology of Fishes. Springer Netherlands; 2009:23-27.

Web sites

Sometimes references to web sites should appear directly in the text rather than in the bibliography. Refer to the Instructions to authors for Journal of Physiotherapy.

Blog post
Andrew D. Weekend Warrior Exercise: Is It Good For You? IFLScience.


This example shows the general structure used for government reports, technical reports, and scientific reports. If you can't locate the report number then it might be better to cite the report as a book. For reports it is usually not individual people that are credited as authors, but a governmental department or agency like "U. S. Food and Drug Administration" or "National Cancer Institute".

Government report
Government Accountability Office. Controls Over Computer-Generated Output at the Naval Supply Center, Oakland. U.S. Government Printing Office; 1970.

Theses and dissertations

Theses including Ph.D. dissertations, Master's theses or Bachelor theses follow the basic format outlined below.

Doctoral dissertation
Zhuang S. Enhancing Implicit Finite Element Sheet Forming Simulation. Doctoral dissertation. Ohio State University; 2008.

News paper articles

Unlike scholarly journals, news papers do not usually have a volume and issue number. Instead, the full date and page number is required for a correct reference.

New York Times article
Romero S, Yardley J. Francis Says Contraception Can Be Used to Slow Zika. New York Times. February 19, 2016:A14.

In-text citations

References should be cited in the text by sequential numbers in superscript:

This sentence cites one reference 1.
This sentence cites two references 1,2.
This sentence cites four references 1–4.

About the journal

Full journal titleJournal of Physiotherapy
AbbreviationJ. Physiother.
ISSN (print)1836-9553
ScopePhysical Therapy, Sports Therapy and Rehabilitation

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