How to format your references using the Journal of PeriAnesthesia Nursing citation style

This is a short guide how to format citations and the bibliography in a manuscript for Journal of PeriAnesthesia Nursing. For a complete guide how to prepare your manuscript refer to the journal's instructions to authors.

Using reference management software

Typically you don't format your citations and bibliography by hand. The easiest way is to use a reference manager:

PaperpileThe citation style is built in and you can choose it in Settings > Citation Style or Paperpile > Citation Style in Google Docs.
EndNoteDownload the output style file
Mendeley, Zotero, Papers, and othersThe style is either built in or you can download a CSL file that is supported by most references management programs.
BibTeXBibTeX syles are usually part of a LaTeX template. Check the instructions to authors if the publisher offers a LaTeX template for this journal.

Journal articles

Those examples are references to articles in scholarly journals and how they are supposed to appear in your bibliography.

Not all journals organize their published articles in volumes and issues, so these fields are optional. Some electronic journals do not provide a page range, but instead list an article identifier. In a case like this it's safe to use the article identifier instead of the page range.

A journal article with 1 author
Barnes DK. Resource availability: Ancient homes for hard-up hermit crabs. Nature. 2001;412(6849):785-786.
A journal article with 2 authors
Burrows M, Sutton G. Interacting gears synchronize propulsive leg movements in a jumping insect. Science. 2013;341(6151):1254-1256.
A journal article with 3 authors
Akil H, Martone ME, Van Essen DC. Challenges and opportunities in mining neuroscience data. Science. 2011;331(6018):708-712.
A journal article with 7 or more authors
Slavin JA, Anderson BJ, Baker DN, et al. MESSENGER observations of extreme loading and unloading of Mercury’s magnetic tail. Science. 2010;329(5992):665-668.

Books and book chapters

Here are examples of references for authored and edited books as well as book chapters.

An authored book
Chin DA. Water-Quality Engineering in Natural Systems. John Wiley & Sons, Inc.; 2006.
An edited book
Eleftheriou E, Moheimani SOR, eds. Control Technologies for Emerging Micro and Nanoscale Systems. Vol 413. Springer; 2011.
A chapter in an edited book
Cunnington A, Patel S, Lyall H. Why Are Some Babies Still Being Infected with HIV in the UK? In: Finn A, Curtis N, Pollard AJ, eds. Hot Topics in Infection and Immunity in Children VI. Advances in Experimental Medicine and Biology. Springer; 2010:57-71.

Web sites

Sometimes references to web sites should appear directly in the text rather than in the bibliography. Refer to the Instructions to authors for Journal of PeriAnesthesia Nursing.

Blog post
Davis J. One In Four Bee Species In The US At Risk Of Extinction. IFLScience. Published March 3, 2017. Accessed October 30, 2018.


This example shows the general structure used for government reports, technical reports, and scientific reports. If you can't locate the report number then it might be better to cite the report as a book. For reports it is usually not individual people that are credited as authors, but a governmental department or agency like "U. S. Food and Drug Administration" or "National Cancer Institute".

Government report
Government Accountability Office. Information Technology: Continued Improvements in Investment Oversight and Management Can Yield Billions in Savings. U.S. Government Printing Office; 2011.

Theses and dissertations

Theses including Ph.D. dissertations, Master's theses or Bachelor theses follow the basic format outlined below.

Doctoral dissertation
Greene B. Repercussions of the Dark Valley - Reenacting And Reinterpreting an Era via Fantasy Manga. Doctoral dissertation. University of Arizona; 2017.

News paper articles

Unlike scholarly journals, news papers do not usually have a volume and issue number. Instead, the full date and page number is required for a correct reference.

New York Times article
Rothenberg B. How Penguins Make A Home on Road Ice. New York Times. May 6, 2017:D3.

In-text citations

References should be cited in the text by sequential numbers in superscript:

This sentence cites one reference 1.
This sentence cites two references 1,2.
This sentence cites four references 1–4.

About the journal

Full journal titleJournal of PeriAnesthesia Nursing
AbbreviationJ. Perianesth. Nurs.
ISSN (print)1089-9472

Other styles