How to format your references using the Journal of PeriAnesthesia Nursing citation style

This is a short guide how to format citations and the bibliography in a manuscript for Journal of PeriAnesthesia Nursing. For a complete guide how to prepare your manuscript refer to the journal's instructions to authors.

Using reference management software

Typically you don't format your citations and bibliography by hand. The easiest way is to use a reference manager:

PaperpileThe citation style is built in and you can choose it in Settings > Citation Style or Paperpile > Citation Style in Google Docs.
EndNoteDownload the output style file
Mendeley, Zotero, Papers, and othersThe style is either built in or you can download a CSL file that is supported by most references management programs.
BibTeXBibTeX syles are usually part of a LaTeX template. Check the instructions to authors if the publisher offers a LaTeX template for this journal.

Journal articles

Those examples are references to articles in scholarly journals and how they are supposed to appear in your bibliography.

Not all journals organize their published articles in volumes and issues, so these fields are optional. Some electronic journals do not provide a page range, but instead list an article identifier. In a case like this it's safe to use the article identifier instead of the page range.

A journal article with 1 author
Watzman H. Israel debates raising commitment to CERN. European Laboratory for Particle Physics. Nature. 2000;405(6783):109.
A journal article with 2 authors
Kawasaki H, Taira K. Hes1 is a target of microRNA-23 during retinoic-acid-induced neuronal differentiation of NT2 cells. Nature. 2003;423(6942):838-842.
A journal article with 3 authors
Upadhyay D, Scherer EE, Mezger K. (142)Nd evidence for an enriched Hadean reservoir in cratonic roots. Nature. 2009;459(7250):1118-1121.
A journal article with 7 or more authors
Im K, Jeong D, Hur J, et al. Robust analysis of synthetic label-free DNA junctions in solution by X-ray scattering and molecular simulation. Sci Rep. 2013;3:3226.

Books and book chapters

Here are examples of references for authored and edited books as well as book chapters.

An authored book
Esmailzadeh R. Broadband Wireless Communications Business. John Wiley & Sons, Ltd; 2006.
An edited book
Posta PD. Effetti, Potenzialità e Limiti Della Globalizzazione: Una Visione Multidisciplinare. (Rossi AM, ed.). Springer; 2007.
A chapter in an edited book
Tempelmeier T. Teaching ‘Concepts of Programming Languages’ with Ada. In: Brorsson M, Pinho LM, eds. Reliable Software Technologies – Ada-Europe 2012: 17th Ada-Europe International Conference on Reliable Software Technologies, Stockholm, Sweden, June 11-15, 2012. Proceedings. Lecture Notes in Computer Science. Springer; 2012:60-74.

Web sites

Sometimes references to web sites should appear directly in the text rather than in the bibliography. Refer to the Instructions to authors for Journal of PeriAnesthesia Nursing.

Blog post
Andrew E. New System Lets Humans Control Mouse Genes With Their Thoughts. IFLScience. Published November 12, 2014. Accessed October 30, 2018.


This example shows the general structure used for government reports, technical reports, and scientific reports. If you can't locate the report number then it might be better to cite the report as a book. For reports it is usually not individual people that are credited as authors, but a governmental department or agency like "U. S. Food and Drug Administration" or "National Cancer Institute".

Government report
Government Accountability Office. Chemical Assessments: Challenges Remain with EPA’s Integrated Risk Information System Program. U.S. Government Printing Office; 2011.

Theses and dissertations

Theses including Ph.D. dissertations, Master's theses or Bachelor theses follow the basic format outlined below.

Doctoral dissertation
Ward D. Teaching with the End in Mind: A Teacher’s Life History as a Legacy of Educational Leaders. Published online 2014.

News paper articles

Unlike scholarly journals, news papers do not usually have a volume and issue number. Instead, the full date and page number is required for a correct reference.

New York Times article
Murphy MJO. When the Loch Ness Monster Was in The Times. New York Times. April 15, 2016:C28.

In-text citations

References should be cited in the text by sequential numbers in superscript:

This sentence cites one reference 1.
This sentence cites two references 1,2.
This sentence cites four references 1–4.

About the journal

Full journal titleJournal of PeriAnesthesia Nursing
AbbreviationJ. Perianesth. Nurs.
ISSN (print)1089-9472

Other styles