How to format your references using the Journal of PeriAnesthesia Nursing citation style

This is a short guide how to format citations and the bibliography in a manuscript for Journal of PeriAnesthesia Nursing. For a complete guide how to prepare your manuscript refer to the journal's instructions to authors.

Using reference management software

Typically you don't format your citations and bibliography by hand. The easiest way is to use a reference manager:

PaperpileThe citation style is built in and you can choose it in Settings > Citation Style or Paperpile > Citation Style in Google Docs.
EndNoteDownload the output style file
Mendeley, Zotero, Papers, and othersThe style is either built in or you can download a CSL file that is supported by most references management programs.
BibTeXBibTeX syles are usually part of a LaTeX template. Check the instructions to authors if the publisher offers a LaTeX template for this journal.

Journal articles

Those examples are references to articles in scholarly journals and how they are supposed to appear in your bibliography.

Not all journals organize their published articles in volumes and issues, so these fields are optional. Some electronic journals do not provide a page range, but instead list an article identifier. In a case like this it's safe to use the article identifier instead of the page range.

A journal article with 1 author
Westervelt RM. Applied physics. Graphene nanoelectronics. Science. 2008;320(5874):324-325.
A journal article with 2 authors
Spero HJ, Lea DW. The cause of carbon isotope minimum events on glacial terminations. Science. 2002;296(5567):522-525.
A journal article with 3 authors
Norouzzadeh P, Myles CW, Vashaee D. Prediction of giant thermoelectric power factor in type-VIII clathrate Si46. Sci Rep. 2014;4:7028.
A journal article with 7 or more authors
Manica A, Amos W, Balloux F, Hanihara T. The effect of ancient population bottlenecks on human phenotypic variation. Nature. 2007;448(7151):346-348.

Books and book chapters

Here are examples of references for authored and edited books as well as book chapters.

An authored book
Belsey C. A Future for Criticism. Wiley-Blackwell; 2011.
An edited book
Wright S. Expert SharePoint 2010 Practices. (Bakmand-Mikalski D, Rais RB, Bishop D, et al., eds.). Apress; 2011.
A chapter in an edited book
Fröhlich J, Wachsmuth I. Combining Multi-Sensory Stimuli in Virtual Worlds – A Progress Report. In: Shumaker R, Lackey S, eds. Virtual, Augmented and Mixed Reality. Designing and Developing Virtual and Augmented Environments: 6th International Conference, VAMR 2014, Held as Part of HCI International 2014, Heraklion, Crete, Greece, June 22-27, 2014, Proceedings, Part I. Lecture Notes in Computer Science. Springer International Publishing; 2014:44-54.

Web sites

Sometimes references to web sites should appear directly in the text rather than in the bibliography. Refer to the Instructions to authors for Journal of PeriAnesthesia Nursing.

Blog post
Hale T. This Church Has A Chandelier Made Entirely Of Human Bones. IFLScience.


This example shows the general structure used for government reports, technical reports, and scientific reports. If you can't locate the report number then it might be better to cite the report as a book. For reports it is usually not individual people that are credited as authors, but a governmental department or agency like "U. S. Food and Drug Administration" or "National Cancer Institute".

Government report
Government Accountability Office. Federal Communications Commission: Extending Wireless Telecommunications Services to Tribal Lands. U.S. Government Printing Office; 2000.

Theses and dissertations

Theses including Ph.D. dissertations, Master's theses or Bachelor theses follow the basic format outlined below.

Doctoral dissertation
Uthe PB. The Development of Polycationic Materials for Gene Delivery Applications. Doctoral dissertation. University of North Carolina; 2010.

News paper articles

Unlike scholarly journals, news papers do not usually have a volume and issue number. Instead, the full date and page number is required for a correct reference.

New York Times article
Hodgman J. Bonus Advice From Judge John Hodgman. New York Times. March 3, 2017:MM20.

In-text citations

References should be cited in the text by sequential numbers in superscript:

This sentence cites one reference 1.
This sentence cites two references 1,2.
This sentence cites four references 1–4.

About the journal

Full journal titleJournal of PeriAnesthesia Nursing
AbbreviationJ. Perianesth. Nurs.
ISSN (print)1089-9472

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