How to format your references using the Journal of Outdoor Recreation and Tourism citation style

This is a short guide how to format citations and the bibliography in a manuscript for Journal of Outdoor Recreation and Tourism. For a complete guide how to prepare your manuscript refer to the journal's instructions to authors.

Using reference management software

Typically you don't format your citations and bibliography by hand. The easiest way is to use a reference manager:

PaperpileThe citation style is built in and you can choose it in Settings > Citation Style or Paperpile > Citation Style in Google Docs.
EndNoteFind the style here: output styles overview
Mendeley, Zotero, Papers, and othersThe style is either built in or you can download a CSL file that is supported by most references management programs.
BibTeXBibTeX syles are usually part of a LaTeX template. Check the instructions to authors if the publisher offers a LaTeX template for this journal.

Journal articles

Those examples are references to articles in scholarly journals and how they are supposed to appear in your bibliography.

Not all journals organize their published articles in volumes and issues, so these fields are optional. Some electronic journals do not provide a page range, but instead list an article identifier. In a case like this it's safe to use the article identifier instead of the page range.

A journal article with 1 author
Bhatia, M. (2010). Developmental biology. Microenvironment mimicry. Science (New York, N.Y.), 329(5995), 1024–1025.
A journal article with 2 authors
Hawker, C. J., & Wooley, K. L. (2005). The convergence of synthetic organic and polymer chemistries. Science (New York, N.Y.), 309(5738), 1200–1205.
A journal article with 3 authors
Kernbauer, E., Ding, Y., & Cadwell, K. (2014). An enteric virus can replace the beneficial function of commensal bacteria. Nature, 516(7529), 94–98.
A journal article with 8 or more authors
Duarte-Pereira, S., Silva, S. S., Azevedo, L., Castro, L., Amorim, A., & Silva, R. M. (2014). NAMPT and NAPRT1: novel polymorphisms and distribution of variants between normal tissues and tumor samples. Scientific Reports, 4, 6311.

Books and book chapters

Here are examples of references for authored and edited books as well as book chapters.

An authored book
Maji, P., & Pal, S. K. (2012). Rough-Fuzzy Pattern Recognition. John Wiley & Sons, Inc.
An edited book
Margottini, C., Canuti, P., & Sassa, K. (Eds.). (2013). Landslide Science and Practice: Volume 6: Risk Assessment, Management and Mitigation. Springer.
A chapter in an edited book
Altizer, T. J. J. (2016). To D. G. Leahy (January 17, 1997). In M. Grimshaw (Ed.), This Silence Must Now Speak: Letters of Thomas J. J. Altizer, 1995–2015 (pp. 15–17). Palgrave Macmillan US.

Web sites

Sometimes references to web sites should appear directly in the text rather than in the bibliography. Refer to the Instructions to authors for Journal of Outdoor Recreation and Tourism.

Blog post
Luntz, S. (2017, March 13). Canadians With Cystic Fibrosis Live 10 Years Longer Than Their American Counterparts. IFLScience; IFLScience.


This example shows the general structure used for government reports, technical reports, and scientific reports. If you can't locate the report number then it might be better to cite the report as a book. For reports it is usually not individual people that are credited as authors, but a governmental department or agency like "U. S. Food and Drug Administration" or "National Cancer Institute".

Government report
Government Accountability Office. (2014). Space Launch System: Resources Need to be Matched to Requirements to Decrease Risk and Support Long Term Affordability (GAO-14-631). U.S. Government Printing Office.

Theses and dissertations

Theses including Ph.D. dissertations, Master's theses or Bachelor theses follow the basic format outlined below.

Doctoral dissertation
Antoshin, S. (2010). Modeling inflation expectations in the U.K [Doctoral dissertation]. George Washington University.

News paper articles

Unlike scholarly journals, news papers do not usually have a volume and issue number. Instead, the full date and page number is required for a correct reference.

New York Times article
Vecsey, G. (2011, April 20). Scandinavian Cool That Warmed New York. New York Times, B12.

In-text citations

References should be cited in the text by name and year in parentheses:

This sentence cites one reference (Bhatia, 2010).
This sentence cites two references (Bhatia, 2010; Hawker & Wooley, 2005).

Here are examples of in-text citations with multiple authors:

  • Two authors: (Hawker & Wooley, 2005)
  • Three authors: (Kernbauer et al., 2014)
  • 6 or more authors: (Duarte-Pereira et al., 2014)

About the journal

Full journal titleJournal of Outdoor Recreation and Tourism
AbbreviationJ. Outdoor Recreat. Tour.
ISSN (print)2213-0780
ScopeTourism, Leisure and Hospitality Management

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