How to format your references using the Journal of Outdoor Recreation and Tourism citation style

This is a short guide how to format citations and the bibliography in a manuscript for Journal of Outdoor Recreation and Tourism. For a complete guide how to prepare your manuscript refer to the journal's instructions to authors.

Using reference management software

Typically you don't format your citations and bibliography by hand. The easiest way is to use a reference manager:

PaperpileThe citation style is built in and you can choose it in Settings > Citation Style or Paperpile > Citation Style in Google Docs.
EndNoteFind the style here: output styles overview
Mendeley, Zotero, Papers, and othersThe style is either built in or you can download a CSL file that is supported by most references management programs.
BibTeXBibTeX syles are usually part of a LaTeX template. Check the instructions to authors if the publisher offers a LaTeX template for this journal.

Journal articles

Those examples are references to articles in scholarly journals and how they are supposed to appear in your bibliography.

Not all journals organize their published articles in volumes and issues, so these fields are optional. Some electronic journals do not provide a page range, but instead list an article identifier. In a case like this it's safe to use the article identifier instead of the page range.

A journal article with 1 author
Heckenberger, M. (2009). Journal club. An archaeologist looks at South America’s early complex societies. Nature, 458(7239), 683.
A journal article with 2 authors
Carbone, C., & Gittleman, J. L. (2002). A common rule for the scaling of carnivore density. Science (New York, N.Y.), 295(5563), 2273–2276.
A journal article with 3 authors
Sambarey, A., Prashanthi, K., & Chandra, N. (2013). Mining large-scale response networks reveals “topmost activities” in Mycobacterium tuberculosis infection. Scientific Reports, 3, 2302.
A journal article with 8 or more authors
Horjus, D. L., Nieuwland, R., Boateng, K. B., Schaap, M. C. L., van Montfrans, G. A., Clark, J. F., Sturk, A., & Brewster, L. M. (2014). Creatine kinase inhibits ADP-induced platelet aggregation. Scientific Reports, 4, 6551.

Books and book chapters

Here are examples of references for authored and edited books as well as book chapters.

An authored book
Collins, D. (2008). Magic in the Ancient Greek World. Blackwell Publishing Ltd.
An edited book
Brody, H., Meghani, Z., & Greenwald, K. (Eds.). (2010). Michael Ryan’s Writings on Medical Ethics (Vol. 105). Springer Netherlands.
A chapter in an edited book
Artstein-Avidan, S., Florentin, D., & Milman, V. (2012). Order Isomorphisms on Convex Functions in Windows. In B. Klartag, S. Mendelson, & V. D. Milman (Eds.), Geometric Aspects of Functional Analysis: Israel Seminar 2006–2010 (pp. 61–122). Springer.

Web sites

Sometimes references to web sites should appear directly in the text rather than in the bibliography. Refer to the Instructions to authors for Journal of Outdoor Recreation and Tourism.

Blog post
O`Callaghan, J. (2015, October 26). How To See This Week’s Rare Alignment Of Venus, Mars, And Jupiter. IFLScience; IFLScience.


This example shows the general structure used for government reports, technical reports, and scientific reports. If you can't locate the report number then it might be better to cite the report as a book. For reports it is usually not individual people that are credited as authors, but a governmental department or agency like "U. S. Food and Drug Administration" or "National Cancer Institute".

Government report
Government Accountability Office. (2015). Information Technology: Implementation of Reform Legislation Needed to Improve Acquisitions and Operations (GAO-16-204T). U.S. Government Printing Office.

Theses and dissertations

Theses including Ph.D. dissertations, Master's theses or Bachelor theses follow the basic format outlined below.

Doctoral dissertation
Al-Kharafi, H. T. (2017). TF-CBT with the Pediatric Medical Population: A Modification [Doctoral dissertation]. Pepperdine University.

News paper articles

Unlike scholarly journals, news papers do not usually have a volume and issue number. Instead, the full date and page number is required for a correct reference.

New York Times article
Pilon, M. (2013, October 2). Races End Fees to Top Runners, Drawing Outcry. New York Times, B12.

In-text citations

References should be cited in the text by name and year in parentheses:

This sentence cites one reference (Heckenberger, 2009).
This sentence cites two references (Carbone & Gittleman, 2002; Heckenberger, 2009).

Here are examples of in-text citations with multiple authors:

  • Two authors: (Carbone & Gittleman, 2002)
  • Three authors: (Sambarey et al., 2013)
  • 6 or more authors: (Horjus et al., 2014)

About the journal

Full journal titleJournal of Outdoor Recreation and Tourism
AbbreviationJ. Outdoor Recreat. Tour.
ISSN (print)2213-0780
ScopeTourism, Leisure and Hospitality Management

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