How to format your references using the Journal of Outdoor Recreation and Tourism citation style

This is a short guide how to format citations and the bibliography in a manuscript for Journal of Outdoor Recreation and Tourism. For a complete guide how to prepare your manuscript refer to the journal's instructions to authors.

Using reference management software

Typically you don't format your citations and bibliography by hand. The easiest way is to use a reference manager:

PaperpileThe citation style is built in and you can choose it in Settings > Citation Style or Paperpile > Citation Style in Google Docs.
EndNoteFind the style here: output styles overview
Mendeley, Zotero, Papers, and othersThe style is either built in or you can download a CSL file that is supported by most references management programs.
BibTeXBibTeX syles are usually part of a LaTeX template. Check the instructions to authors if the publisher offers a LaTeX template for this journal.

Journal articles

Those examples are references to articles in scholarly journals and how they are supposed to appear in your bibliography.

Not all journals organize their published articles in volumes and issues, so these fields are optional. Some electronic journals do not provide a page range, but instead list an article identifier. In a case like this it's safe to use the article identifier instead of the page range.

A journal article with 1 author
Leask, J. (2011). Target the fence-sitters. Nature, 473(7348), 443–445.
A journal article with 2 authors
Feld, G. B., & Born, J. (2015). Neuroscience. Exploiting sleep to modify bad attitudes. Science (New York, N.Y.), 348(6238), 971–972.
A journal article with 3 authors
Schrater, P. R., Knill, D. C., & Simoncelli, E. P. (2001). Perceiving visual expansion without optic flow. Nature, 410(6830), 816–819.
A journal article with 8 or more authors
Kang, H. J., Coulibaly, F., Clow, F., Proft, T., & Baker, E. N. (2007). Stabilizing isopeptide bonds revealed in gram-positive bacterial pilus structure. Science (New York, N.Y.), 318(5856), 1625–1628.

Books and book chapters

Here are examples of references for authored and edited books as well as book chapters.

An authored book
Ursone, P. (2015). How to Calculate Options Prices and Their Greeks. John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.
An edited book
Rosales-Mendoza, S. (Ed.). (2014). Genetically Engineered Plants as a Source of Vaccines Against Wide Spread Diseases: An Integrated View. Springer.
A chapter in an edited book
Shi, M., Zhang, Z., & Zhou, D. (2015). Studies on Carrying Capacity of Water Resources in Beijing and Tianjin: Based on the Water Footprint. In K. Wen & E. Zhu (Eds.), Report on Development of Beijing, Tianjin, and Hebei Province (2013): Measurement of Carrying Capacity and Countermeasures (pp. 99–118). Springer.

Web sites

Sometimes references to web sites should appear directly in the text rather than in the bibliography. Refer to the Instructions to authors for Journal of Outdoor Recreation and Tourism.

Blog post
Davis, J. (2016, September 12). Wet Weather May Genuinely Make Chronic Pain Worse. IFLScience; IFLScience.


This example shows the general structure used for government reports, technical reports, and scientific reports. If you can't locate the report number then it might be better to cite the report as a book. For reports it is usually not individual people that are credited as authors, but a governmental department or agency like "U. S. Food and Drug Administration" or "National Cancer Institute".

Government report
Government Accountability Office. (2013). Intelligent Transportation Systems: Vehicle-to-Vehicle Technologies Expected to Offer Safety Benefits, but a Variety of Deployment Challenges Exist (GAO-14-13). U.S. Government Printing Office.

Theses and dissertations

Theses including Ph.D. dissertations, Master's theses or Bachelor theses follow the basic format outlined below.

Doctoral dissertation
Karriem, K. L. (2010). The relationship between stress and emotional intelligence among direct-care workers [Doctoral dissertation]. University of Phoenix.

News paper articles

Unlike scholarly journals, news papers do not usually have a volume and issue number. Instead, the full date and page number is required for a correct reference.

New York Times article
Smith, M., & GEORGE ETHEREDGE for THE NEW YORK TIMES. (2017, April 27). Pipeline Again Divides Nebraska. New York Times, A12.

In-text citations

References should be cited in the text by name and year in parentheses:

This sentence cites one reference (Leask, 2011).
This sentence cites two references (Feld & Born, 2015; Leask, 2011).

Here are examples of in-text citations with multiple authors:

  • Two authors: (Feld & Born, 2015)
  • Three authors: (Schrater et al., 2001)
  • 6 or more authors: (Kang et al., 2007)

About the journal

Full journal titleJournal of Outdoor Recreation and Tourism
AbbreviationJ. Outdoor Recreat. Tour.
ISSN (print)2213-0780
ScopeTourism, Leisure and Hospitality Management

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