How to format your references using the Journal of Outdoor Activities citation style

This is a short guide how to format citations and the bibliography in a manuscript for Journal of Outdoor Activities. For a complete guide how to prepare your manuscript refer to the journal's instructions to authors.

Using reference management software

Typically you don't format your citations and bibliography by hand. The easiest way is to use a reference manager:

PaperpileThe citation style is built in and you can choose it in Settings > Citation Style or Paperpile > Citation Style in Google Docs.
EndNoteFind the style here: output styles overview
Mendeley, Zotero, Papers, and othersThe style is either built in or you can download a CSL file that is supported by most references management programs.
BibTeXBibTeX syles are usually part of a LaTeX template. Check the instructions to authors if the publisher offers a LaTeX template for this journal.

Journal articles

Those examples are references to articles in scholarly journals and how they are supposed to appear in your bibliography.

Not all journals organize their published articles in volumes and issues, so these fields are optional. Some electronic journals do not provide a page range, but instead list an article identifier. In a case like this it's safe to use the article identifier instead of the page range.

A journal article with 1 author
Buratowski, S. (2012). Gene expression: transcription initiation unwrapped. Nature, 483(7389), 286–287.
A journal article with 2 authors
García-Bellido, D. C., & Collins, D. H. (2004). Moulting arthropod caught in the act. Nature, 429(6987), 40.
A journal article with 3 authors
Schröter, C., Kosma, K., & Schultz, T. (2011). CRASY: mass- or electron-correlated rotational alignment spectroscopy. Science (New York, N.Y.), 333(6045), 1011–1015.
A journal article with 8 or more authors
Hattori, D., Chen, Y., Matthews, B. J., Salwinski, L., Sabatti, C., Grueber, W. B., & Zipursky, S. L. (2009). Robust discrimination between self and non-self neurites requires thousands of Dscam1 isoforms. Nature, 461(7264), 644–648.

Books and book chapters

Here are examples of references for authored and edited books as well as book chapters.

An authored book
Speight, J. G. (2017). Rules of Thumb for Petroleum Engineers. John Wiley & Sons, Inc.
An edited book
Reilly, N. P., Sirgy, M. J., & Gorman, C. A. (Eds.). (2012). Work and Quality of Life: Ethical Practices in Organizations. Springer Netherlands.
A chapter in an edited book
Gibson, C. (2016). The Polish Livonian Legacy in Latgalia: The Confluence of Slavic Ethnolects in the Baltic-Slavic Borderland. In T. Kamusella, M. Nomachi, & C. Gibson (Eds.), The Palgrave Handbook of Slavic Languages, Identities and Borders (pp. 57–80). Palgrave Macmillan UK.

Web sites

Sometimes references to web sites should appear directly in the text rather than in the bibliography. Refer to the Instructions to authors for Journal of Outdoor Activities.

Blog post
Andrew, E. (2016, May 3). River On Fire: Even If It’s Not Coal Seam Gas We Should Still Be Concerned. IFLScience; IFLScience.


This example shows the general structure used for government reports, technical reports, and scientific reports. If you can't locate the report number then it might be better to cite the report as a book. For reports it is usually not individual people that are credited as authors, but a governmental department or agency like "U. S. Food and Drug Administration" or "National Cancer Institute".

Government report
Government Accountability Office. (1985). The A-76 Study at the NOAA National Climatic Data Center Could Have Been Compromised by the Disclosure of Certain Information (RCED-85-53). U.S. Government Printing Office.

Theses and dissertations

Theses including Ph.D. dissertations, Master's theses or Bachelor theses follow the basic format outlined below.

Doctoral dissertation
Tanner-Anderson, S. L. (2014). “The Road Less Traveled”: The Female’s Journey to the State Superintendency [Doctoral dissertation]. George Washington University.

News paper articles

Unlike scholarly journals, news papers do not usually have a volume and issue number. Instead, the full date and page number is required for a correct reference.

New York Times article
Feeney, K. (2011, February 27). Sip, Munch and Cheer. New York Times, NJ10.

In-text citations

References should be cited in the text by name and year in parentheses:

This sentence cites one reference (Buratowski, 2012).
This sentence cites two references (Buratowski, 2012; García-Bellido & Collins, 2004).

Here are examples of in-text citations with multiple authors:

  • Two authors: (García-Bellido & Collins, 2004)
  • Three authors: (Schröter et al., 2011)
  • 6 or more authors: (Hattori et al., 2009)

About the journal

Full journal titleJournal of Outdoor Activities
ISSN (print)1802-3908

Other styles