How to format your references using the Journal of Outdoor Activities citation style

This is a short guide how to format citations and the bibliography in a manuscript for Journal of Outdoor Activities. For a complete guide how to prepare your manuscript refer to the journal's instructions to authors.

Using reference management software

Typically you don't format your citations and bibliography by hand. The easiest way is to use a reference manager:

PaperpileThe citation style is built in and you can choose it in Settings > Citation Style or Paperpile > Citation Style in Google Docs.
EndNoteFind the style here: output styles overview
Mendeley, Zotero, Papers, and othersThe style is either built in or you can download a CSL file that is supported by most references management programs.
BibTeXBibTeX syles are usually part of a LaTeX template. Check the instructions to authors if the publisher offers a LaTeX template for this journal.

Journal articles

Those examples are references to articles in scholarly journals and how they are supposed to appear in your bibliography.

Not all journals organize their published articles in volumes and issues, so these fields are optional. Some electronic journals do not provide a page range, but instead list an article identifier. In a case like this it's safe to use the article identifier instead of the page range.

A journal article with 1 author
Ball, P. (2011). Crisis response: The new history. Nature, 480(7378), 447–448.
A journal article with 2 authors
Eliades, S. J., & Wang, X. (2008). Neural substrates of vocalization feedback monitoring in primate auditory cortex. Nature, 453(7198), 1102–1106.
A journal article with 3 authors
Pielke, R., Jr, Wigley, T., & Green, C. (2008). Dangerous assumptions. Nature, 452(7187), 531–532.
A journal article with 8 or more authors
Dehnhardt, G., Mauck, B., Hanke, W., & Bleckmann, H. (2001). Hydrodynamic trail-following in harbor seals (Phoca vitulina). Science (New York, N.Y.), 293(5527), 102–104.

Books and book chapters

Here are examples of references for authored and edited books as well as book chapters.

An authored book
Kerzner, H., & Belack, C. (2010). Managing Complex Projects. John Wiley & Sons, Inc.
An edited book
Bentley, G. (Ed.). (2015). European Instructional Lectures: Volume 15, 2015, 16th EFORT Congress, Prague, Czech Republic (Vol. 15). Springer.
A chapter in an edited book
Bowden, R., Ellis, L., Kittler, J., Shevchenko, M., & Windridge, D. (2005). Unsupervised Symbol Grounding and Cognitive Bootstrapping in Cognitive Vision. In F. Roli & S. Vitulano (Eds.), Image Analysis and Processing – ICIAP 2005: 13th International Conference, Cagliari, Italy, September 6-8, 2005. Proceedings (pp. 27–36). Springer.

Web sites

Sometimes references to web sites should appear directly in the text rather than in the bibliography. Refer to the Instructions to authors for Journal of Outdoor Activities.

Blog post
Luntz, S. (2014, December 17). Roman Concrete Insight Could Help Build A Safer World. IFLScience; IFLScience.


This example shows the general structure used for government reports, technical reports, and scientific reports. If you can't locate the report number then it might be better to cite the report as a book. For reports it is usually not individual people that are credited as authors, but a governmental department or agency like "U. S. Food and Drug Administration" or "National Cancer Institute".

Government report
Government Accountability Office. (1998). Student Loans: Characteristics of Students and Default Rates at Historically Black Colleges and Universities (HEHS-98-90). U.S. Government Printing Office.

Theses and dissertations

Theses including Ph.D. dissertations, Master's theses or Bachelor theses follow the basic format outlined below.

Doctoral dissertation
Odom, S. A. (2017). Electronic health records: Overcoming obstacles to improve acceptance and utilization for mental health clinicians [Doctoral dissertation]. Capella University.

News paper articles

Unlike scholarly journals, news papers do not usually have a volume and issue number. Instead, the full date and page number is required for a correct reference.

New York Times article
Alexander, K. (2011, October 2). What Should I Stop Buying and Make Instead? New York Times, MM48.

In-text citations

References should be cited in the text by name and year in parentheses:

This sentence cites one reference (Ball, 2011).
This sentence cites two references (Ball, 2011; Eliades & Wang, 2008).

Here are examples of in-text citations with multiple authors:

  • Two authors: (Eliades & Wang, 2008)
  • Three authors: (Pielke et al., 2008)
  • 6 or more authors: (Dehnhardt et al., 2001)

About the journal

Full journal titleJournal of Outdoor Activities
ISSN (print)1802-3908

Other styles