How to format your references using the Journal of Outdoor Activities citation style

This is a short guide how to format citations and the bibliography in a manuscript for Journal of Outdoor Activities. For a complete guide how to prepare your manuscript refer to the journal's instructions to authors.

Using reference management software

Typically you don't format your citations and bibliography by hand. The easiest way is to use a reference manager:

PaperpileThe citation style is built in and you can choose it in Settings > Citation Style or Paperpile > Citation Style in Google Docs.
EndNoteFind the style here: output styles overview
Mendeley, Zotero, Papers, and othersThe style is either built in or you can download a CSL file that is supported by most references management programs.
BibTeXBibTeX syles are usually part of a LaTeX template. Check the instructions to authors if the publisher offers a LaTeX template for this journal.

Journal articles

Those examples are references to articles in scholarly journals and how they are supposed to appear in your bibliography.

Not all journals organize their published articles in volumes and issues, so these fields are optional. Some electronic journals do not provide a page range, but instead list an article identifier. In a case like this it's safe to use the article identifier instead of the page range.

A journal article with 1 author
Schiermeier, Q. (2007). Radar satellites: mountains to molehills. Nature, 446(7131), 22–23.
A journal article with 2 authors
Kuang, S., & Zhang, T. (2014). Smelling directions: olfaction modulates ambiguous visual motion perception. Scientific Reports, 4, 5796.
A journal article with 3 authors
Bridgham, J. T., Carroll, S. M., & Thornton, J. W. (2006). Evolution of hormone-receptor complexity by molecular exploitation. Science (New York, N.Y.), 312(5770), 97–101.
A journal article with 8 or more authors
Park, D.-H., Han, C. J., Shul, Y.-G., & Choy, J.-H. (2014). Avatar DNA nanohybrid system in chip-on-a-phone. Scientific Reports, 4, 4879.

Books and book chapters

Here are examples of references for authored and edited books as well as book chapters.

An authored book
Silvia, T., & Anzur, T. (2011). Power Performance. Wiley-Blackwell.
An edited book
Bouleau, N. (2015). Dirichlet Forms Methods for Poisson Point Measures and Lévy Processes: With Emphasis on the Creation-Annihilation Techniques (L. Denis, Ed.; Vol. 76). Springer International Publishing.
A chapter in an edited book
Pilon-Smits, E. A. H. (2015). Selenium in Plants. In U. Lüttge & W. Beyschlag (Eds.), Progress in Botany: Vol. 76 (pp. 93–107). Springer International Publishing.

Web sites

Sometimes references to web sites should appear directly in the text rather than in the bibliography. Refer to the Instructions to authors for Journal of Outdoor Activities.

Blog post
Fang, J. (2015, November 5). Eel-Like Amphibian 278 Million Years Old With Fangs Found In Brazil. IFLScience; IFLScience.


This example shows the general structure used for government reports, technical reports, and scientific reports. If you can't locate the report number then it might be better to cite the report as a book. For reports it is usually not individual people that are credited as authors, but a governmental department or agency like "U. S. Food and Drug Administration" or "National Cancer Institute".

Government report
Government Accountability Office. (2003). Applying Agreed-Upon Procedures: Highway Trust Fund Excise Taxes (GAO-04-213R). U.S. Government Printing Office.

Theses and dissertations

Theses including Ph.D. dissertations, Master's theses or Bachelor theses follow the basic format outlined below.

Doctoral dissertation
Leung, R. (2014). The Effect of Mission Assurance on ELV Launch Success Rate: An Analysis of Two Management Systems for Launch Vehicles [Doctoral dissertation]. George Washington University.

News paper articles

Unlike scholarly journals, news papers do not usually have a volume and issue number. Instead, the full date and page number is required for a correct reference.

New York Times article
Sisario, B. (2016, November 2). Universal’s Deal for Prince’s Songwriting Rights May Bring a Wider Audience. New York Times, B6.

In-text citations

References should be cited in the text by name and year in parentheses:

This sentence cites one reference (Schiermeier, 2007).
This sentence cites two references (Kuang & Zhang, 2014; Schiermeier, 2007).

Here are examples of in-text citations with multiple authors:

  • Two authors: (Kuang & Zhang, 2014)
  • Three authors: (Bridgham et al., 2006)
  • 6 or more authors: (Park et al., 2014)

About the journal

Full journal titleJournal of Outdoor Activities
ISSN (print)1802-3908

Other styles