How to format your references using the Journal of Outdoor Activities citation style

This is a short guide how to format citations and the bibliography in a manuscript for Journal of Outdoor Activities. For a complete guide how to prepare your manuscript refer to the journal's instructions to authors.

Using reference management software

Typically you don't format your citations and bibliography by hand. The easiest way is to use a reference manager:

PaperpileThe citation style is built in and you can choose it in Settings > Citation Style or Paperpile > Citation Style in Google Docs.
EndNoteFind the style here: output styles overview
Mendeley, Zotero, Papers, and othersThe style is either built in or you can download a CSL file that is supported by most references management programs.
BibTeXBibTeX syles are usually part of a LaTeX template. Check the instructions to authors if the publisher offers a LaTeX template for this journal.

Journal articles

Those examples are references to articles in scholarly journals and how they are supposed to appear in your bibliography.

Not all journals organize their published articles in volumes and issues, so these fields are optional. Some electronic journals do not provide a page range, but instead list an article identifier. In a case like this it's safe to use the article identifier instead of the page range.

A journal article with 1 author
Mikaloff-Fletcher, S. E. (2015). CLIMATE. An increasing carbon sink? Science (New York, N.Y.), 349(6253), 1165.
A journal article with 2 authors
LaFever, L., & Drummond-Barbosa, D. (2005). Direct control of germline stem cell division and cyst growth by neural insulin in Drosophila. Science (New York, N.Y.), 309(5737), 1071–1073.
A journal article with 3 authors
McKinney, J. C., Tchekhovskoy, A., & Blandford, R. D. (2013). Alignment of magnetized accretion disks and relativistic jets with spinning black holes. Science (New York, N.Y.), 339(6115), 49–52.
A journal article with 8 or more authors
Marquardt, H., Speziale, S., Reichmann, H. J., Frost, D. J., Schilling, F. R., & Garnero, E. J. (2009). Elastic shear anisotropy of ferropericlase in Earth’s lower mantle. Science (New York, N.Y.), 324(5924), 224–226.

Books and book chapters

Here are examples of references for authored and edited books as well as book chapters.

An authored book
Maguire, L., & Smith, E. (2012). 30 Great Myths about Shakespeare. Blackwell Publishing Ltd.
An edited book
Rzany, B., & Maio, M. de (Eds.). (2006). Injectable Fillers in Aesthetic Medicine. Springer.
A chapter in an edited book
Grilo, I., & Thurik, A. R. (2006). Entrepreneurship in the Old and New Europe. In E. Santarelli (Ed.), Entrepreneurship, Growth, and Innovation: The Dynamics of Firms and Industries (pp. 75–103). Springer US.

Web sites

Sometimes references to web sites should appear directly in the text rather than in the bibliography. Refer to the Instructions to authors for Journal of Outdoor Activities.

Blog post
Andrews, R. (2015, October 14). Cassini Starts Flyby Through Enceladus’ Ice Volcano Plumes. IFLScience; IFLScience.


This example shows the general structure used for government reports, technical reports, and scientific reports. If you can't locate the report number then it might be better to cite the report as a book. For reports it is usually not individual people that are credited as authors, but a governmental department or agency like "U. S. Food and Drug Administration" or "National Cancer Institute".

Government report
Government Accountability Office. (2014). Recovery Act: USDA Should Include Broadband Program’s Impact in Annual Performance Reports (GAO-14-511). U.S. Government Printing Office.

Theses and dissertations

Theses including Ph.D. dissertations, Master's theses or Bachelor theses follow the basic format outlined below.

Doctoral dissertation
Tang, J. (2013). Understanding the college experiences of Cambodian American students [Doctoral dissertation]. California State University, Long Beach.

News paper articles

Unlike scholarly journals, news papers do not usually have a volume and issue number. Instead, the full date and page number is required for a correct reference.

New York Times article
Dorman, J. L. (2016, November 18). A Funky Place to Land in Hollywood. New York Times, TR3.

In-text citations

References should be cited in the text by name and year in parentheses:

This sentence cites one reference (Mikaloff-Fletcher, 2015).
This sentence cites two references (LaFever & Drummond-Barbosa, 2005; Mikaloff-Fletcher, 2015).

Here are examples of in-text citations with multiple authors:

  • Two authors: (LaFever & Drummond-Barbosa, 2005)
  • Three authors: (McKinney et al., 2013)
  • 6 or more authors: (Marquardt et al., 2009)

About the journal

Full journal titleJournal of Outdoor Activities
ISSN (print)1802-3908

Other styles