How to format your references using the Journal of Outdoor Activities citation style

This is a short guide how to format citations and the bibliography in a manuscript for Journal of Outdoor Activities. For a complete guide how to prepare your manuscript refer to the journal's instructions to authors.

Using reference management software

Typically you don't format your citations and bibliography by hand. The easiest way is to use a reference manager:

PaperpileThe citation style is built in and you can choose it in Settings > Citation Style or Paperpile > Citation Style in Google Docs.
EndNoteFind the style here: output styles overview
Mendeley, Zotero, Papers, and othersThe style is either built in or you can download a CSL file that is supported by most references management programs.
BibTeXBibTeX syles are usually part of a LaTeX template. Check the instructions to authors if the publisher offers a LaTeX template for this journal.

Journal articles

Those examples are references to articles in scholarly journals and how they are supposed to appear in your bibliography.

Not all journals organize their published articles in volumes and issues, so these fields are optional. Some electronic journals do not provide a page range, but instead list an article identifier. In a case like this it's safe to use the article identifier instead of the page range.

A journal article with 1 author
Cohen, J. (2001). Knife-edge of design. Nature, 411(6837), 529.
A journal article with 2 authors
Milhous, W. K., & Weina, P. J. (2010). Plant science. The botanical solution for malaria. Science (New York, N.Y.), 327(5963), 279–280.
A journal article with 3 authors
Yi, M., Hong, N., & Hong, Y. (2009). Generation of medaka fish haploid embryonic stem cells. Science (New York, N.Y.), 326(5951), 430–433.
A journal article with 8 or more authors
Jedicke, R., Nesvorný, D., Whiteley, R., Ivezić Z, Z., & Jurić, M. (2004). An age-colour relationship for main-belt S-complex asteroids. Nature, 429(6989), 275–277.

Books and book chapters

Here are examples of references for authored and edited books as well as book chapters.

An authored book
Louis, J.-P. (2011). Control of Synchronous Motors. Hoboken, NJ: John Wiley & Sons, Inc.
An edited book
Jeremic, B., & Pitz, S. (Eds.). (2008). Primary Optic Nerve Sheath Meningioma. Berlin, Heidelberg: Springer.
A chapter in an edited book
Burnett, L., Sugiyama, H., Washburn, C., Bieber, A., & Chandler, D. E. (2014). Allurin: Exploring the Activity of a Frog Sperm Chemoattractant in Mammals. In H. Sawada, N. Inoue, & M. Iwano (Eds.), Sexual Reproduction in Animals and Plants (pp. 31–48). Tokyo: Springer Japan.

Web sites

Sometimes references to web sites should appear directly in the text rather than in the bibliography. Refer to the Instructions to authors for Journal of Outdoor Activities.

Blog post
Andrew, E. (2015, March 6). New Nanomaterials Will Boost Renewable Energy. Retrieved October 30, 2018, from


This example shows the general structure used for government reports, technical reports, and scientific reports. If you can't locate the report number then it might be better to cite the report as a book. For reports it is usually not individual people that are credited as authors, but a governmental department or agency like "U. S. Food and Drug Administration" or "National Cancer Institute".

Government report
Government Accountability Office. (2017). Highway Bridges: Major Projects Present Challenges for States, but Strategies Exist to Overcome Them (No. GAO-17-707). Washington, DC: U.S. Government Printing Office.

Theses and dissertations

Theses including Ph.D. dissertations, Master's theses or Bachelor theses follow the basic format outlined below.

Doctoral dissertation
Israel, J. M. (2013). Student Extracurricular Participation, Student Achievement, and School Perception: an Elementary School Perspective (Doctoral dissertation). Lindenwood University, St. Charles, MO.

News paper articles

Unlike scholarly journals, news papers do not usually have a volume and issue number. Instead, the full date and page number is required for a correct reference.

New York Times article
Greenhouse, L. (2007, May 1). Supreme Court to Hear Appeal Of Mexican Death Row Inmate. New York Times, p. A16.

In-text citations

References should be cited in the text by name and year in parentheses:

This sentence cites one reference (Cohen, 2001).
This sentence cites two references (Cohen, 2001; Milhous & Weina, 2010).

Here are examples of in-text citations with multiple authors:

  • Two authors: (Milhous & Weina, 2010)
  • Three authors: (Yi, Hong, & Hong, 2009)
  • 6 or more authors: (Jedicke, Nesvorný, Whiteley, Ivezić Z, & Jurić, 2004)

About the journal

Full journal titleJournal of Outdoor Activities
ISSN (print)1802-3908

Other styles