How to format your references using the Journal of Outdoor Activities citation style

This is a short guide how to format citations and the bibliography in a manuscript for Journal of Outdoor Activities. For a complete guide how to prepare your manuscript refer to the journal's instructions to authors.

Using reference management software

Typically you don't format your citations and bibliography by hand. The easiest way is to use a reference manager:

PaperpileThe citation style is built in and you can choose it in Settings > Citation Style or Paperpile > Citation Style in Google Docs.
EndNoteFind the style here: output styles overview
Mendeley, Zotero, Papers, and othersThe style is either built in or you can download a CSL file that is supported by most references management programs.
BibTeXBibTeX syles are usually part of a LaTeX template. Check the instructions to authors if the publisher offers a LaTeX template for this journal.

Journal articles

Those examples are references to articles in scholarly journals and how they are supposed to appear in your bibliography.

Not all journals organize their published articles in volumes and issues, so these fields are optional. Some electronic journals do not provide a page range, but instead list an article identifier. In a case like this it's safe to use the article identifier instead of the page range.

A journal article with 1 author
Feldman, J. (2000). Minimization of Boolean complexity in human concept learning. Nature, 407(6804), 630–633.
A journal article with 2 authors
Besenbacher, F., & Nørskov, J. K. (2000). SURFACE SCIENCE: How to Power a Nanomotor. Science (New York, N.Y.), 290(5496), 1520.
A journal article with 3 authors
Schön, J. H., Kloc, C., & Batlogg, B. (2000). Superconductivity in molecular crystals induced by charge injection. Nature, 406(6797), 702–704.
A journal article with 8 or more authors
Jacobs, K., Zaziski, D., Scher, E. C., Herhold, A. B., & Paul Alivisatos, A. (2001). Activation volumes for solid-solid transformations in nanocrystals. Science (New York, N.Y.), 293(5536), 1803–1806.

Books and book chapters

Here are examples of references for authored and edited books as well as book chapters.

An authored book
Hunt, P. J., & Kennedy, J. E. (2005). Financial Derivatives in Theory and Practice: Hunt/Financial Derivatives. John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.
An edited book
Pasila, F., Tanoto, Y., Lim, R., Santoso, M., & Pah, N. D. (Eds.). (2016). Proceedings of Second International Conference on Electrical Systems, Technology and Information 2015 (ICESTI 2015) (1st ed. 2016, Vol. 365). Springer.
A chapter in an edited book
Galitsky, B. A., Ilvovsky, D., Kuznetsov, S. O., & Strok, F. (2014). Finding Maximal Common Sub-parse Thickets for Multi-sentence Search. In M. Croitoru, S. Rudolph, S. Woltran, & C. Gonzales (Eds.), Graph Structures for Knowledge Representation and Reasoning: Third International Workshop, GKR 2013, Beijing, China, August 3, 2013. Revised Selected Papers (pp. 39–57). Springer International Publishing.

Web sites

Sometimes references to web sites should appear directly in the text rather than in the bibliography. Refer to the Instructions to authors for Journal of Outdoor Activities.

Blog post
Hamilton, K. (2016, November 18). Fossil Fuel Emissions Have Stalled: Global Carbon Budget 2016. IFLScience; IFLScience.


This example shows the general structure used for government reports, technical reports, and scientific reports. If you can't locate the report number then it might be better to cite the report as a book. For reports it is usually not individual people that are credited as authors, but a governmental department or agency like "U. S. Food and Drug Administration" or "National Cancer Institute".

Government report
Government Accountability Office. (1977). The Title I Program for the Handicapped (No. 103696). U.S. Government Printing Office.

Theses and dissertations

Theses including Ph.D. dissertations, Master's theses or Bachelor theses follow the basic format outlined below.

Doctoral dissertation
Noll, R. T. (2009). Physician acceptance of Computerized Physician Order Entry in outpatient settings: A quantitative analysis of family medicine within Maricopa County, Arizona [Doctoral dissertation]. Capella University.

News paper articles

Unlike scholarly journals, news papers do not usually have a volume and issue number. Instead, the full date and page number is required for a correct reference.

New York Times article
Poniewozik, J. (2017, June 5). Crossing to Grief’s Other Side. New York Times, C7.

In-text citations

References should be cited in the text by name and year in parentheses:

This sentence cites one reference (Feldman, 2000).
This sentence cites two references (Besenbacher & Nørskov, 2000; Feldman, 2000).

Here are examples of in-text citations with multiple authors:

  • Two authors: (Besenbacher & Nørskov, 2000)
  • Three authors: (Schön et al., 2000)
  • 6 or more authors: (Jacobs et al., 2001)

About the journal

Full journal titleJournal of Outdoor Activities
ISSN (print)1802-3908

Other styles