How to format your references using the Journal of Nondestructive Evaluation citation style

This is a short guide how to format citations and the bibliography in a manuscript for Journal of Nondestructive Evaluation. For a complete guide how to prepare your manuscript refer to the journal's instructions to authors.

Using reference management software

Typically you don't format your citations and bibliography by hand. The easiest way is to use a reference manager:

PaperpileThe citation style is built in and you can choose it in Settings > Citation Style or Paperpile > Citation Style in Google Docs.
EndNoteFind the style here: output styles overview
Mendeley, Zotero, Papers, and othersThe style is either built in or you can download a CSL file that is supported by most references management programs.
BibTeXBibTeX syles are usually part of a LaTeX template. Check the instructions to authors if the publisher offers a LaTeX template for this journal.

Journal articles

Those examples are references to articles in scholarly journals and how they are supposed to appear in your bibliography.

Not all journals organize their published articles in volumes and issues, so these fields are optional. Some electronic journals do not provide a page range, but instead list an article identifier. In a case like this it's safe to use the article identifier instead of the page range.

A journal article with 1 author
Gaffan, D.: Neuroscience. Widespread cortical networks underlie memory and attention. Science. 309, 2172–2173 (2005)
A journal article with 2 authors
Bernards, R., Weinberg, R.A.: A progression puzzle. Nature. 418, 823 (2002)
A journal article with 3 authors
Liu, Z.-K., Wang, Y., Shang, S.: Thermal expansion anomaly regulated by entropy. Sci. Rep. 4, 7043 (2014)
A journal article with 4 or more authors
Cui, B., Song, C., Li, F., Wang, G.Y., Mao, H.J., Peng, J.J., Zeng, F., Pan, F.: Tuning the entanglement between orbital reconstruction and charge transfer at a film surface. Sci. Rep. 4, 4206 (2014)

Books and book chapters

Here are examples of references for authored and edited books as well as book chapters.

An authored book
Singer, B., Fedorinchik, G.: Investment Leadership and Portfolio Management. John Wiley & Sons, Inc., Hoboken, NJ (2009)
An edited book
Pisan, Y., Sgouros, N.M., Marsh, T. eds: Entertainment Computing – ICEC 2014: 13th International Conference, ICEC 2014, Sydney, Australia, October 1-3, 2014. Proceedings. Springer, Berlin, Heidelberg (2014)
A chapter in an edited book
Hirabayashi, J.: Historical and Practical Aspects of Development of Lectin Microarray Technique Lectin microarray. In: Taniguchi, N., Endo, T., Hart, G.W., Seeberger, P.H., and Wong, C.-H. (eds.) Glycoscience: Biology and Medicine. pp. 53–60. Springer Japan, Tokyo (2015)

Web sites

Sometimes references to web sites should appear directly in the text rather than in the bibliography. Refer to the Instructions to authors for Journal of Nondestructive Evaluation.

Blog post
Luntz, S.: Almost A Third Of New FDA-Approved Pharmaceuticals Have Post-Trial Safety Events,


This example shows the general structure used for government reports, technical reports, and scientific reports. If you can't locate the report number then it might be better to cite the report as a book. For reports it is usually not individual people that are credited as authors, but a governmental department or agency like "U. S. Food and Drug Administration" or "National Cancer Institute".

Government report
Government Accountability Office: Education and Employment Issues: Issue Area Plan for Fiscal Year 1997-99. U.S. Government Printing Office, Washington, DC (1997)

Theses and dissertations

Theses including Ph.D. dissertations, Master's theses or Bachelor theses follow the basic format outlined below.

Doctoral dissertation
Sun, Z.: A qualitative study of Chinese parents’ beliefs, involvement and challenges in support of their children’s English language development in China, (2013)

News paper articles

Unlike scholarly journals, news papers do not usually have a volume and issue number. Instead, the full date and page number is required for a correct reference.

New York Times article
Wagner, J.: Dodgers Crush Cubs, Winning Pennant for the First Time Since 1988, (2017)

In-text citations

References should be cited in the text by sequential numbers in square brackets:

This sentence cites one reference [1].
This sentence cites two references [1, 2].
This sentence cites four references [1–4].

About the journal

Full journal titleJournal of Nondestructive Evaluation
AbbreviationJ. Nondestruct. Eval.
ISSN (print)0195-9298
ISSN (online)1573-4862
ScopeMechanical Engineering
Mechanics of Materials

Other styles