How to format your references using the Journal of Nondestructive Evaluation citation style

This is a short guide how to format citations and the bibliography in a manuscript for Journal of Nondestructive Evaluation. For a complete guide how to prepare your manuscript refer to the journal's instructions to authors.

Using reference management software

Typically you don't format your citations and bibliography by hand. The easiest way is to use a reference manager:

PaperpileThe citation style is built in and you can choose it in Settings > Citation Style or Paperpile > Citation Style in Google Docs.
EndNoteFind the style here: output styles overview
Mendeley, Zotero, Papers, and othersThe style is either built in or you can download a CSL file that is supported by most references management programs.
BibTeXBibTeX syles are usually part of a LaTeX template. Check the instructions to authors if the publisher offers a LaTeX template for this journal.

Journal articles

Those examples are references to articles in scholarly journals and how they are supposed to appear in your bibliography.

Not all journals organize their published articles in volumes and issues, so these fields are optional. Some electronic journals do not provide a page range, but instead list an article identifier. In a case like this it's safe to use the article identifier instead of the page range.

A journal article with 1 author
Osterholm, M.T.: A weapon the world needs. Nature. 435, 417–418 (2005)
A journal article with 2 authors
Ito, T., Yokoyama, S.: Two enzymes bound to one transfer RNA assume alternative conformations for consecutive reactions. Nature. 467, 612–616 (2010)
A journal article with 3 authors
Bastos-Aristizabal, S., Kozlov, G., Gehring, K.: Structure of the substrate-binding b’ domain of the Protein Disulfide Isomerase-Like protein of the Testis. Sci. Rep. 4, 4464 (2014)
A journal article with 4 or more authors
Ko, Y.G., Do, T.G., Gu, T., Oh, H.C., Lee, H.J., Han, H.-G., Kim, C.H., Choi, U.S.: Line-patterning of polyaniline coated MWCNT on stepped substrates using DC electric field. Sci. Rep. 4, 6656 (2014)

Books and book chapters

Here are examples of references for authored and edited books as well as book chapters.

An authored book
Charalambides, C.A.: Combinatorial Methods in Discrete Distributions: Charalambides/Combinatorial. John Wiley & Sons, Inc., Hoboken, NJ (2005)
An edited book
Parker, M.G. ed: Cryptography and Coding: 12th IMA International Conference, Cryptography and Coding 2009, Cirencester, UK, December 15-17, 2009. Proceedings. Springer, Berlin, Heidelberg (2009)
A chapter in an edited book
Hassmén, P., Keegan, R., Piggott, D.: The Status of Theory. In: Keegan, R. and Piggott, D. (eds.) Rethinking Sport and Exercise Psychology Research: Past, Present and Future. pp. 83–104. Palgrave Macmillan UK, London (2016)

Web sites

Sometimes references to web sites should appear directly in the text rather than in the bibliography. Refer to the Instructions to authors for Journal of Nondestructive Evaluation.

Blog post
Andrew, D.: Cracked It! A 30-Year Cold Case Involving An Egg And The Mysterious Night Parrot,


This example shows the general structure used for government reports, technical reports, and scientific reports. If you can't locate the report number then it might be better to cite the report as a book. For reports it is usually not individual people that are credited as authors, but a governmental department or agency like "U. S. Food and Drug Administration" or "National Cancer Institute".

Government report
Government Accountability Office: Consolidation Loan Borrower Interest Rates. U.S. Government Printing Office, Washington, DC (2005)

Theses and dissertations

Theses including Ph.D. dissertations, Master's theses or Bachelor theses follow the basic format outlined below.

Doctoral dissertation
Hayes, E.T.: Musical improvisation and the creative process, (2012)

News paper articles

Unlike scholarly journals, news papers do not usually have a volume and issue number. Instead, the full date and page number is required for a correct reference.

New York Times article
Burghardt, L.F.: For Police Recruits, Training in Tolerance, (2007)

In-text citations

References should be cited in the text by sequential numbers in square brackets:

This sentence cites one reference [1].
This sentence cites two references [1, 2].
This sentence cites four references [1–4].

About the journal

Full journal titleJournal of Nondestructive Evaluation
AbbreviationJ. Nondestruct. Eval.
ISSN (print)0195-9298
ISSN (online)1573-4862
ScopeMechanical Engineering
Mechanics of Materials

Other styles