How to format your references using the Journal of Neurosurgery: Pediatrics citation style

This is a short guide how to format citations and the bibliography in a manuscript for Journal of Neurosurgery: Pediatrics. For a complete guide how to prepare your manuscript refer to the journal's instructions to authors.

Using reference management software

Typically you don't format your citations and bibliography by hand. The easiest way is to use a reference manager:

PaperpileThe citation style is built in and you can choose it in Settings > Citation Style or Paperpile > Citation Style in Google Docs.
EndNoteDownload the output style file
Mendeley, Zotero, Papers, and othersThe style is either built in or you can download a CSL file that is supported by most references management programs.
BibTeXBibTeX syles are usually part of a LaTeX template. Check the instructions to authors if the publisher offers a LaTeX template for this journal.

Journal articles

Those examples are references to articles in scholarly journals and how they are supposed to appear in your bibliography.

Not all journals organize their published articles in volumes and issues, so these fields are optional. Some electronic journals do not provide a page range, but instead list an article identifier. In a case like this it's safe to use the article identifier instead of the page range.

A journal article with 1 author
Fedoroff NV: Agriculture. Prehistoric GM corn. Science 302:1158–1159, 2003
A journal article with 2 authors
Darst CR, Cummings ME: Predator learning favours mimicry of a less-toxic model in poison frogs. Nature 440:208–211, 2006
A journal article with 3 authors
Levy ED, Landry CR, Michnick SW: Cell signaling. Signaling through cooperation. Science 328:983–984, 2010
A journal article with 7 or more authors
Aragoneses A, Perrone S, Sorrentino T, Torrent MC, Masoller C: Unveiling the complex organization of recurrent patterns in spiking dynamical systems. Sci Rep 4:4696, 2014

Books and book chapters

Here are examples of references for authored and edited books as well as book chapters.

An authored book
Reschetilowski W: Technisch-Chemisches Praktikum. D-69451 Weinheim, Germany: Wiley-VCH Verlag GmbH, 2002
An edited book
Cabot J, Rubin J (eds): Modelling Foundations and Applications: 10th European Conference, ECMFA 2014, Held as Part of STAF 2014, York, UK, July 21-25, 2014. Proceedings. Cham: Springer International Publishing, 2014
A chapter in an edited book
Hattab G, Suisse AYT, Ilioaia O, Casiraghi M, Dezi M, Warnet XL, et al: Membrane Protein Production in Escherichia coli: Overview and Protocols, in Mus-Veteau I (ed): Membrane Proteins Production for Structural Analysis. New York, NY: Springer, 2014, pp 87–106

Web sites

Sometimes references to web sites should appear directly in the text rather than in the bibliography. Refer to the Instructions to authors for Journal of Neurosurgery: Pediatrics.

Blog post
Fang J: Bats Mistaken Wind Turbines For Trees. IFLScience:2014 Available: Accessed 30 October 2018


This example shows the general structure used for government reports, technical reports, and scientific reports. If you can't locate the report number then it might be better to cite the report as a book. For reports it is usually not individual people that are credited as authors, but a governmental department or agency like "U. S. Food and Drug Administration" or "National Cancer Institute".

Government report
Government Accountability Office: Year 2000 Computing Crisis: Avoiding Major Disruptions Will Require Strong Leadership and Effective Partnerships. Washington, DC: U.S. Government Printing Office, 1998

Theses and dissertations

Theses including Ph.D. dissertations, Master's theses or Bachelor theses follow the basic format outlined below.

Doctoral dissertation
Sink RC: Exploring a high school community relations and parent involvement program. 2010

News paper articles

Unlike scholarly journals, news papers do not usually have a volume and issue number. Instead, the full date and page number is required for a correct reference.

New York Times article
Hollander S: First, There Was Parrying With Mother. New York Times:D5, 2000

In-text citations

References should be cited in the text by sequential numbers in superscript:

This sentence cites one reference 2.
This sentence cites two references 3,4.
This sentence cites four references 4,5,7,8.

About the journal

Full journal titleJournal of Neurosurgery: Pediatrics
AbbreviationJ. Neurosurg. Pediatr.
ISSN (print)1933-0707
ISSN (online)1933-0715
ScopeGeneral Medicine

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