How to format your references using the Journal of Molecular Liquids citation style

This is a short guide how to format citations and the bibliography in a manuscript for Journal of Molecular Liquids. For a complete guide how to prepare your manuscript refer to the journal's instructions to authors.

Using reference management software

Typically you don't format your citations and bibliography by hand. The easiest way is to use a reference manager:

PaperpileThe citation style is built in and you can choose it in Settings > Citation Style or Paperpile > Citation Style in Google Docs.
EndNoteDownload the output style file
Mendeley, Zotero, Papers, and othersThe style is either built in or you can download a CSL file that is supported by most references management programs.
BibTeXBibTeX syles are usually part of a LaTeX template. Check the instructions to authors if the publisher offers a LaTeX template for this journal.

Journal articles

Those examples are references to articles in scholarly journals and how they are supposed to appear in your bibliography.

Not all journals organize their published articles in volumes and issues, so these fields are optional. Some electronic journals do not provide a page range, but instead list an article identifier. In a case like this it's safe to use the article identifier instead of the page range.

A journal article with 1 author
M. Duncan, Astronomy. Re-viewing an old comet reservoir, Science. 325 (2009) 1211–1212.
A journal article with 2 authors
T.D. Wheeler, A.D. Stroock, The transpiration of water at negative pressures in a synthetic tree, Nature. 455 (2008) 208–212.
A journal article with 3 authors
M. Wang, S. Vijayraghavan, P.S. Goldman-Rakic, Selective D2 receptor actions on the functional circuitry of working memory, Science. 303 (2004) 853–856.
A journal article with 4 or more authors
J.W.J. van Heijst, C. Gerlach, E. Swart, D. Sie, C. Nunes-Alves, R.M. Kerkhoven, R. Arens, M. Correia-Neves, K. Schepers, T.N.M. Schumacher, Recruitment of antigen-specific CD8+ T cells in response to infection is markedly efficient, Science. 325 (2009) 1265–1269.

Books and book chapters

Here are examples of references for authored and edited books as well as book chapters.

An authored book
L.W. Vona, Fraud Data Analytics Methodology, John Wiley & Sons, Inc., Hoboken, NJ, 2017.
An edited book
F. Margheritini, R. Rossi, eds., Orthopedic Sports Medicine: Principles and Practice, Springer, Milano, 2011.
A chapter in an edited book
J.F. Sanford, M. Potkonjak, S. Slijepcevic, Beacon Positioning and Operations, in: M. Potkonjak, S. Slijepcevic (Eds.), Localization in Wireless Networks: Foundations and Applications, Springer, New York, NY, 2012: pp. 97–128.

Web sites

Sometimes references to web sites should appear directly in the text rather than in the bibliography. Refer to the Instructions to authors for Journal of Molecular Liquids.

Blog post
T. Hale, NASA Has Found A “Morse Code Message” On The Surface Of Mars, IFLScience. (2016). (accessed October 30, 2018).


This example shows the general structure used for government reports, technical reports, and scientific reports. If you can't locate the report number then it might be better to cite the report as a book. For reports it is usually not individual people that are credited as authors, but a governmental department or agency like "U. S. Food and Drug Administration" or "National Cancer Institute".

Government report
Government Accountability Office, Arthur Schoenhaut, U.S. Government Printing Office, Washington, DC, 1988.

Theses and dissertations

Theses including Ph.D. dissertations, Master's theses or Bachelor theses follow the basic format outlined below.

Doctoral dissertation
D. Baker, Does team patient care mean better patient outcomes?, Doctoral dissertation, California State University, Long Beach, 2016.

News paper articles

Unlike scholarly journals, news papers do not usually have a volume and issue number. Instead, the full date and page number is required for a correct reference.

New York Times article
M.D. Shear, In Former F.B.I. Director, Investigation Gains a Leader Known for Independence, New York Times. (2017) A14.

In-text citations

References should be cited in the text by sequential numbers in square brackets:

This sentence cites one reference [1].
This sentence cites two references [1,2].
This sentence cites four references [1–4].

About the journal

Full journal titleJournal of Molecular Liquids
AbbreviationJ. Mol. Liq.
ISSN (print)0167-7322
ScopePhysical and Theoretical Chemistry
Electronic, Optical and Magnetic Materials
Materials Chemistry
Condensed Matter Physics
Atomic and Molecular Physics, and Optics

Other styles