How to format your references using the Journal of Memory and Language citation style

This is a short guide how to format citations and the bibliography in a manuscript for Journal of Memory and Language. For a complete guide how to prepare your manuscript refer to the journal's instructions to authors.

Using reference management software

Typically you don't format your citations and bibliography by hand. The easiest way is to use a reference manager:

PaperpileThe citation style is built in and you can choose it in Settings > Citation Style or Paperpile > Citation Style in Google Docs.
EndNoteDownload the output style file
Mendeley, Zotero, Papers, and othersThe style is either built in or you can download a CSL file that is supported by most references management programs.
BibTeXBibTeX syles are usually part of a LaTeX template. Check the instructions to authors if the publisher offers a LaTeX template for this journal.

Journal articles

Those examples are references to articles in scholarly journals and how they are supposed to appear in your bibliography.

Not all journals organize their published articles in volumes and issues, so these fields are optional. Some electronic journals do not provide a page range, but instead list an article identifier. In a case like this it's safe to use the article identifier instead of the page range.

A journal article with 1 author
Hassan, M. H. A. (2005). Nanotechnology. Small things and big changes in the developing world. Science (New York, N.Y.), 309(5731), 65–66.
A journal article with 2 authors
Gervais, W. M., & Norenzayan, A. (2012). Analytic thinking promotes religious disbelief. Science (New York, N.Y.), 336(6080), 493–496.
A journal article with 3 authors
O’Connor, J. E., Duda, J. J., & Grant, G. E. (2015). Ecology. 1000 dams down and counting. Science (New York, N.Y.), 348(6234), 496–497.
A journal article with 8 or more authors
Thyme, S. B., Jarjour, J., Takeuchi, R., Havranek, J. J., Ashworth, J., Scharenberg, A. M., … Baker, D. (2009). Exploitation of binding energy for catalysis and design. Nature, 461(7268), 1300–1304.

Books and book chapters

Here are examples of references for authored and edited books as well as book chapters.

An authored book
Hetherington, S. (2011). How to Know. Oxford, UK: Wiley-Blackwell.
An edited book
Schwartz, C. L., Hobbie, W. L., Constine, L. S., & Ruccione, K. S. (Eds.). (2005). Survivors of Childhood and Adolescent Cancer: A Multidisciplinary Approach (Second Edition). Berlin, Heidelberg: Springer.
A chapter in an edited book
Tabu, K., Bizen, N., Taga, T., & Tanaka, S. (2013). Gene Regulation of Prominin-1 (CD133) in Normal and Cancerous Tissues. In D. Corbeil (Ed.), Prominin-1 (CD133): New Insights on Stem & Cancer Stem Cell Biology (pp. 73–85). New York, NY: Springer.

Web sites

Sometimes references to web sites should appear directly in the text rather than in the bibliography. Refer to the Instructions to authors for Journal of Memory and Language.

Blog post
Andrew, E. (2014, August 26). Researchers Discover Proteins That Block Both HIV And Ebola Virus Release. Retrieved October 30, 2018, from


This example shows the general structure used for government reports, technical reports, and scientific reports. If you can't locate the report number then it might be better to cite the report as a book. For reports it is usually not individual people that are credited as authors, but a governmental department or agency like "U. S. Food and Drug Administration" or "National Cancer Institute".

Government report
Government Accountability Office. (2010). Propane and Heating Oil: Federal Oversight of the Propane Education and Research Council and National Oilheat Research Alliance Should Be Strengthened (No. GAO-10-981T). Washington, DC: U.S. Government Printing Office.

Theses and dissertations

Theses including Ph.D. dissertations, Master's theses or Bachelor theses follow the basic format outlined below.

Doctoral dissertation
Prasad, A. B. (2010). Analyzing comparative sequence data to understand genome function and evolution (Doctoral dissertation). George Washington University, Washington, DC.

News paper articles

Unlike scholarly journals, news papers do not usually have a volume and issue number. Instead, the full date and page number is required for a correct reference.

New York Times article
Wagner, J. (2017, September 3). Conforto Set For Surgery; Mets Drop 2. New York Times, p. SP3.

In-text citations

References should be cited in the text by name and year in parentheses:

This sentence cites one reference (Kawaler, 2003).
This sentence cites two references (Kappeler, 2013; Konacki, 2005).

Here are examples of in-text citations with multiple authors:

  • Two authors: (Gervais & Norenzayan, 2012)
  • Three authors: (O’Connor, Duda, & Grant, 2015)
  • 6 or more authors: (Tanimura et al., 2014)

About the journal

Full journal titleJournal of Memory and Language
AbbreviationJ. Mem. Lang.
ISSN (print)0749-596X
ScopeLanguage and Linguistics
Artificial Intelligence
Experimental and Cognitive Psychology
Neuropsychology and Physiological Psychology
Linguistics and Language

Other styles