How to format your references using the Journal of Memory and Language citation style

This is a short guide how to format citations and the bibliography in a manuscript for Journal of Memory and Language. For a complete guide how to prepare your manuscript refer to the journal's instructions to authors.

Using reference management software

Typically you don't format your citations and bibliography by hand. The easiest way is to use a reference manager:

PaperpileThe citation style is built in and you can choose it in Settings > Citation Style or Paperpile > Citation Style in Google Docs.
EndNoteDownload the output style file
Mendeley, Zotero, Papers, and othersThe style is either built in or you can download a CSL file that is supported by most references management programs.
BibTeXBibTeX syles are usually part of a LaTeX template. Check the instructions to authors if the publisher offers a LaTeX template for this journal.

Journal articles

Those examples are references to articles in scholarly journals and how they are supposed to appear in your bibliography.

Not all journals organize their published articles in volumes and issues, so these fields are optional. Some electronic journals do not provide a page range, but instead list an article identifier. In a case like this it's safe to use the article identifier instead of the page range.

A journal article with 1 author
Seeman, P. (2004). Comment on “Diverse psychotomimetics act through a common signaling pathway.” Science (New York, N.Y.), 305(5681), 180; author reply 180.
A journal article with 2 authors
Sankar, P., & Cho, M. K. (2002). Genetics. Toward a new vocabulary of human genetic variation. Science (New York, N.Y.), 298(5597), 1337–1338.
A journal article with 3 authors
Dietl, G. P., Herbert, G. S., & Vermeij, G. J. (2004). Reduced competition and altered feeding behavior among marine snails after a mass extinction. Science (New York, N.Y.), 306(5705), 2229–2231.
A journal article with 8 or more authors
Imai, H., Obara, K., Diamond, P. J., Omodaka, T., & Sasao, T. (2002). A collimated jet of molecular gas from a star on the asymptotic giant branch. Nature, 417(6891), 829–831.

Books and book chapters

Here are examples of references for authored and edited books as well as book chapters.

An authored book
Machner, H. (2005). Einführung in die Kern- und Elementarteilchenphysik. Wiley-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA.
An edited book
Kindlmann, P. (Ed.). (2012). Himalayan Biodiversity in the Changing World. Springer Netherlands.
A chapter in an edited book
Stanković, S., Orović, I., & Sejdić, E. (2016). Digital Image. In I. Orović & E. Sejdić (Eds.), Multimedia Signals and Systems: Basic and Advanced Algorithms for Signal Processing (pp. 165–230). Springer International Publishing.

Web sites

Sometimes references to web sites should appear directly in the text rather than in the bibliography. Refer to the Instructions to authors for Journal of Memory and Language.

Blog post
Carpineti, A. (2016, September 14). ESA’s Gaia Spacecraft Reveals Most Accurate Map Of The Milky Way. IFLScience; IFLScience.


This example shows the general structure used for government reports, technical reports, and scientific reports. If you can't locate the report number then it might be better to cite the report as a book. For reports it is usually not individual people that are credited as authors, but a governmental department or agency like "U. S. Food and Drug Administration" or "National Cancer Institute".

Government report
Government Accountability Office. (1995). High Risk Series: Student Financial Aid (HR-95-10). U.S. Government Printing Office.

Theses and dissertations

Theses including Ph.D. dissertations, Master's theses or Bachelor theses follow the basic format outlined below.

Doctoral dissertation
Gwaduri, E. (2009). A personal narrative: Struggles and experiences of acculturation as a Pakistani Shia Muslim while battling immigration [Doctoral dissertation]. California State University, Long Beach.

News paper articles

Unlike scholarly journals, news papers do not usually have a volume and issue number. Instead, the full date and page number is required for a correct reference.

New York Times article
Eligon, J., Yee, V., & Furber, M. (2017, July 22). Resurgent Cry in Minnesota Police Killing: Why? New York Times, A1.

In-text citations

References should be cited in the text by name and year in parentheses:

This sentence cites one reference (Seeman, 2004).
This sentence cites two references (Sankar & Cho, 2002; Seeman, 2004).

Here are examples of in-text citations with multiple authors:

  • Two authors: (Sankar & Cho, 2002)
  • Three authors: (Dietl et al., 2004)
  • 6 or more authors: (Imai et al., 2002)

About the journal

Full journal titleJournal of Memory and Language
AbbreviationJ. Mem. Lang.
ISSN (print)0749-596X
ScopeLanguage and Linguistics
Artificial Intelligence
Experimental and Cognitive Psychology
Neuropsychology and Physiological Psychology
Linguistics and Language

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