How to format your references using the Journal of Memory and Language citation style

This is a short guide how to format citations and the bibliography in a manuscript for Journal of Memory and Language. For a complete guide how to prepare your manuscript refer to the journal's instructions to authors.

Using reference management software

Typically you don't format your citations and bibliography by hand. The easiest way is to use a reference manager:

PaperpileThe citation style is built in and you can choose it in Settings > Citation Style or Paperpile > Citation Style in Google Docs.
EndNoteDownload the output style file
Mendeley, Zotero, Papers, and othersThe style is either built in or you can download a CSL file that is supported by most references management programs.
BibTeXBibTeX syles are usually part of a LaTeX template. Check the instructions to authors if the publisher offers a LaTeX template for this journal.

Journal articles

Those examples are references to articles in scholarly journals and how they are supposed to appear in your bibliography.

Not all journals organize their published articles in volumes and issues, so these fields are optional. Some electronic journals do not provide a page range, but instead list an article identifier. In a case like this it's safe to use the article identifier instead of the page range.

A journal article with 1 author
Dresser, R. (2000). Weighing the benefits of new Alzheimer’s treatments. Science (New York, N.Y.), 289(5481), 869b.
A journal article with 2 authors
Nesbit, J., & Bradford, M. (2006). 2006 Visualization Challenge. Science (New York, N.Y.), 313(5794), 1729.
A journal article with 3 authors
Petit, R. J., Hu, F. S., & Dick, C. W. (2008). Forests of the past: a window to future changes. Science (New York, N.Y.), 320(5882), 1450–1452.
A journal article with 8 or more authors
Rosenfeld, D., Lohmann, U., Raga, G. B., O’Dowd, C. D., Kulmala, M., Fuzzi, S., Reissell, A., & Andreae, M. O. (2008). Flood or drought: how do aerosols affect precipitation? Science (New York, N.Y.), 321(5894), 1309–1313.

Books and book chapters

Here are examples of references for authored and edited books as well as book chapters.

An authored book
Sears, R. W., & Chard, K. M. (2016). Mindfulness-Based Cognitive Therapy for Posttraumatic Stress Disorder. John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.
An edited book
Craig, W. (Ed.). (2008). Hamiltonian Dynamical Systems and Applications. Springer Netherlands.
A chapter in an edited book
Sarkar, M., & Theuwissen, A. (2013). Material Classification Using CMOS Polarization Sensor. In A. Theuwissen (Ed.), A Biologically Inspired CMOS Image Sensor (pp. 157–184). Springer.

Web sites

Sometimes references to web sites should appear directly in the text rather than in the bibliography. Refer to the Instructions to authors for Journal of Memory and Language.

Blog post
Andrew, E. (2015, July 13). MRI Study Reveals Brain Regions That Get Songs Stuck In Our Heads. IFLScience; IFLScience.


This example shows the general structure used for government reports, technical reports, and scientific reports. If you can't locate the report number then it might be better to cite the report as a book. For reports it is usually not individual people that are credited as authors, but a governmental department or agency like "U. S. Food and Drug Administration" or "National Cancer Institute".

Government report
Government Accountability Office. (1988). Air Traffic Control: FAA Should Define the Optimal Advanced Automation System Alternative (IMTEC-89-5). U.S. Government Printing Office.

Theses and dissertations

Theses including Ph.D. dissertations, Master's theses or Bachelor theses follow the basic format outlined below.

Doctoral dissertation
Olson, B. A. (2012). Problem Management: A System Engineering Management Framework [Doctoral dissertation]. George Washington University.

News paper articles

Unlike scholarly journals, news papers do not usually have a volume and issue number. Instead, the full date and page number is required for a correct reference.

New York Times article
Billard, M. (2013, July 4). His Mission: Beat Swords Into Baubles. New York Times, E6.

In-text citations

References should be cited in the text by name and year in parentheses:

This sentence cites one reference (Dresser, 2000).
This sentence cites two references (Dresser, 2000; Nesbit & Bradford, 2006).

Here are examples of in-text citations with multiple authors:

  • Two authors: (Nesbit & Bradford, 2006)
  • Three authors: (Petit et al., 2008)
  • 6 or more authors: (Rosenfeld et al., 2008)

About the journal

Full journal titleJournal of Memory and Language
AbbreviationJ. Mem. Lang.
ISSN (print)0749-596X
ScopeLanguage and Linguistics
Artificial Intelligence
Experimental and Cognitive Psychology
Neuropsychology and Physiological Psychology
Linguistics and Language

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