How to format your references using the Journal of Memory and Language citation style

This is a short guide how to format citations and the bibliography in a manuscript for Journal of Memory and Language. For a complete guide how to prepare your manuscript refer to the journal's instructions to authors.

Using reference management software

Typically you don't format your citations and bibliography by hand. The easiest way is to use a reference manager:

PaperpileThe citation style is built in and you can choose it in Settings > Citation Style or Paperpile > Citation Style in Google Docs.
EndNoteDownload the output style file
Mendeley, Zotero, Papers, and othersThe style is either built in or you can download a CSL file that is supported by most references management programs.
BibTeXBibTeX syles are usually part of a LaTeX template. Check the instructions to authors if the publisher offers a LaTeX template for this journal.

Journal articles

Those examples are references to articles in scholarly journals and how they are supposed to appear in your bibliography.

Not all journals organize their published articles in volumes and issues, so these fields are optional. Some electronic journals do not provide a page range, but instead list an article identifier. In a case like this it's safe to use the article identifier instead of the page range.

A journal article with 1 author
Hanushek, E. A. (2009). Education. Building on No Child Left Behind. Science (New York, N.Y.), 326(5954), 802–803.
A journal article with 2 authors
Li, N., & Ren, J. (2014). Non-reciprocal geometric wave diode by engineering asymmetric shapes of nonlinear materials. Scientific Reports, 4, 6228.
A journal article with 3 authors
Davidson, E. A., Trumbore, S. E., & Amundson, R. (2000). Soil warming and organic carbon content. Nature, 408(6814), 789–790.
A journal article with 8 or more authors
Holbourn, A., Kuhnt, W., Schulz, M., & Erlenkeuser, H. (2005). Impacts of orbital forcing and atmospheric carbon dioxide on Miocene ice-sheet expansion. Nature, 438(7067), 483–487.

Books and book chapters

Here are examples of references for authored and edited books as well as book chapters.

An authored book
Moreau, E., & Adali, T. (2013). Blind Identification and Separation of Complex-Valued Signals. Hoboken, NJ USA: John Wiley & Sons, Inc.
An edited book
Annetta, L., & Bronack, S. C. (Eds.). (2011). Serious Educational Game Assessment: Practical Methods and Models for Educational Games, Simulations and Virtual Worlds. Rotterdam: SensePublishers.
A chapter in an edited book
Redouté, J.-M., & Steyaert, M. (2010). EMI Resisting Analog Output Circuits. In M. Steyaert (Ed.), EMC of Analog Integrated Circuits (pp. 83–139). Dordrecht: Springer Netherlands.

Web sites

Sometimes references to web sites should appear directly in the text rather than in the bibliography. Refer to the Instructions to authors for Journal of Memory and Language.

Blog post
Hamilton, K. (2016, June 24). Hate Crimes Against LGBTQ People Are A Public Health Issue. Retrieved October 30, 2018, from


This example shows the general structure used for government reports, technical reports, and scientific reports. If you can't locate the report number then it might be better to cite the report as a book. For reports it is usually not individual people that are credited as authors, but a governmental department or agency like "U. S. Food and Drug Administration" or "National Cancer Institute".

Government report
Government Accountability Office. (2001). NASA: Status of Achieving Key Outcomes and Addressing Major Management Challenges (No. GAO-01-868). Washington, DC: U.S. Government Printing Office.

Theses and dissertations

Theses including Ph.D. dissertations, Master's theses or Bachelor theses follow the basic format outlined below.

Doctoral dissertation
Cannon, C. A. (2017). Comparison of language arts scores between computerized and teacher differentiation of instruction (Doctoral dissertation). Capella University, Minneapolis, MN.

News paper articles

Unlike scholarly journals, news papers do not usually have a volume and issue number. Instead, the full date and page number is required for a correct reference.

New York Times article
Powell, M. (2017, August 8). An Athlete of His Time, Painted as a Top Villain. New York Times, p. B8.

In-text citations

References should be cited in the text by name and year in parentheses:

This sentence cites one reference (Hanushek, 2009).
This sentence cites two references (Hanushek, 2009; Li & Ren, 2014).

Here are examples of in-text citations with multiple authors:

  • Two authors: (Li & Ren, 2014)
  • Three authors: (Davidson, Trumbore, & Amundson, 2000)
  • 6 or more authors: (Holbourn, Kuhnt, Schulz, & Erlenkeuser, 2005)

About the journal

Full journal titleJournal of Memory and Language
AbbreviationJ. Mem. Lang.
ISSN (print)0749-596X
ScopeLanguage and Linguistics
Artificial Intelligence
Experimental and Cognitive Psychology
Neuropsychology and Physiological Psychology
Linguistics and Language

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