How to format your references using the Journal of Medical Imaging and Radiation Sciences citation style

This is a short guide how to format citations and the bibliography in a manuscript for Journal of Medical Imaging and Radiation Sciences. For a complete guide how to prepare your manuscript refer to the journal's instructions to authors.

Using reference management software

Typically you don't format your citations and bibliography by hand. The easiest way is to use a reference manager:

PaperpileThe citation style is built in and you can choose it in Settings > Citation Style or Paperpile > Citation Style in Google Docs.
EndNoteDownload the output style file
Mendeley, Zotero, Papers, and othersThe style is either built in or you can download a CSL file that is supported by most references management programs.
BibTeXBibTeX syles are usually part of a LaTeX template. Check the instructions to authors if the publisher offers a LaTeX template for this journal.

Journal articles

Those examples are references to articles in scholarly journals and how they are supposed to appear in your bibliography.

Not all journals organize their published articles in volumes and issues, so these fields are optional. Some electronic journals do not provide a page range, but instead list an article identifier. In a case like this it's safe to use the article identifier instead of the page range.

A journal article with 1 author
Farokhzad OC. Nanotechnology: Platelet mimicry. Nature. 2015;526(7571):47-48.
A journal article with 2 authors
Molloy JE, Veigel C. Biophysics. Myosin motors walk the walk. Science. 2003;300(5628):2045-2046.
A journal article with 3 authors
Davies JP, Chen FW, Ioannou YA. Transmembrane molecular pump activity of Niemann-Pick C1 protein. Science. 2000;290(5500):2295-2298.
A journal article with 7 or more authors
Gehrels N, Macomb DJ, Bertsch DL, Thompson DJ, Hartman RC. Discovery of a new population of high-energy gamma-ray sources in the Milky Way. Nature. 2000;404(6776):363-365.

Books and book chapters

Here are examples of references for authored and edited books as well as book chapters.

An authored book
Goddard Blythe S. Assessing Neuromotor Readiness for Learning. Chichester, UK: John Wiley & Sons, Ltd; 2012.
An edited book
Brusilovsky P, Kobsa A, Nejdl W, eds. The Adaptive Web: Methods and Strategies of Web Personalization. Vol 4321. Berlin, Heidelberg: Springer; 2007.
A chapter in an edited book
Dastani M, Floor C, Meyer J-JC. Programming Agents with Emotions. In: Bosse T, Broekens J, Dias J, van der Zwaan J, eds. Emotion Modeling: Towards Pragmatic Computational Models of Affective Processes. Lecture Notes in Computer Science. Cham: Springer International Publishing; 2014:57-75.

Web sites

Sometimes references to web sites should appear directly in the text rather than in the bibliography. Refer to the Instructions to authors for Journal of Medical Imaging and Radiation Sciences.

Blog post
Andrew E. The Dusky Dottyback, A Master Of Disguise In The Animal World. IFLScience.


This example shows the general structure used for government reports, technical reports, and scientific reports. If you can't locate the report number then it might be better to cite the report as a book. For reports it is usually not individual people that are credited as authors, but a governmental department or agency like "U. S. Food and Drug Administration" or "National Cancer Institute".

Government report
Government Accountability Office. Regulatory Initiatives of the National Association of Insurance Commissioners. Washington, DC: U.S. Government Printing Office; 2001.

Theses and dissertations

Theses including Ph.D. dissertations, Master's theses or Bachelor theses follow the basic format outlined below.

Doctoral dissertation
Joshi RA. Adaptive nulling in multiple beam antennas using quantized state adaptive algorithms. 2010.

News paper articles

Unlike scholarly journals, news papers do not usually have a volume and issue number. Instead, the full date and page number is required for a correct reference.

New York Times article
Dewan S. Mostly White Forces in Mostly Black Towns: Police Struggle for Racial Diversity. New York Times. September 9, 2014:A1.

In-text citations

References should be cited in the text by sequential numbers in superscript:

This sentence cites one reference 1.
This sentence cites two references 1,2.
This sentence cites four references 1–4.

About the journal

Full journal titleJournal of Medical Imaging and Radiation Sciences
AbbreviationJ. Med. Imaging Radiat. Sci.
ISSN (print)1939-8654
ScopeRadiology Nuclear Medicine and imaging
Radiological and Ultrasound Technology

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