How to format your references using the Journal of Medical and Biological Engineering citation style

This is a short guide how to format citations and the bibliography in a manuscript for Journal of Medical and Biological Engineering. For a complete guide how to prepare your manuscript refer to the journal's instructions to authors.

Using reference management software

Typically you don't format your citations and bibliography by hand. The easiest way is to use a reference manager:

PaperpileThe citation style is built in and you can choose it in Settings > Citation Style or Paperpile > Citation Style in Google Docs.
EndNoteFind the style here: output styles overview
Mendeley, Zotero, Papers, and othersThe style is either built in or you can download a CSL file that is supported by most references management programs.
BibTeXBibTeX syles are usually part of a LaTeX template. Check the instructions to authors if the publisher offers a LaTeX template for this journal.

Journal articles

Those examples are references to articles in scholarly journals and how they are supposed to appear in your bibliography.

Not all journals organize their published articles in volumes and issues, so these fields are optional. Some electronic journals do not provide a page range, but instead list an article identifier. In a case like this it's safe to use the article identifier instead of the page range.

A journal article with 1 author
Lutkenhaus, J. (2008). Biochemistry. Tinkering with acellular division. Science (New York, N.Y.), 320(5877), 755–756.
A journal article with 2 authors
Ekström, G., & Stark, C. P. (2013). Simple scaling of catastrophic landslide dynamics. Science (New York, N.Y.), 339(6126), 1416–1419.
A journal article with 3 authors
Scarano, F., Guimarães, A., & da Silva, J. M. (2012). Rio+20: Lead by example. Nature, 486(7401), 25–26.
A journal article with 8 or more authors
Suzuki, S., Shuto, T., Sato, T., Kaneko, M., Takada, T., Suico, M. A., … Kai, H. (2014). Inhibition of post-translational N-glycosylation by HRD1 that controls the fate of ABCG5/8 transporter. Scientific reports, 4, 4258.

Books and book chapters

Here are examples of references for authored and edited books as well as book chapters.

An authored book
Goldstein, A. P. (2004). The Psychology of Group Aggression. Chichester, UK: John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.
An edited book
Turenne, S. (Ed.). (2015). Fair Reflection of Society in Judicial Systems - A Comparative Study (Vol. 7). Cham: Springer International Publishing.
A chapter in an edited book
Shirwany, N. A., & Seidman, M. D. (2015). Antioxidants and Their Effect on Stress-Induced Pathology in the Inner Ear. In J. Miller, C. G. Le Prell, & L. Rybak (Eds.), Free Radicals in ENT Pathology (pp. 57–89). Cham: Springer International Publishing.

Web sites

Sometimes references to web sites should appear directly in the text rather than in the bibliography. Refer to the Instructions to authors for Journal of Medical and Biological Engineering.

Blog post
Fang, J. (2014, March 28). Male Spiders Can Detect Female Promiscuity. IFLScience. IFLScience. Retrieved October 30, 2018, from


This example shows the general structure used for government reports, technical reports, and scientific reports. If you can't locate the report number then it might be better to cite the report as a book. For reports it is usually not individual people that are credited as authors, but a governmental department or agency like "U. S. Food and Drug Administration" or "National Cancer Institute".

Government report
Government Accountability Office. (1992). Household Goods Transport (No. GGD-92-23R). Washington, DC: U.S. Government Printing Office.

Theses and dissertations

Theses including Ph.D. dissertations, Master's theses or Bachelor theses follow the basic format outlined below.

Doctoral dissertation
Yamada, M. (2008). The role of the TRANSPORT INHIBITOR RESPONSE2 (TIR2) gene in auxin synthesis in Arabidopsis (Doctoral dissertation). Indiana University, Bloomington, IN.

News paper articles

Unlike scholarly journals, news papers do not usually have a volume and issue number. Instead, the full date and page number is required for a correct reference.

New York Times article
Crow, K. (2003, August 31). Never-Never Land. New York Times, p. 141.

In-text citations

References should be cited in the text by sequential numbers in square brackets:

This sentence cites one reference [1].
This sentence cites two references [1, 2].
This sentence cites four references [1–4].

About the journal

Full journal titleJournal of Medical and Biological Engineering
AbbreviationJ. Med. Biol. Eng.
ISSN (print)1609-0985
ISSN (online)2199-4757
ScopeBiomedical Engineering
General Medicine

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