How to format your references using the Journal of Medical and Biological Engineering citation style

This is a short guide how to format citations and the bibliography in a manuscript for Journal of Medical and Biological Engineering. For a complete guide how to prepare your manuscript refer to the journal's instructions to authors.

Using reference management software

Typically you don't format your citations and bibliography by hand. The easiest way is to use a reference manager:

PaperpileThe citation style is built in and you can choose it in Settings > Citation Style or Paperpile > Citation Style in Google Docs.
EndNoteFind the style here: output styles overview
Mendeley, Zotero, Papers, and othersThe style is either built in or you can download a CSL file that is supported by most references management programs.
BibTeXBibTeX syles are usually part of a LaTeX template. Check the instructions to authors if the publisher offers a LaTeX template for this journal.

Journal articles

Those examples are references to articles in scholarly journals and how they are supposed to appear in your bibliography.

Not all journals organize their published articles in volumes and issues, so these fields are optional. Some electronic journals do not provide a page range, but instead list an article identifier. In a case like this it's safe to use the article identifier instead of the page range.

A journal article with 1 author
van Nimwegen, E. (2006). Epidemiology. Influenza escapes immunity along neutral networks. Science (New York, N.Y.), 314(5807), 1884–1886.
A journal article with 2 authors
Colton, R. J., & Russell, J. N., Jr. (2003). Counterterrorism. Making the world a safer place. Science (New York, N.Y.), 299(5611), 1324–1325.
A journal article with 3 authors
Young, I. R., Zieger, S., & Babanin, A. V. (2011). Global trends in wind speed and wave height. Science (New York, N.Y.), 332(6028), 451–455.
A journal article with 8 or more authors
Loppin, B., Bonnefoy, E., Anselme, C., Laurençon, A., Karr, T. L., & Couble, P. (2005). The histone H3.3 chaperone HIRA is essential for chromatin assembly in the male pronucleus. Nature, 437(7063), 1386–1390.

Books and book chapters

Here are examples of references for authored and edited books as well as book chapters.

An authored book
Kato, T., Handwerker, C. A., & Bath, J. (2016). Mitigating Tin Whisker Risks. Hoboken, NJ: John Wiley & Sons, Inc.
An edited book
Adhikari, A. (2015). Advances in Knowledge Discovery in Databases. (J. Adhikari, Ed.) (Vol. 79). Cham: Springer International Publishing.
A chapter in an edited book
Moule, J. (2012). Working to Awaken. In P. A. Whang (Ed.), Rattling Chains: Exploring Social Justice in Education (pp. 27–36). Rotterdam: SensePublishers.

Web sites

Sometimes references to web sites should appear directly in the text rather than in the bibliography. Refer to the Instructions to authors for Journal of Medical and Biological Engineering.

Blog post
Hamilton, K. (2016, December 9). Planet Earth II: Why Most Animals Can’t Hack City Living. IFLScience. IFLScience. Retrieved October 30, 2018, from


This example shows the general structure used for government reports, technical reports, and scientific reports. If you can't locate the report number then it might be better to cite the report as a book. For reports it is usually not individual people that are credited as authors, but a governmental department or agency like "U. S. Food and Drug Administration" or "National Cancer Institute".

Government report
Government Accountability Office. (1989). Information Technology Utilization by the Federal Government (No. T-IMTEC-89-9). Washington, DC: U.S. Government Printing Office.

Theses and dissertations

Theses including Ph.D. dissertations, Master's theses or Bachelor theses follow the basic format outlined below.

Doctoral dissertation
Kalafut, A. J. (2010). Proactive cyberfraud detection through infrastructure analysis (Doctoral dissertation). Indiana University, Bloomington, IN.

News paper articles

Unlike scholarly journals, news papers do not usually have a volume and issue number. Instead, the full date and page number is required for a correct reference.

New York Times article
Shpigel, B. (2017, April 11). Building a Better Bowler. New York Times, p. B8.

In-text citations

References should be cited in the text by sequential numbers in square brackets:

This sentence cites one reference [1].
This sentence cites two references [1, 2].
This sentence cites four references [1–4].

About the journal

Full journal titleJournal of Medical and Biological Engineering
AbbreviationJ. Med. Biol. Eng.
ISSN (print)1609-0985
ISSN (online)2199-4757
ScopeBiomedical Engineering
General Medicine

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