How to format your references using the Journal of Medical and Biological Engineering citation style

This is a short guide how to format citations and the bibliography in a manuscript for Journal of Medical and Biological Engineering. For a complete guide how to prepare your manuscript refer to the journal's instructions to authors.

Using reference management software

Typically you don't format your citations and bibliography by hand. The easiest way is to use a reference manager:

PaperpileThe citation style is built in and you can choose it in Settings > Citation Style or Paperpile > Citation Style in Google Docs.
EndNoteFind the style here: output styles overview
Mendeley, Zotero, Papers, and othersThe style is either built in or you can download a CSL file that is supported by most references management programs.
BibTeXBibTeX syles are usually part of a LaTeX template. Check the instructions to authors if the publisher offers a LaTeX template for this journal.

Journal articles

Those examples are references to articles in scholarly journals and how they are supposed to appear in your bibliography.

Not all journals organize their published articles in volumes and issues, so these fields are optional. Some electronic journals do not provide a page range, but instead list an article identifier. In a case like this it's safe to use the article identifier instead of the page range.

A journal article with 1 author
1.
Kidd, T. (2009). Neuroscience. Crossing the line. Science (New York, N.Y.), 324(5929), 893–894.
A journal article with 2 authors
1.
Blackstock, J. J., & Long, J. C. S. (2010). Climate change. The politics of geoengineering. Science (New York, N.Y.), 327(5965), 527.
A journal article with 3 authors
1.
Knapp, S., Polaszek, A., & Watson, M. (2007). Spreading the word. Nature, 446(7133), 261–262.
A journal article with 8 or more authors
1.
Szabadics, J., Varga, C., Molnár, G., Oláh, S., Barzó, P., & Tamás, G. (2006). Excitatory effect of GABAergic axo-axonic cells in cortical microcircuits. Science (New York, N.Y.), 311(5758), 233–235.

Books and book chapters

Here are examples of references for authored and edited books as well as book chapters.

An authored book
1.
Abdul-Rahman, Y. (2014). The Art of RF (Riba-Free) Islamic Banking and Finance. Hoboken, NJ: John Wiley & Sons, Inc.
An edited book
1.
Merkel, B., & Schipek, M. (Eds.). (2012). The New Uranium Mining Boom: Challenge and Lessons learned (1st ed.). Berlin, Heidelberg: Springer.
A chapter in an edited book
1.
Chippendale, P., & Lanz, O. (2008). Optimised Meeting Recording and Annotation Using Real-Time Video Analysis. In A. Popescu-Belis & R. Stiefelhagen (Eds.), Machine Learning for Multimodal Interaction: 5th International Workshop, MLMI 2008, Utrecht, The Netherlands, September 8-10, 2008. Proceedings (pp. 50–61). Berlin, Heidelberg: Springer.

Web sites

Sometimes references to web sites should appear directly in the text rather than in the bibliography. Refer to the Instructions to authors for Journal of Medical and Biological Engineering.

Blog post
1.
Luntz, S. (2017, January 26). Alien-Looking Insect Has Its Own Order. IFLScience. IFLScience. Retrieved October 30, 2018, from https://www.iflscience.com/plants-and-animals/alien-looking-insect-has-its-own-order/

Reports

This example shows the general structure used for government reports, technical reports, and scientific reports. If you can't locate the report number then it might be better to cite the report as a book. For reports it is usually not individual people that are credited as authors, but a governmental department or agency like "U. S. Food and Drug Administration" or "National Cancer Institute".

Government report
1.
Government Accountability Office. (2005). Digital Television Transition: Questions on Administrative Costs of an Equipment Subsidy Program (No. GAO-05-837R). Washington, DC: U.S. Government Printing Office.

Theses and dissertations

Theses including Ph.D. dissertations, Master's theses or Bachelor theses follow the basic format outlined below.

Doctoral dissertation
1.
Porter, J. (2010). Closing the classroom door: Denying the political, embracing the moral (Doctoral dissertation). University of Arizona, Tucson, AZ.

News paper articles

Unlike scholarly journals, news papers do not usually have a volume and issue number. Instead, the full date and page number is required for a correct reference.

New York Times article
1.
Oestreich, J. R. (2017, August 16). Silvery, Then Raucous: A Leap Across Time. New York Times, p. C5.

In-text citations

References should be cited in the text by sequential numbers in square brackets:

This sentence cites one reference [1].
This sentence cites two references [1, 2].
This sentence cites four references [1–4].

About the journal

Full journal titleJournal of Medical and Biological Engineering
AbbreviationJ. Med. Biol. Eng.
ISSN (print)1609-0985
ISSN (online)2199-4757
ScopeBiomedical Engineering
General Medicine

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