How to format your references using the Journal of Medical and Biological Engineering citation style

This is a short guide how to format citations and the bibliography in a manuscript for Journal of Medical and Biological Engineering. For a complete guide how to prepare your manuscript refer to the journal's instructions to authors.

Using reference management software

Typically you don't format your citations and bibliography by hand. The easiest way is to use a reference manager:

PaperpileThe citation style is built in and you can choose it in Settings > Citation Style or Paperpile > Citation Style in Google Docs.
EndNoteFind the style here: output styles overview
Mendeley, Zotero, Papers, and othersThe style is either built in or you can download a CSL file that is supported by most references management programs.
BibTeXBibTeX syles are usually part of a LaTeX template. Check the instructions to authors if the publisher offers a LaTeX template for this journal.

Journal articles

Those examples are references to articles in scholarly journals and how they are supposed to appear in your bibliography.

Not all journals organize their published articles in volumes and issues, so these fields are optional. Some electronic journals do not provide a page range, but instead list an article identifier. In a case like this it's safe to use the article identifier instead of the page range.

A journal article with 1 author
Buckingham, S. (2003). Bioinformatics: programmed for success. Nature, 425(6954), 209–215.
A journal article with 2 authors
Singh, B. P., & Cowie, A. L. (2014). Long-term influence of biochar on native organic carbon mineralisation in a low-carbon clayey soil. Scientific reports, 4, 3687.
A journal article with 3 authors
Torres, M. A., West, A. J., & Li, G. (2014). Sulphide oxidation and carbonate dissolution as a source of CO2 over geological timescales. Nature, 507(7492), 346–349.
A journal article with 8 or more authors
Struchtemeyer, C. G., Ranganathan, A., Couger, M. B., Liggenstoffer, A. S., Youssef, N. H., & Elshahed, M. S. (2014). Survival of the anaerobic fungus Orpinomyces sp. strain C1A after prolonged air exposure. Scientific reports, 4, 6892.

Books and book chapters

Here are examples of references for authored and edited books as well as book chapters.

An authored book
Ndjountche, T. (2016). Digital Electronics 3. Hoboken, NJ: John Wiley & Sons, Inc.
An edited book
Murthy, C. R. (2008). Modelling and Monitoring of Coastal Marine Processes. (P. C. Sinha & Y. R. Rao, Eds.). Dordrecht: Springer Netherlands.
A chapter in an edited book
Kabzeva, A., Götze, J., & Müller, P. (2015). Service Network Modeling: A Generic Approach. In G. Ortiz & C. Tran (Eds.), Advances in Service-Oriented and Cloud Computing: Workshops of ESOCC 2014, Manchester, UK, September 2-4, 2014, Revised Selected Papers (pp. 39–50). Cham: Springer International Publishing.

Web sites

Sometimes references to web sites should appear directly in the text rather than in the bibliography. Refer to the Instructions to authors for Journal of Medical and Biological Engineering.

Blog post
Fang, J. (2015, April 8). Why Are Humans So Afraid Of Spiders? IFLScience. IFLScience. Retrieved October 30, 2018, from


This example shows the general structure used for government reports, technical reports, and scientific reports. If you can't locate the report number then it might be better to cite the report as a book. For reports it is usually not individual people that are credited as authors, but a governmental department or agency like "U. S. Food and Drug Administration" or "National Cancer Institute".

Government report
Government Accountability Office. (1999). Transportation Safety: Information Concerning Why a 1980 Aircraft Report Was Not Provided Earlier to the National Transportation Safety Board (No. OSI-00-2R). Washington, DC: U.S. Government Printing Office.

Theses and dissertations

Theses including Ph.D. dissertations, Master's theses or Bachelor theses follow the basic format outlined below.

Doctoral dissertation
Wright, J. L. (2015). Shade Tolerance and Physiological Response to Light Regime of the Invasive Species Lonicera maackii (Amur honeysuckle) (Doctoral dissertation). Southern Illinois University, Edwardsville, IL.

News paper articles

Unlike scholarly journals, news papers do not usually have a volume and issue number. Instead, the full date and page number is required for a correct reference.

New York Times article
Pilon, M. (2012, August 12). Chronicling The Business Of the Games. New York Times, p. SP3.

In-text citations

References should be cited in the text by sequential numbers in square brackets:

This sentence cites one reference [1].
This sentence cites two references [1, 2].
This sentence cites four references [1–4].

About the journal

Full journal titleJournal of Medical and Biological Engineering
AbbreviationJ. Med. Biol. Eng.
ISSN (print)1609-0985
ISSN (online)2199-4757
ScopeBiomedical Engineering
General Medicine

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