How to format your references using the Journal of Intensive Care citation style

This is a short guide how to format citations and the bibliography in a manuscript for Journal of Intensive Care. For a complete guide how to prepare your manuscript refer to the journal's instructions to authors.

Using reference management software

Typically you don't format your citations and bibliography by hand. The easiest way is to use a reference manager:

PaperpileThe citation style is built in and you can choose it in Settings > Citation Style or Paperpile > Citation Style in Google Docs.
EndNoteFind the style here: output styles overview
Mendeley, Zotero, Papers, and othersThe style is either built in or you can download a CSL file that is supported by most references management programs.
BibTeXBibTeX syles are usually part of a LaTeX template. Check the instructions to authors if the publisher offers a LaTeX template for this journal.

Journal articles

Those examples are references to articles in scholarly journals and how they are supposed to appear in your bibliography.

Not all journals organize their published articles in volumes and issues, so these fields are optional. Some electronic journals do not provide a page range, but instead list an article identifier. In a case like this it's safe to use the article identifier instead of the page range.

A journal article with 1 author
1. Bejan A. Maxwell’s demons everywhere: evolving design as the arrow of time. Sci Rep. 2014;4:4017.
A journal article with 2 authors
1. Koyama K, Takemoto S. Morning reduction of photosynthetic capacity before midday depression. Sci Rep. 2014;4:4389.
A journal article with 3 authors
1. Ehebauer M, Hayward P, Arias AM. Notch, a universal arbiter of cell fate decisions. Science. 2006;314:1414–5.
A journal article with 7 or more authors
1. Bogan JS, Hendon N, McKee AE, Tsao T-S, Lodish HF. Functional cloning of TUG as a regulator of GLUT4 glucose transporter trafficking. Nature. 2003;425:727–33.

Books and book chapters

Here are examples of references for authored and edited books as well as book chapters.

An authored book
1. Good PI. Introduction to Statistics through Resampling Methods and Microsoft Office Excel ®. Hoboken, NJ: John Wiley & Sons, Inc.; 2005.
An edited book
1. McAlpine L, Amundsen C, editors. Doctoral Education: Research-Based Strategies for Doctoral Students, Supervisors and Administrators. Dordrecht: Springer Netherlands; 2011.
A chapter in an edited book
1. Knipping C, Reid D, Straehler-Pohl H. Establishing Mathematics Classroom Culture: Concealing and Revealing the Rules of the Game. In: Gellert U, Giménez Rodríguez J, Hahn C, Kafoussi S, editors. Educational Paths to Mathematics: A CIEAEM Sourcebook. Cham: Springer International Publishing; 2015. p. 67–96.

Web sites

Sometimes references to web sites should appear directly in the text rather than in the bibliography. Refer to the Instructions to authors for Journal of Intensive Care.

Blog post
1. Andrew D. RIP E.T. – Alien Life On Most Exoplanets Dies Young [Internet]. IFLScience. IFLScience; 2016 [cited 2018 Oct 30]. Available from:


This example shows the general structure used for government reports, technical reports, and scientific reports. If you can't locate the report number then it might be better to cite the report as a book. For reports it is usually not individual people that are credited as authors, but a governmental department or agency like "U. S. Food and Drug Administration" or "National Cancer Institute".

Government report
1. Government Accountability Office. Spectrum Management: NTIA Planning and Processes Need Strengthening to Promote the Efficient Use of Spectrum by Federal Agencies. Washington, DC: U.S. Government Printing Office; 2011 Apr. Report No.: GAO-11-352.

Theses and dissertations

Theses including Ph.D. dissertations, Master's theses or Bachelor theses follow the basic format outlined below.

Doctoral dissertation
1. Bottorff EA. The community college baccalaureate: A study of capital costs in Florida [Doctoral dissertation]. [Boca Raton, FL]: Florida Atlantic University; 2011.

News paper articles

Unlike scholarly journals, news papers do not usually have a volume and issue number. Instead, the full date and page number is required for a correct reference.

New York Times article
1. Kelly C. Hyperion Using World’s Largest Mainsail. New York Times. 1998 Sep 20;814.

In-text citations

References should be cited in the text by sequential numbers in square brackets:

This sentence cites one reference [1].
This sentence cites two references [1,2].
This sentence cites four references [1–4].

About the journal

Full journal titleJournal of Intensive Care
AbbreviationJ. Intensive Care
ISSN (online)2052-0492

Other styles