How to format your references using the Journal of Graphic Novels and Comics citation style

This is a short guide how to format citations and the bibliography in a manuscript for Journal of Graphic Novels and Comics. For a complete guide how to prepare your manuscript refer to the journal's instructions to authors.

Using reference management software

Typically you don't format your citations and bibliography by hand. The easiest way is to use a reference manager:

PaperpileThe citation style is built in and you can choose it in Settings > Citation Style or Paperpile > Citation Style in Google Docs.
EndNoteDownload the output style file
Mendeley, Zotero, Papers, and othersThe style is either built in or you can download a CSL file that is supported by most references management programs.
BibTeXBibTeX syles are usually part of a LaTeX template. Check the instructions to authors if the publisher offers a LaTeX template for this journal.

Journal articles

Those examples are references to articles in scholarly journals and how they are supposed to appear in your bibliography.

Not all journals organize their published articles in volumes and issues, so these fields are optional. Some electronic journals do not provide a page range, but instead list an article identifier. In a case like this it's safe to use the article identifier instead of the page range.

A journal article with 1 author
Padyukov, Leonid. 2010. “Journal Club. A Human Geneticist Explores Genetic Diversity in Asia.” Nature 464 (7289): 653.
A journal article with 2 authors
van Der Merwe, P. Anton, and Simon J. Davis. 2002. “Immunology. The Immunological Synapse--a Multitasking System.” Science (New York, N.Y.) 295 (5559): 1479–1480.
A journal article with 3 authors
Gray, Heather M., Kurt Gray, and Daniel M. Wegner. 2007. “Dimensions of Mind Perception.” Science (New York, N.Y.) 315 (5812): 619.
A journal article with 11 or more authors
Bhujbal, Swapnil V., Bart de Haan, Simone P. Niclou, and Paul de Vos. 2014. “A Novel Multilayer Immunoisolating Encapsulation System Overcoming Protrusion of Cells.” Scientific Reports 4 (October): 6856.

Books and book chapters

Here are examples of references for authored and edited books as well as book chapters.

An authored book
Goossens, François. 2015. How to Implement Market Models Using VBA. Chichester, UK: John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.
An edited book
Di Benedetto, Maria-Gabriella, and Faouzi Bader, eds. 2014. Cognitive Communication and Cooperative HetNet Coexistence: Selected Advances on Spectrum Sensing, Learning, and Security Approaches. Signals and Communication Technology. Cham: Springer International Publishing.
A chapter in an edited book
Bhattacharya, Abhishek, Zhenyu Yang, and Deng Pan. 2009. “COCONET: Co-Operative Cache Driven Overlay NETwork for P2p Vod Streaming.” In Quality of Service in Heterogeneous Networks: 6th International ICST Conference on Heterogeneous Networking for Quality, Reliability, Security and Robustness, QShine 2009 and 3rd International Workshop on Advanced Architectures and Algorithms for Internet Delivery and Applications, AAA-IDEA 2009, Las Palmas, Gran Canaria, November 23-25, 2009 Proceedings, edited by Novella Bartolini, Sotiris Nikoletseas, Prasun Sinha, Valeria Cardellini, and Anirban Mahanti, 52–68. Lecture Notes of the Institute for Computer Sciences, Social Informatics and Telecommunications Engineering. Berlin, Heidelberg: Springer.

Web sites

Sometimes references to web sites should appear directly in the text rather than in the bibliography. Refer to the Instructions to authors for Journal of Graphic Novels and Comics.

Blog post
Andrew, Elise. 2015. “Would You Get Married in a Church Made From Living Trees?” IFLScience. IFLScience.


This example shows the general structure used for government reports, technical reports, and scientific reports. If you can't locate the report number then it might be better to cite the report as a book. For reports it is usually not individual people that are credited as authors, but a governmental department or agency like "U. S. Food and Drug Administration" or "National Cancer Institute".

Government report
Government Accountability Office. 1995. Amtrak’s Northeast Corridor Funding Needs. RCED-95-152R. Washington, DC: U.S. Government Printing Office.

Theses and dissertations

Theses including Ph.D. dissertations, Master's theses or Bachelor theses follow the basic format outlined below.

Doctoral dissertation
Gilbert, Stephen Anthony. 2017. “Succession Planning Relating to the Millennial Generation in Private Four-Year Universities.” Doctoral dissertation, Malibu, CA: Pepperdine University.

News paper articles

Unlike scholarly journals, news papers do not usually have a volume and issue number. Instead, the full date and page number is required for a correct reference.
New York Times article
Dinardo, Kelly. 2014. “Skin in the Game.” New York Times, December 14.

In-text citations

References should be cited in the text by name and year in parentheses:

This sentence cites one reference (Padyukov 2010).
This sentence cites two references (Padyukov 2010; van Der Merwe and Davis 2002).

Here are examples of in-text citations with multiple authors:

  • Two authors: (van Der Merwe and Davis 2002)
  • Three authors: (Gray, Gray, and Wegner 2007)
  • 4 or more authors: (Bhujbal et al. 2014)

About the journal

Full journal titleJournal of Graphic Novels and Comics
ISSN (print)2150-4857
ISSN (online)2150-4865
ScopeLiterature and Literary Theory
Visual Arts and Performing Arts

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