How to format your references using the Journal of Graphic Novels and Comics citation style

This is a short guide how to format citations and the bibliography in a manuscript for Journal of Graphic Novels and Comics. For a complete guide how to prepare your manuscript refer to the journal's instructions to authors.

Using reference management software

Typically you don't format your citations and bibliography by hand. The easiest way is to use a reference manager:

PaperpileThe citation style is built in and you can choose it in Settings > Citation Style or Paperpile > Citation Style in Google Docs.
EndNoteDownload the output style file
Mendeley, Zotero, Papers, and othersThe style is either built in or you can download a CSL file that is supported by most references management programs.
BibTeXBibTeX syles are usually part of a LaTeX template. Check the instructions to authors if the publisher offers a LaTeX template for this journal.

Journal articles

Those examples are references to articles in scholarly journals and how they are supposed to appear in your bibliography.

Not all journals organize their published articles in volumes and issues, so these fields are optional. Some electronic journals do not provide a page range, but instead list an article identifier. In a case like this it's safe to use the article identifier instead of the page range.

A journal article with 1 author
Swartz, Kenton J. 2008. “Sensing Voltage across Lipid Membranes.” Nature 456 (7224): 891–897.
A journal article with 2 authors
Mas-Ballesté, Rubén, and Lawrence Que Jr. 2006. “Chemistry. Targeting Specific C-H Bonds for Oxidation.” Science (New York, N.Y.) 312 (5782): 1885–1886.
A journal article with 3 authors
Montrose, Kristopher, Yi Yang, and Geoffrey W. Krissansen. 2014. “The Tetrapeptide Core of the Carrier Peptide Xentry Is Cell-Penetrating: Novel Activatable Forms of Xentry.” Scientific Reports 4 (May): 4900.
A journal article with 11 or more authors
Black, Ben E., Daniel R. Foltz, Srinivas Chakravarthy, Karolin Luger, Virgil L. Woods Jr, and Don W. Cleveland. 2004. “Structural Determinants for Generating Centromeric Chromatin.” Nature 430 (6999): 578–582.

Books and book chapters

Here are examples of references for authored and edited books as well as book chapters.

An authored book
Brown, Robert A. 2012. Extreme Tissue Engineering. Chichester, UK: John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.
An edited book
Rannow, Sven, and Marco Neubert, eds. 2014. Managing Protected Areas in Central and Eastern Europe Under Climate Change. Vol. 58. Advances in Global Change Research. Dordrecht: Springer Netherlands.
A chapter in an edited book
Peeters, Steven. 2010. “Flash Catalyst: Bridging the Gap.” In Flash Builder and Flash Catalyst: The New Workflow, edited by Clay Andres, Steve Anglin, Mark Beckner, Ewan Buckingham, Gary Cornell, Jonathan Gennick, Jonathan Hassell, et al., 99–130. Berkeley, CA: Apress.

Web sites

Sometimes references to web sites should appear directly in the text rather than in the bibliography. Refer to the Instructions to authors for Journal of Graphic Novels and Comics.

Blog post
Andrew, Elise. 2015. “What Is A Neutron Star?” IFLScience. IFLScience.


This example shows the general structure used for government reports, technical reports, and scientific reports. If you can't locate the report number then it might be better to cite the report as a book. For reports it is usually not individual people that are credited as authors, but a governmental department or agency like "U. S. Food and Drug Administration" or "National Cancer Institute".

Government report
Government Accountability Office. 2000. Environmental Protection Agency: Comparing Annual Budgets for Science and Technology. T-RCED-00-132. Washington, DC: U.S. Government Printing Office.

Theses and dissertations

Theses including Ph.D. dissertations, Master's theses or Bachelor theses follow the basic format outlined below.

Doctoral dissertation
Yasar, Kerim. 2009. “Electrified Voices: Media Technology and Discourse in Modern Japan.” Doctoral dissertation, New York, NY: Columbia University.

News paper articles

Unlike scholarly journals, news papers do not usually have a volume and issue number. Instead, the full date and page number is required for a correct reference.

New York Times article
Brantley, Ben. 2016. “This Means Something, as Well as Something Else.” New York Times, October 14.

In-text citations

References should be cited in the text by name and year in parentheses:

This sentence cites one reference (Swartz 2008).
This sentence cites two references (Swartz 2008; Mas-Ballesté and Que 2006).

Here are examples of in-text citations with multiple authors:

  • Two authors: (Mas-Ballesté and Que 2006)
  • Three authors: (Montrose, Yang, and Krissansen 2014)
  • 4 or more authors: (Black et al. 2004)

About the journal

Full journal titleJournal of Graphic Novels and Comics
ISSN (print)2150-4857
ISSN (online)2150-4865
ScopeLiterature and Literary Theory
Visual Arts and Performing Arts

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