How to format your references using the Journal of Graphic Novels and Comics citation style

This is a short guide how to format citations and the bibliography in a manuscript for Journal of Graphic Novels and Comics. For a complete guide how to prepare your manuscript refer to the journal's instructions to authors.

Using reference management software

Typically you don't format your citations and bibliography by hand. The easiest way is to use a reference manager:

PaperpileThe citation style is built in and you can choose it in Settings > Citation Style or Paperpile > Citation Style in Google Docs.
EndNoteDownload the output style file
Mendeley, Zotero, Papers, and othersThe style is either built in or you can download a CSL file that is supported by most references management programs.
BibTeXBibTeX syles are usually part of a LaTeX template. Check the instructions to authors if the publisher offers a LaTeX template for this journal.

Journal articles

Those examples are references to articles in scholarly journals and how they are supposed to appear in your bibliography.

Not all journals organize their published articles in volumes and issues, so these fields are optional. Some electronic journals do not provide a page range, but instead list an article identifier. In a case like this it's safe to use the article identifier instead of the page range.

A journal article with 1 author
Fishman, M. C. 2001. “The Genomic Cosmos.” Nature 410 (6832): 1033.
A journal article with 2 authors
John, Beena, and Christopher A. Hunter. 2008. “Immunology. Neutrophil Soldiers or Trojan Horses?” Science (New York, N.Y.) 321 (5891): 917–918.
A journal article with 3 authors
Palm, Noah W., Rachel K. Rosenstein, and Ruslan Medzhitov. 2012. “Allergic Host Defences.” Nature 484 (7395): 465–472.
A journal article with 11 or more authors
Liu, Xiaoguo, Fei Zhang, Xinxin Jing, Muchen Pan, Pi Liu, Wei Li, Bowen Zhu, et al. 2018. “Complex Silica Composite Nanomaterials Templated with DNA Origami.” Nature 559 (7715): 593–598.

Books and book chapters

Here are examples of references for authored and edited books as well as book chapters.

An authored book
Maillard, Pierre. 2013. Competitive Quality Strategies. Hoboken, NJ USA: John Wiley & Sons, Inc.
An edited book
Echizen, Isao, Noboru Kunihiro, and Ryoichi Sasaki, eds. 2010. Advances in Information and Computer Security: 5th International Workshop on Security, IWSEC 2010, Kobe, Japan, November 22-24, 2010. Proceedings. Vol. 6434. Lecture Notes in Computer Science. Berlin, Heidelberg: Springer.
A chapter in an edited book
Chaboo, Caroline S. 2011. “Defensive Behaviors in Leaf Beetles: From the Unusual to the Weird.” In Chemical Biology of the Tropics: An Interdisciplinary Approach, edited by Jorge M. Vivanco and Tiffany Weir, 59–69. Signaling and Communication in Plants. Berlin, Heidelberg: Springer.

Web sites

Sometimes references to web sites should appear directly in the text rather than in the bibliography. Refer to the Instructions to authors for Journal of Graphic Novels and Comics.

Blog post
Davis, Josh. 2016. “Illegal Trade In Great Apes Vastly Underestimated.” IFLScience. IFLScience.


This example shows the general structure used for government reports, technical reports, and scientific reports. If you can't locate the report number then it might be better to cite the report as a book. For reports it is usually not individual people that are credited as authors, but a governmental department or agency like "U. S. Food and Drug Administration" or "National Cancer Institute".

Government report
Government Accountability Office. 2013. Acquisition Workforce: DOT Lacks Data, Oversight, and Strategic Focus Needed to Address Significant Workforce Challenges. GAO-13-117. Washington, DC: U.S. Government Printing Office.

Theses and dissertations

Theses including Ph.D. dissertations, Master's theses or Bachelor theses follow the basic format outlined below.

Doctoral dissertation
Theisen, Teresa D. 2008. “Improving the Collaboration Infrastructure of an Online Inter -Institutional Consortium.” Doctoral dissertation, Minneapolis, MN: Capella University.

News paper articles

Unlike scholarly journals, news papers do not usually have a volume and issue number. Instead, the full date and page number is required for a correct reference.

New York Times article
Kishkovsky, Sophia. 2000. “Restructuring At the Bolshoi Costs Director His Position.” New York Times, August 31.

In-text citations

References should be cited in the text by name and year in parentheses:

This sentence cites one reference (Fishman 2001).
This sentence cites two references (Fishman 2001; John and Hunter 2008).

Here are examples of in-text citations with multiple authors:

  • Two authors: (John and Hunter 2008)
  • Three authors: (Palm, Rosenstein, and Medzhitov 2012)
  • 4 or more authors: (Liu et al. 2018)

About the journal

Full journal titleJournal of Graphic Novels and Comics
ISSN (print)2150-4857
ISSN (online)2150-4865
ScopeLiterature and Literary Theory
Visual Arts and Performing Arts

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