How to format your references using the Journal of Graphic Novels and Comics citation style

This is a short guide how to format citations and the bibliography in a manuscript for Journal of Graphic Novels and Comics. For a complete guide how to prepare your manuscript refer to the journal's instructions to authors.

Using reference management software

Typically you don't format your citations and bibliography by hand. The easiest way is to use a reference manager:

PaperpileThe citation style is built in and you can choose it in Settings > Citation Style or Paperpile > Citation Style in Google Docs.
EndNoteDownload the output style file
Mendeley, Zotero, Papers, and othersThe style is either built in or you can download a CSL file that is supported by most references management programs.
BibTeXBibTeX syles are usually part of a LaTeX template. Check the instructions to authors if the publisher offers a LaTeX template for this journal.

Journal articles

Those examples are references to articles in scholarly journals and how they are supposed to appear in your bibliography.

Not all journals organize their published articles in volumes and issues, so these fields are optional. Some electronic journals do not provide a page range, but instead list an article identifier. In a case like this it's safe to use the article identifier instead of the page range.

A journal article with 1 author
Kawaler, Steven D. 2003. “Astronomy. Taking the Pulse of a Massive Star.” Science (New York, N.Y.) 300 (5627): 1885–1886.
A journal article with 2 authors
Youk, Hyun, and Alexander van Oudenaarden. 2009. “Growth Landscape Formed by Perception and Import of Glucose in Yeast.” Nature 462 (7275): 875–879.
A journal article with 3 authors
Chonan, Sho, Shinya Kato, and Takao Aoki. 2014. “Efficient Single-Mode Photon-Coupling Device Utilizing a Nanofiber Tip.” Scientific Reports 4 (April): 4785.
A journal article with 11 or more authors
Wang, S. X., N. X. Sun, M. Yamaguchi, and S. Yabukami. 2000. “Properties of a New Soft Magnetic Material.” Nature 407 (6801): 150–151.

Books and book chapters

Here are examples of references for authored and edited books as well as book chapters.

An authored book
Snape, Steven. 2011. Ancient Egyptian Tombs. Oxford, UK: Wiley-Blackwell.
An edited book
Petković, Miodrag, ed. 2008. Point Estimation of Root Finding Methods. Vol. 1933. Lecture Notes in Mathematics. Berlin, Heidelberg: Springer.
A chapter in an edited book
Ao, Xiang, Xiaowei Cui, and Gang Liu. 2014. “Implementation of GNSS Attitude Determination Receiver.” In China Satellite Navigation Conference (CSNC) 2014 Proceedings: Volume I, edited by Jiadong Sun, Wenhai Jiao, Haitao Wu, and Mingquan Lu, 29–39. Lecture Notes in Electrical Engineering. Berlin, Heidelberg: Springer.

Web sites

Sometimes references to web sites should appear directly in the text rather than in the bibliography. Refer to the Instructions to authors for Journal of Graphic Novels and Comics.

Blog post
Fang, Janet. 2015. “Turtles Seem Surprisingly Unafraid Of Sharks.” IFLScience. IFLScience.


This example shows the general structure used for government reports, technical reports, and scientific reports. If you can't locate the report number then it might be better to cite the report as a book. For reports it is usually not individual people that are credited as authors, but a governmental department or agency like "U. S. Food and Drug Administration" or "National Cancer Institute".

Government report
Government Accountability Office. 2008. Digital Television Transition: Information on the Implementation of the Converter Box Subsidy Program and Consumer Participation in the Program. GAO-08-1181T. Washington, DC: U.S. Government Printing Office.

Theses and dissertations

Theses including Ph.D. dissertations, Master's theses or Bachelor theses follow the basic format outlined below.

Doctoral dissertation
Kramer, Jeffrey A. 2010. “Accurate Localization Given Uncertain Sensors.” Doctoral dissertation, Tampa, FL: University of South Florida.

News paper articles

Unlike scholarly journals, news papers do not usually have a volume and issue number. Instead, the full date and page number is required for a correct reference.

New York Times article
Sanger, David E., Mark Mazzetti, and Ben Hubbard. 2016. “Errant Strike Impairs Effort to Calm Syria.” New York Times, September 19.

In-text citations

References should be cited in the text by name and year in parentheses:

This sentence cites one reference (Kawaler 2003).
This sentence cites two references (Kawaler 2003; Youk and van Oudenaarden 2009).

Here are examples of in-text citations with multiple authors:

  • Two authors: (Youk and van Oudenaarden 2009)
  • Three authors: (Chonan, Kato, and Aoki 2014)
  • 4 or more authors: (Wang et al. 2000)

About the journal

Full journal titleJournal of Graphic Novels and Comics
ISSN (print)2150-4857
ISSN (online)2150-4865
ScopeLiterature and Literary Theory
Visual Arts and Performing Arts

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