How to format your references using the Journal of Graphic Novels and Comics citation style

This is a short guide how to format citations and the bibliography in a manuscript for Journal of Graphic Novels and Comics. For a complete guide how to prepare your manuscript refer to the journal's instructions to authors.

Using reference management software

Typically you don't format your citations and bibliography by hand. The easiest way is to use a reference manager:

PaperpileThe citation style is built in and you can choose it in Settings > Citation Style or Paperpile > Citation Style in Google Docs.
EndNoteDownload the output style file
Mendeley, Zotero, Papers, and othersThe style is either built in or you can download a CSL file that is supported by most references management programs.
BibTeXBibTeX syles are usually part of a LaTeX template. Check the instructions to authors if the publisher offers a LaTeX template for this journal.

Journal articles

Those examples are references to articles in scholarly journals and how they are supposed to appear in your bibliography.

Not all journals organize their published articles in volumes and issues, so these fields are optional. Some electronic journals do not provide a page range, but instead list an article identifier. In a case like this it's safe to use the article identifier instead of the page range.

A journal article with 1 author
Baker, Monya. 2007. “Fountain of Funding for Youth.” Nature 448 (7151): 384.
A journal article with 2 authors
Kiberstis, Paula, and Leslie Roberts. 2014. “Breast Cancer. A Race Still Unfinished. Introduction.” Science (New York, N.Y.) 343 (6178): 1451.
A journal article with 3 authors
Wilmé, Lucienne, Steven M. Goodman, and Jörg U. Ganzhorn. 2006. “Biogeographic Evolution of Madagascar’s Microendemic Biota.” Science (New York, N.Y.) 312 (5776): 1063–1065.
A journal article with 11 or more authors
Wainger, B. J., M. DeGennaro, B. Santoro, S. A. Siegelbaum, and G. R. Tibbs. 2001. “Molecular Mechanism of CAMP Modulation of HCN Pacemaker Channels.” Nature 411 (6839): 805–810.

Books and book chapters

Here are examples of references for authored and edited books as well as book chapters.

An authored book
Safonov, Vladimir O. 2016. Trustworthy Cloud Computing. Hoboken, NJ: John Wiley & Sons, Inc.
An edited book
Atkinson, Peter W., ed. 2010. Vector Biology, Ecology and Control. 1st ed. Dordrecht: Springer Netherlands.
A chapter in an edited book
Tabe, Shahram. 2014. “Electrospun Nanofiber Membranes and Their Applications in Water and Wastewater Treatment.” In Nanotechnology for Water Treatment and Purification, edited by Anming Hu and Allen Apblett, 111–143. Lecture Notes in Nanoscale Science and Technology. Cham: Springer International Publishing.

Web sites

Sometimes references to web sites should appear directly in the text rather than in the bibliography. Refer to the Instructions to authors for Journal of Graphic Novels and Comics.

Blog post
Andrew, Elise. 2015. “Little Farmer, Big Pharma: The Quest To Modify Plants To ‘Grow’ Medicines.” IFLScience. IFLScience.


This example shows the general structure used for government reports, technical reports, and scientific reports. If you can't locate the report number then it might be better to cite the report as a book. For reports it is usually not individual people that are credited as authors, but a governmental department or agency like "U. S. Food and Drug Administration" or "National Cancer Institute".

Government report
Government Accountability Office. 2004. Medicaid Managed Care: Access and Quality Requirements Specific to Low-Income and Other Special Needs Enrollees. GAO-05-44R. Washington, DC: U.S. Government Printing Office.

Theses and dissertations

Theses including Ph.D. dissertations, Master's theses or Bachelor theses follow the basic format outlined below.

Doctoral dissertation
Rodriguez, Steven Gabriel. 2010. “Devotion to Land: The Virgin Mary and the Mudejar in the Post-Conquest Program of Alfonso X of Castile, 1252–1284.” Doctoral dissertation, Long Beach, CA: California State University, Long Beach.

News paper articles

Unlike scholarly journals, news papers do not usually have a volume and issue number. Instead, the full date and page number is required for a correct reference.

New York Times article
Barron, James. 2017. “The Paintings of an ‘Outsider’ Are (Finally) Revealed.” New York Times, January 15.

In-text citations

References should be cited in the text by name and year in parentheses:

This sentence cites one reference (Baker 2007).
This sentence cites two references (Baker 2007; Kiberstis and Roberts 2014).

Here are examples of in-text citations with multiple authors:

  • Two authors: (Kiberstis and Roberts 2014)
  • Three authors: (Wilmé, Goodman, and Ganzhorn 2006)
  • 4 or more authors: (Wainger et al. 2001)

About the journal

Full journal titleJournal of Graphic Novels and Comics
ISSN (print)2150-4857
ISSN (online)2150-4865
ScopeLiterature and Literary Theory
Visual Arts and Performing Arts

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