How to format your references using the Journal of Graphic Novels and Comics citation style

This is a short guide how to format citations and the bibliography in a manuscript for Journal of Graphic Novels and Comics. For a complete guide how to prepare your manuscript refer to the journal's instructions to authors.

Using reference management software

Typically you don't format your citations and bibliography by hand. The easiest way is to use a reference manager:

PaperpileThe citation style is built in and you can choose it in Settings > Citation Style or Paperpile > Citation Style in Google Docs.
EndNoteDownload the output style file
Mendeley, Zotero, Papers, and othersThe style is either built in or you can download a CSL file that is supported by most references management programs.
BibTeXBibTeX syles are usually part of a LaTeX template. Check the instructions to authors if the publisher offers a LaTeX template for this journal.

Journal articles

Those examples are references to articles in scholarly journals and how they are supposed to appear in your bibliography.

Not all journals organize their published articles in volumes and issues, so these fields are optional. Some electronic journals do not provide a page range, but instead list an article identifier. In a case like this it's safe to use the article identifier instead of the page range.

A journal article with 1 author
Pentland, Alex. 2015. “Economics: Simple Market Models Fail the Test.” Nature 525 (7568): 190–191.
A journal article with 2 authors
Ives, Anthony R., and Michael C. Whitlock. 2002. “Ecology. Inbreeding and Metapopulations.” Science (New York, N.Y.) 295 (5554): 454–455.
A journal article with 3 authors
Lee, In-Hwan, Suyong Shin, and Tae-Lim Choi. 2015. “Materials Science. Building Supermicelles from Simple Polymers.” Science (New York, N.Y.) 347 (6228): 1310–1311.
A journal article with 11 or more authors
Bor, Daniel, Nicolas Rothen, David J. Schwartzman, Stephanie Clayton, and Anil K. Seth. 2014. “Adults Can Be Trained to Acquire Synesthetic Experiences.” Scientific Reports 4 (November): 7089.

Books and book chapters

Here are examples of references for authored and edited books as well as book chapters.

An authored book
Sóbester, András, and Alexander I. J. Forrester. 2014. Aircraft Aerodynamic Design. Chichester, UK: John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.
An edited book
Tao, Xiaofeng. 2012. Group Cell Architecture for Cooperative Communications. Edited by Qimei Cui, Xiaodong Xu, and Ping Zhang. SpringerBriefs in Computer Science. New York, NY: Springer.
A chapter in an edited book
Lazaric, Alessandro. 2012. “Transfer in Reinforcement Learning: A Framework and a Survey.” In Reinforcement Learning: State-of-the-Art, edited by Marco Wiering and Martijn van Otterlo, 143–173. Adaptation, Learning, and Optimization. Berlin, Heidelberg: Springer.

Web sites

Sometimes references to web sites should appear directly in the text rather than in the bibliography. Refer to the Instructions to authors for Journal of Graphic Novels and Comics.

Blog post
Andrews, Robin. 2016. “Can Hickeys Really Cause Some People To Have A Stroke?” IFLScience. IFLScience.


This example shows the general structure used for government reports, technical reports, and scientific reports. If you can't locate the report number then it might be better to cite the report as a book. For reports it is usually not individual people that are credited as authors, but a governmental department or agency like "U. S. Food and Drug Administration" or "National Cancer Institute".

Government report
Government Accountability Office. 2003. Aviation Security: Federal Air Marshal Service Is Addressing Challenges of Its Expanded Mission and Workforce, but Additional Actions Needed. GAO-04-242. Washington, DC: U.S. Government Printing Office.

Theses and dissertations

Theses including Ph.D. dissertations, Master's theses or Bachelor theses follow the basic format outlined below.

Doctoral dissertation
Lazareva, Olesya. 2010. “Constructed Wetland/Filter Basin System as a Prospective Pre-Treatment Option for Aquifer Storage and Recovery and a Potential Remedy for Elevated Arsenic.” Doctoral dissertation, Tampa, FL: University of South Florida.

News paper articles

Unlike scholarly journals, news papers do not usually have a volume and issue number. Instead, the full date and page number is required for a correct reference.

New York Times article
Koblin, John. 2017. “TV in the Age of Trump.” New York Times, May 20.

In-text citations

References should be cited in the text by name and year in parentheses:

This sentence cites one reference (Pentland 2015).
This sentence cites two references (Pentland 2015; Ives and Whitlock 2002).

Here are examples of in-text citations with multiple authors:

  • Two authors: (Ives and Whitlock 2002)
  • Three authors: (Lee, Shin, and Choi 2015)
  • 4 or more authors: (Bor et al. 2014)

About the journal

Full journal titleJournal of Graphic Novels and Comics
ISSN (print)2150-4857
ISSN (online)2150-4865
ScopeLiterature and Literary Theory
Visual Arts and Performing Arts

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