How to format your references using the Journal of Clinical Pathology citation style

This is a short guide how to format citations and the bibliography in a manuscript for Journal of Clinical Pathology. For a complete guide how to prepare your manuscript refer to the journal's instructions to authors.

Using reference management software

Typically you don't format your citations and bibliography by hand. The easiest way is to use a reference manager:

PaperpileThe citation style is built in and you can choose it in Settings > Citation Style or Paperpile > Citation Style in Google Docs.
EndNoteDownload the output style file
Mendeley, Zotero, Papers, and othersThe style is either built in or you can download a CSL file that is supported by most references management programs.
BibTeXBibTeX syles are usually part of a LaTeX template. Check the instructions to authors if the publisher offers a LaTeX template for this journal.

Journal articles

Those examples are references to articles in scholarly journals and how they are supposed to appear in your bibliography.

Not all journals organize their published articles in volumes and issues, so these fields are optional. Some electronic journals do not provide a page range, but instead list an article identifier. In a case like this it's safe to use the article identifier instead of the page range.

A journal article with 1 author
Christofori G. New signals from the invasive front. Nature. 2006;441:444–50.
A journal article with 2 authors
Luzzatto L, Notaro R. Malaria. Protecting against bad air. Science. 2001;293:442–3.
A journal article with 3 authors
Chien KR, Domian IJ, Parker KK. Cardiogenesis and the complex biology of regenerative cardiovascular medicine. Science. 2008;322:1494–7.
A journal article with 4 or more authors
Boström KJ, de Lussanet MHE, Weiss T, et al. A computational model unifies apparently contradictory findings concerning phantom pain. Sci Rep. 2014;4:5298.

Books and book chapters

Here are examples of references for authored and edited books as well as book chapters.

An authored book
Daubert EJ. The Annual Campaign. Hoboken, NJ: John Wiley & Sons, Inc. 2009.
An edited book
Bristow J, McDonagh J, editors. Nineteenth-Century Radical Traditions. London: Palgrave Macmillan UK 2016.
A chapter in an edited book
Schweingruber FH, Börner A, Schulze E-D. Ontogeny of the Xylem. In: Börner A, Schulze E-D, eds. Atlas of Stem Anatomy in Herbs, Shrubs and Trees: Volume 2. Berlin, Heidelberg: Springer 2013:371–81.

Web sites

Sometimes references to web sites should appear directly in the text rather than in the bibliography. Refer to the Instructions to authors for Journal of Clinical Pathology.

Blog post
Hale T. This Woman Lived Without Lungs For Six Days. IFLScience. 2017. (accessed 30 October 2018)


This example shows the general structure used for government reports, technical reports, and scientific reports. If you can't locate the report number then it might be better to cite the report as a book. For reports it is usually not individual people that are credited as authors, but a governmental department or agency like "U. S. Food and Drug Administration" or "National Cancer Institute".

Government report
Government Accountability Office. Human Resources Information Systems Issue Area: Active Assignments. Washington, DC: U.S. Government Printing Office 1995.

Theses and dissertations

Theses including Ph.D. dissertations, Master's theses or Bachelor theses follow the basic format outlined below.

Doctoral dissertation
Allen SA. Dispersed Social Work: Understanding Social Presence and Organizational Identification Through the Use of New Communication Technologies. 2014.

News paper articles

Unlike scholarly journals, news papers do not usually have a volume and issue number. Instead, the full date and page number is required for a correct reference.

New York Times article
Walsh MW. A.I.G. Seeks Approval To File More Bank Suits. New York Times. 2013;B1.

In-text citations

References should be cited in the text by sequential numbers in square brackets:

This sentence cites one reference [1].
This sentence cites two references [1,2].
This sentence cites four references [1–4].

About the journal

Full journal titleJournal of Clinical Pathology
AbbreviationJ. Clin. Pathol.
ISSN (print)0021-9746
ISSN (online)1472-4146
ScopeGeneral Medicine
Pathology and Forensic Medicine

Other styles