How to format your references using the Journal of Clinical Pathology citation style

This is a short guide how to format citations and the bibliography in a manuscript for Journal of Clinical Pathology. For a complete guide how to prepare your manuscript refer to the journal's instructions to authors.

Using reference management software

Typically you don't format your citations and bibliography by hand. The easiest way is to use a reference manager:

PaperpileThe citation style is built in and you can choose it in Settings > Citation Style or Paperpile > Citation Style in Google Docs.
EndNoteDownload the output style file
Mendeley, Zotero, Papers, and othersThe style is either built in or you can download a CSL file that is supported by most references management programs.
BibTeXBibTeX syles are usually part of a LaTeX template. Check the instructions to authors if the publisher offers a LaTeX template for this journal.

Journal articles

Those examples are references to articles in scholarly journals and how they are supposed to appear in your bibliography.

Not all journals organize their published articles in volumes and issues, so these fields are optional. Some electronic journals do not provide a page range, but instead list an article identifier. In a case like this it's safe to use the article identifier instead of the page range.

A journal article with 1 author
Baker S. Genomic medicine has failed the poor. Nature 2011;478:287.
A journal article with 2 authors
Rus D, Tolley MT. Design, fabrication and control of soft robots. Nature 2015;521:467–75.
A journal article with 3 authors
Timm RM, Ramey RR 2nd, Nomenclature Committee of the American Society of Mammalogists. What constitutes a proper description? Science 2005;309:2163–6; author reply 2163-6.
A journal article with 4 or more authors
Le Grand R, Mondloch CJ, Maurer D, et al. Neuroperception. Early visual experience and face processing. Nature 2001;410:890.

Books and book chapters

Here are examples of references for authored and edited books as well as book chapters.

An authored book
Reason B, Løvlie L, Brand Flu M. Service Design for Business. Hoboken, NJ: : John Wiley & Sons, Inc 2015.
An edited book
Guo S, Guo Y, editors. Spotlight on China: Changes in Education under China’s Market Economy. Rotterdam: : SensePublishers 2016.
A chapter in an edited book
Li F, Hadjileftheriou M, Kollios G, et al. Authenticated Index Structures for Outsourced Databases. In: Gertz M, Jajodia S, eds. Handbook of Database Security: Applications and Trends. Boston, MA: : Springer US 2008. 115–36.

Web sites

Sometimes references to web sites should appear directly in the text rather than in the bibliography. Refer to the Instructions to authors for Journal of Clinical Pathology.

Blog post
O`Callaghan J. Black Holes Aren’t As Black As Thought, Says Stephen Hawking In New Theory. IFLScience. 2015. (accessed 30 Oct 2018).


This example shows the general structure used for government reports, technical reports, and scientific reports. If you can't locate the report number then it might be better to cite the report as a book. For reports it is usually not individual people that are credited as authors, but a governmental department or agency like "U. S. Food and Drug Administration" or "National Cancer Institute".

Government report
Government Accountability Office. NASA Procurement: Challenges Remain in Implementing Improvement Reforms. Washington, DC: : U.S. Government Printing Office 1994.

Theses and dissertations

Theses including Ph.D. dissertations, Master's theses or Bachelor theses follow the basic format outlined below.

Doctoral dissertation
Saha P. Application hardware-software co-design for reconfigurable computing systems. 2008.

News paper articles

Unlike scholarly journals, news papers do not usually have a volume and issue number. Instead, the full date and page number is required for a correct reference.

New York Times article
Gustines GG. She’s Mighty, Muslim and Leaping Off the Page. New York Times. 2013;:C3.

In-text citations

References should be cited in the text by sequential numbers in square brackets:

This sentence cites one reference [1].
This sentence cites two references [1,2].
This sentence cites four references [1–4].

About the journal

Full journal titleJournal of Clinical Pathology
AbbreviationJ. Clin. Pathol.
ISSN (print)0021-9746
ISSN (online)1472-4146
ScopeGeneral Medicine
Pathology and Forensic Medicine

Other styles