How to format your references using the Journal of Clinical Immunology citation style

This is a short guide how to format citations and the bibliography in a manuscript for Journal of Clinical Immunology (J Clin Immunol). For a complete guide how to prepare your manuscript refer to the journal's instructions to authors.

Using reference management software

Typically you don't format your citations and bibliography by hand. The easiest way is to use a reference manager:

PaperpileThe citation style is built in and you can choose it in Settings > Citation Style or Paperpile > Citation Style in Google Docs.
EndNoteFind the style here: output styles overview
Mendeley, Zotero, Papers, and othersThe style is either built in or you can download a CSL file that is supported by most references management programs.
BibTeXBibTeX syles are usually part of a LaTeX template. Check the instructions to authors if the publisher offers a LaTeX template for this journal.

Journal articles

Those examples are references to articles in scholarly journals and how they are supposed to appear in your bibliography.

Not all journals organize their published articles in volumes and issues, so these fields are optional. Some electronic journals do not provide a page range, but instead list an article identifier. In a case like this it's safe to use the article identifier instead of the page range.

A journal article with 1 author
1. Jenkins A. Literature: Wonders and ologies. Nature. 2012;482:32–3.
A journal article with 2 authors
1. Gui C, Wang J. Silicon-organic hybrid slot waveguide based three-input multicasted optical hexadecimal addition/subtraction. Sci Rep. 2014;4:7491.
A journal article with 3 authors
1. Bomfleur B, McLoughlin S, Vajda V. Fossilized nuclei and chromosomes reveal 180 million years of genomic stasis in royal ferns. Science. 2014;343:1376–7.
A journal article with 7 or more authors
1. Mizutani K-I, Yoon K, Dang L, Tokunaga A, Gaiano N. Differential Notch signalling distinguishes neural stem cells from intermediate progenitors. Nature. 2007;449:351–5.

Books and book chapters

Here are examples of references for authored and edited books as well as book chapters.

An authored book
1. Perez A. IP, Ethernet and MPLS Networks. Hoboken, NJ USA: John Wiley & Sons, Inc.; 2013.
An edited book
1. Szabó PG. New Approaches to Circle Packing in a Square: With Program Codes. Markót MC, Csendes T, Specht E, Casado LG, García I, editors. Boston, MA: Springer US; 2007.
A chapter in an edited book
1. Nicolini E, Ringeissen C, Rusinowitch M. Combinable Extensions of Abelian Groups. In: Schmidt RA, editor. Automated Deduction – CADE-22: 22nd International Conference on Automated Deduction, Montreal, Canada, August 2-7, 2009 Proceedings. Berlin, Heidelberg: Springer; 2009. p. 51–66.

Web sites

Sometimes references to web sites should appear directly in the text rather than in the bibliography. Refer to the Instructions to authors for Journal of Clinical Immunology.

Blog post
1. Andrew E. The Bronx Zoo Has Two New Gorillas! [Internet]. IFLScience. IFLScience; 2014 [cited 2018 Oct 30]. Available from:


This example shows the general structure used for government reports, technical reports, and scientific reports. If you can't locate the report number then it might be better to cite the report as a book. For reports it is usually not individual people that are credited as authors, but a governmental department or agency like "U. S. Food and Drug Administration" or "National Cancer Institute".

Government report
1. Government Accountability Office. Transportation Security Research: Coordination Needed in Selecting and Implementing Infrastructure Vulnerability Assessments. Washington, DC: U.S. Government Printing Office; 2003 May. Report No.: GAO-03-502.

Theses and dissertations

Theses including Ph.D. dissertations, Master's theses or Bachelor theses follow the basic format outlined below.

Doctoral dissertation
1. Vento-Wilson M. The role of the speech-language pathologist and augmentative and alternative communication with acute care patients with severe communication impairments [Doctoral dissertation]. [Long Beach, CA]: California State University, Long Beach; 2012.

News paper articles

Unlike scholarly journals, news papers do not usually have a volume and issue number. Instead, the full date and page number is required for a correct reference.

New York Times article
1. (nyt) SK. World Briefing | Europe: Russia: Put On A Happy Face. New York Times. 2004 May 27;A14.

In-text citations

References should be cited in the text by sequential numbers in square brackets:

This sentence cites one reference [1].
This sentence cites two references [1,1].
This sentence cites four references [1,1,1,1].

About the journal

Full journal titleJournal of Clinical Immunology
AbbreviationJ. Clin. Immunol.
ISSN (print)0271-9142
ISSN (online)1573-2592
Immunology and Allergy

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