How to format your references using the Journal of Clinical Immunology citation style

This is a short guide how to format citations and the bibliography in a manuscript for Journal of Clinical Immunology. For a complete guide how to prepare your manuscript refer to the journal's instructions to authors.

Using reference management software

Typically you don't format your citations and bibliography by hand. The easiest way is to use a reference manager:

PaperpileThe citation style is built in and you can choose it in Settings > Citation Style or Paperpile > Citation Style in Google Docs.
EndNoteFind the style here: output styles overview
Mendeley, Zotero, Papers, and othersThe style is either built in or you can download a CSL file that is supported by most references management programs.
BibTeXBibTeX syles are usually part of a LaTeX template. Check the instructions to authors if the publisher offers a LaTeX template for this journal.

Journal articles

Those examples are references to articles in scholarly journals and how they are supposed to appear in your bibliography.

Not all journals organize their published articles in volumes and issues, so these fields are optional. Some electronic journals do not provide a page range, but instead list an article identifier. In a case like this it's safe to use the article identifier instead of the page range.

A journal article with 1 author
1. Heilbron JL. History: The path to the quantum atom. Nature. 2013;498:27–30.
A journal article with 2 authors
1. Misra A, Ching WY. Theoretical nonlinear response of complex single crystal under multi-axial tensile loading. Sci Rep. 2013;3:1488.
A journal article with 3 authors
1. Sørensen TL-M, Møller JV, Nissen P. Phosphoryl transfer and calcium ion occlusion in the calcium pump. Science. 2004;304:1672–5.
A journal article with 7 or more authors
1. Thompson J, Pisarczyk R, Kurzyński P, Kaszlikowski D. An experimental proposal for revealing contextuality in almost all qutrit states. Sci Rep. 2013;3:2706.

Books and book chapters

Here are examples of references for authored and edited books as well as book chapters.

An authored book
1. Sóbester A, Forrester AIJ. Aircraft Aerodynamic Design. Chichester, UK: John Wiley & Sons, Ltd; 2014.
An edited book
1. Hurst JL, Beynon RJ, Roberts SC, Wyatt TD, editors. Chemical Signals in Vertebrates 11. New York, NY: Springer; 2008.
A chapter in an edited book
1. Mumford-Valenzuela CL. A Simple Approach to Evolutionary Multiobjective Optimization. In: Abraham A, Jain L, Goldberg R, editors. Evolutionary Multiobjective Optimization: Theoretical Advances and Applications. London: Springer; 2005. p. 55–79.

Web sites

Sometimes references to web sites should appear directly in the text rather than in the bibliography. Refer to the Instructions to authors for Journal of Clinical Immunology.

Blog post
1. Luntz S. Mars Is Emerging From An Ice Age, Claims New Study [Internet]. IFLScience. IFLScience; 2016 [cited 2018 Oct 30]. Available from:


This example shows the general structure used for government reports, technical reports, and scientific reports. If you can't locate the report number then it might be better to cite the report as a book. For reports it is usually not individual people that are credited as authors, but a governmental department or agency like "U. S. Food and Drug Administration" or "National Cancer Institute".

Government report
1. Government Accountability Office. Tax Systems Modernization: Progress in Achieving IRS’ Business Vision. Washington, DC: U.S. Government Printing Office; 1996 May. Report No.: T-GGD-96-123.

Theses and dissertations

Theses including Ph.D. dissertations, Master's theses or Bachelor theses follow the basic format outlined below.

Doctoral dissertation
1. Carver A. From under the blanket [Doctoral dissertation]. [Long Beach, CA]: California State University, Long Beach; 2017.

News paper articles

Unlike scholarly journals, news papers do not usually have a volume and issue number. Instead, the full date and page number is required for a correct reference.

New York Times article
1. Stewart JB. Following Amazon In the Hunt For a Home. New York Times. 2017 Oct 26;B1.

In-text citations

References should be cited in the text by sequential numbers in square brackets:

This sentence cites one reference [1].
This sentence cites two references [1,2].
This sentence cites four references [1–4].

About the journal

Full journal titleJournal of Clinical Immunology
AbbreviationJ. Clin. Immunol.
ISSN (print)0271-9142
ISSN (online)1573-2592
Immunology and Allergy

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