How to format your references using the Journal of Clinical Epidemiology citation style

This is a short guide how to format citations and the bibliography in a manuscript for Journal of Clinical Epidemiology. For a complete guide how to prepare your manuscript refer to the journal's instructions to authors.

Using reference management software

Typically you don't format your citations and bibliography by hand. The easiest way is to use a reference manager:

PaperpileThe citation style is built in and you can choose it in Settings > Citation Style or Paperpile > Citation Style in Google Docs.
EndNoteDownload the output style file
Mendeley, Zotero, Papers, and othersThe style is either built in or you can download a CSL file that is supported by most references management programs.
BibTeXBibTeX syles are usually part of a LaTeX template. Check the instructions to authors if the publisher offers a LaTeX template for this journal.

Journal articles

Those examples are references to articles in scholarly journals and how they are supposed to appear in your bibliography.

Not all journals organize their published articles in volumes and issues, so these fields are optional. Some electronic journals do not provide a page range, but instead list an article identifier. In a case like this it's safe to use the article identifier instead of the page range.

A journal article with 1 author
Kouwenhoven L. One photon seen by one electron. Nature 2000;403:374–5.
A journal article with 2 authors
Gross RA, Kalra B. Biodegradable polymers for the environment. Science 2002;297:803–7.
A journal article with 3 authors
Penner JE, Dong X, Chen Y. Observational evidence of a change in radiative forcing due to the indirect aerosol effect. Nature 2004;427:231–4.
A journal article with 7 or more authors
Everaers R, Sukumaran SK, Grest GS, Svaneborg C, Sivasubramanian A, Kremer K. Rheology and microscopic topology of entangled polymeric liquids. Science 2004;303:823–6.

Books and book chapters

Here are examples of references for authored and edited books as well as book chapters.

An authored book
Van Fleet PJ. Discrete Wavelet Transformations. Hoboken, NJ: John Wiley & Sons, Inc.; 2008.
An edited book
Lambrakis N, Stournaras G, Katsanou K, editors. Advances in the Research of Aquatic Environment: Volume 2. 1st ed. Berlin, Heidelberg: Springer; 2011.
A chapter in an edited book
Bocaniala CD, Sá da Costa J. A Fuzzy Classification Technique Applied to Fault Diagnosis. In: Palade V, Jain L, Bocaniala CD, editors. Computational Intelligence in Fault Diagnosis, London: Springer; 2006, p. 105–23.

Web sites

Sometimes references to web sites should appear directly in the text rather than in the bibliography. Refer to the Instructions to authors for Journal of Clinical Epidemiology.

Blog post
Andrew E. Born to Win: Top Athletes Don’t Share a Single Talent Gene, but Hundreds of Them. IFLScience 2015. (accessed October 30, 2018).


This example shows the general structure used for government reports, technical reports, and scientific reports. If you can't locate the report number then it might be better to cite the report as a book. For reports it is usually not individual people that are credited as authors, but a governmental department or agency like "U. S. Food and Drug Administration" or "National Cancer Institute".

Government report
Government Accountability Office. Telecommunications: Broadband Deployment Is Extensive throughout the United States, but It Is Difficult to Assess the Extent of Deployment Gaps in Rural Areas. Washington, DC: U.S. Government Printing Office; 2006.

Theses and dissertations

Theses including Ph.D. dissertations, Master's theses or Bachelor theses follow the basic format outlined below.

Doctoral dissertation
Kweider NM. Reading comprehension among Arabic Heritage Language Learners and the Simple View of Reading model. Doctoral dissertation. California State University, Long Beach, 2014.

News paper articles

Unlike scholarly journals, news papers do not usually have a volume and issue number. Instead, the full date and page number is required for a correct reference.

New York Times article
Pilon M. Game Time Is Adjusted; Jewish School Will Play. New York Times 2012:B9.

In-text citations

References should be cited in the text by sequential numbers in square brackets:

This sentence cites one reference [1].
This sentence cites two references [1,2].
This sentence cites four references [1–4].

About the journal

Full journal titleJournal of Clinical Epidemiology
AbbreviationJ. Clin. Epidemiol.
ISSN (print)0895-4356

Other styles