How to format your references using the Journal of Clinical Epidemiology citation style

This is a short guide how to format citations and the bibliography in a manuscript for Journal of Clinical Epidemiology. For a complete guide how to prepare your manuscript refer to the journal's instructions to authors.

Using reference management software

Typically you don't format your citations and bibliography by hand. The easiest way is to use a reference manager:

PaperpileThe citation style is built in and you can choose it in Settings > Citation Style or Paperpile > Citation Style in Google Docs.
EndNoteDownload the output style file
Mendeley, Zotero, Papers, and othersThe style is either built in or you can download a CSL file that is supported by most references management programs.
BibTeXBibTeX syles are usually part of a LaTeX template. Check the instructions to authors if the publisher offers a LaTeX template for this journal.

Journal articles

Those examples are references to articles in scholarly journals and how they are supposed to appear in your bibliography.

Not all journals organize their published articles in volumes and issues, so these fields are optional. Some electronic journals do not provide a page range, but instead list an article identifier. In a case like this it's safe to use the article identifier instead of the page range.

A journal article with 1 author
Pikitch EK. Oceans. The risks of overfishing. Science 2012;338:474–5.
A journal article with 2 authors
DiNardo S, Braun RE. Developmental biology. Home for the precious few. Science 2007;317:1696–7.
A journal article with 3 authors
Kennedy MJ, Pevear DR, Hill RJ. Mineral surface control of organic carbon in black shale. Science 2002;295:657–60.
A journal article with 7 or more authors
Lentink D, Dickson WB, van Leeuwen JL, Dickinson MH. Leading-edge vortices elevate lift of autorotating plant seeds. Science 2009;324:1438–40.

Books and book chapters

Here are examples of references for authored and edited books as well as book chapters.

An authored book
Held G. Bulletproofing TCP/IP-based Windows NT/2000 Networks. Chichester, UK: John Wiley & Sons, Ltd; 2001.
An edited book
Farris DN, Davis MA, Compton DR, editors. Illuminating How Identities, Stereotypes and Inequalities Matter through Gender Studies. Dordrecht: Springer Netherlands; 2014.
A chapter in an edited book
Goertzel B, Geisweiller N, Coelho L, Janicic P, Pennachin C. Temporal Reasoning. In: Geisweiller N, Coelho L, Janičić P, Pennachin C, editors. Real-World Reasoning: Toward Scalable, Uncertain Spatiotemporal, Contextual and Causal Inference, Paris: Atlantis Press; 2011, p. 79–97.

Web sites

Sometimes references to web sites should appear directly in the text rather than in the bibliography. Refer to the Instructions to authors for Journal of Clinical Epidemiology.

Blog post
Hamilton K. So You Want To Build A Death Star? Here’s How To Get Started. IFLScience 2016. (accessed October 30, 2018).


This example shows the general structure used for government reports, technical reports, and scientific reports. If you can't locate the report number then it might be better to cite the report as a book. For reports it is usually not individual people that are credited as authors, but a governmental department or agency like "U. S. Food and Drug Administration" or "National Cancer Institute".

Government report
Government Accountability Office. Federal Agencies’ Maintenance of Computer Programs: Expensive and Undermanaged. Washington, DC: U.S. Government Printing Office; 1981.

Theses and dissertations

Theses including Ph.D. dissertations, Master's theses or Bachelor theses follow the basic format outlined below.

Doctoral dissertation
Campbell AB. An analysis of the demography and habitat usage of Roatán’s spiny-tailed iguana, Ctenosaura oedirhina. Doctoral dissertation. Florida Atlantic University, 2015.

News paper articles

Unlike scholarly journals, news papers do not usually have a volume and issue number. Instead, the full date and page number is required for a correct reference.

New York Times article
Crow K. Those Gray Boxes on Poles? Fear Not, the Company Says. New York Times 2000:147.

In-text citations

References should be cited in the text by sequential numbers in square brackets:

This sentence cites one reference [1].
This sentence cites two references [1,2].
This sentence cites four references [1–4].

About the journal

Full journal titleJournal of Clinical Epidemiology
AbbreviationJ. Clin. Epidemiol.
ISSN (print)0895-4356

Other styles