How to format your references using the Journal of Chemical Education citation style

This is a short guide how to format citations and the bibliography in a manuscript for Journal of Chemical Education. For a complete guide how to prepare your manuscript refer to the journal's instructions to authors.

Using reference management software

Typically you don't format your citations and bibliography by hand. The easiest way is to use a reference manager:

PaperpileThe citation style is built in and you can choose it in Settings > Citation Style or Paperpile > Citation Style in Google Docs.
EndNoteFind the style here: output styles overview
Mendeley, Zotero, Papers, and othersThe style is either built in or you can download a CSL file that is supported by most references management programs.
BibTeXBibTeX syles are usually part of a LaTeX template. Check the instructions to authors if the publisher offers a LaTeX template for this journal.

Journal articles

Those examples are references to articles in scholarly journals and how they are supposed to appear in your bibliography.

Not all journals organize their published articles in volumes and issues, so these fields are optional. Some electronic journals do not provide a page range, but instead list an article identifier. In a case like this it's safe to use the article identifier instead of the page range.

A journal article with 1 author
Mukherjee, R. The Winding Road. Science 2014, 346 (6212), 1026.
A journal article with 2 authors
Michalakis, Y.; Roze, D. Evolution. Epistasis in RNA Viruses. Science 2004, 306 (5701), 1492–1493.
A journal article with 3 authors
Buszczak, M.; Paterno, S.; Spradling, A. C. Drosophila Stem Cells Share a Common Requirement for the Histone H2B Ubiquitin Protease Scrawny. Science 2009, 323 (5911), 248–251.
A journal article with 11 or more authors
Hannon, J. B.; Hibino, H.; Bartelt, N. C.; Swartzentruber, B. S.; Ogino, T.; Kellogg, G. L. Dynamics of the Silicon (111) Surface Phase Transition. Nature 2000, 405 (6786), 552–554.

Books and book chapters

Here are examples of references for authored and edited books as well as book chapters.

An authored book
O’Hara, B. T.; Malisow, B. CCSP® (ISC) 2® Certified Cloud Security Professional Official Study Guide; John Wiley & Sons, Inc.: Hoboken, NJ, 2017.
An edited book
Noninvasive Imaging of Myocardial Ischemia; Anagnostopoulos, C. D., Nihoyannopoulos, P., Bax, J. J., Wall, E. van der, Eds.; Springer: London, 2006.
A chapter in an edited book
Agarwal, R. P.; Cuevas, C.; Lizama, C. First-Order Semilinear Difference Equations. In Regularity of Difference Equations on Banach Spaces; Cuevas, C., Lizama, C., Eds.; Springer International Publishing: Cham, 2014; pp 57–69.

Web sites

Sometimes references to web sites should appear directly in the text rather than in the bibliography. Refer to the Instructions to authors for Journal of Chemical Education.

Blog post
Andrew, E. How neuroscience is being used to spread quackery in business and education. IFLScience. (accessed 2018-10-30).


This example shows the general structure used for government reports, technical reports, and scientific reports. If you can't locate the report number then it might be better to cite the report as a book. For reports it is usually not individual people that are credited as authors, but a governmental department or agency like "U. S. Food and Drug Administration" or "National Cancer Institute".

Government report
Government Accountability Office. Remedial Education: Modifying Chapter 1 Formula Would Target More Funds to Those Most in Need; HRD-92-16; U.S. Government Printing Office: Washington, DC, 1992.

Theses and dissertations

Theses including Ph.D. dissertations, Master's theses or Bachelor theses follow the basic format outlined below.

Doctoral dissertation
Stoecker, K. Transfer of Topic-Prominence in Chinese-English Interlanguage. Doctoral dissertation, Southern Illinois University, Edwardsville, IL, 2013.

News paper articles

Unlike scholarly journals, news papers do not usually have a volume and issue number. Instead, the full date and page number is required for a correct reference.

New York Times article
Mackay, I. P. Dogwood at Valley Forge. New York Times. May 7, 1935, p BOOKS ART22.

In-text citations

References should be cited in the text by sequential numbers in superscript:

This sentence cites one reference 1.
This sentence cites two references 1,2.
This sentence cites four references 1–4.

About the journal

Full journal titleJournal of Chemical Education
AbbreviationJ. Chem. Educ.
ISSN (print)0021-9584
ISSN (online)1938-1328
ScopeGeneral Chemistry

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