How to format your references using the Journal of Chemical Education citation style

This is a short guide how to format citations and the bibliography in a manuscript for Journal of Chemical Education. For a complete guide how to prepare your manuscript refer to the journal's instructions to authors.

Using reference management software

Typically you don't format your citations and bibliography by hand. The easiest way is to use a reference manager:

PaperpileThe citation style is built in and you can choose it in Settings > Citation Style or Paperpile > Citation Style in Google Docs.
EndNoteFind the style here: output styles overview
Mendeley, Zotero, Papers, and othersThe style is either built in or you can download a CSL file that is supported by most references management programs.
BibTeXBibTeX syles are usually part of a LaTeX template. Check the instructions to authors if the publisher offers a LaTeX template for this journal.

Journal articles

Those examples are references to articles in scholarly journals and how they are supposed to appear in your bibliography.

Not all journals organize their published articles in volumes and issues, so these fields are optional. Some electronic journals do not provide a page range, but instead list an article identifier. In a case like this it's safe to use the article identifier instead of the page range.

A journal article with 1 author
McGrayne, S. B. Portraits of Science. Damn the Torpedoes. Full Speed Ahead! Science 2002, 296 (5569), 851–852.
A journal article with 2 authors
Burton, D. R.; Weiss, R. A. AIDS/HIV. A Boost for HIV Vaccine Design. Science 2010, 329 (5993), 770–773.
A journal article with 3 authors
Shekhawat, G.; Tark, S.-H.; Dravid, V. P. MOSFET-Embedded Microcantilevers for Measuring Deflection in Biomolecular Sensors. Science 2006, 311 (5767), 1592–1595.
A journal article with 11 or more authors
Gasparini, F.; Caicci, F.; Rigon, F.; Zaniolo, G.; Manni, L. Testing an Unusual in Vivo Vessel Network Model: A Method to Study Angiogenesis in the Colonial Tunicate Botryllus Schlosseri. Sci. Rep. 2014, 4, 6460.

Books and book chapters

Here are examples of references for authored and edited books as well as book chapters.

An authored book
Lau, V. K. N.; Ricky Kwok, Y.-K. Channel-Adaptive Technologies and Cross-Layer Designs for Wireless Systems with Multiple Antennas; John Wiley & Sons, Inc.: Hoboken, NJ, 2006.
An edited book
Schomburg, H. Higher Education and Graduate Employment in Europe: Results from Graduate Surveys from Twelve Countries; Teichler, U., Ed.; Higher Education Dynamics; Springer Netherlands: Dordrecht, 2006; Vol. 15.
A chapter in an edited book
Bulgakova, T. Climate Change, Vulnerability and Adaptation Among Nenets Reindeer Herders. In Community Adaptation and Vulnerability in Arctic Regions; Hovelsrud, G. K., Smit, B., Eds.; Springer Netherlands: Dordrecht, 2010; pp 83–105.

Web sites

Sometimes references to web sites should appear directly in the text rather than in the bibliography. Refer to the Instructions to authors for Journal of Chemical Education.

Blog post
Davis, J. Male Spider Mutilates Females’ Genitalia To Prevent Her From Mating Ever Again (accessed Oct 30, 2018).


This example shows the general structure used for government reports, technical reports, and scientific reports. If you can't locate the report number then it might be better to cite the report as a book. For reports it is usually not individual people that are credited as authors, but a governmental department or agency like "U. S. Food and Drug Administration" or "National Cancer Institute".

Government report
Government Accountability Office. Quality of Weather Forecasts and Opportunity for Improvements; CED-78-33; U.S. Government Printing Office: Washington, DC, 1978.

Theses and dissertations

Theses including Ph.D. dissertations, Master's theses or Bachelor theses follow the basic format outlined below.

Doctoral dissertation
Boudreau, M.-L. Chanter En Français En Louisiane: Du Passé Vers Le Futur. Doctoral dissertation, University of Louisiana, Lafayette, LA, 2014.

News paper articles

Unlike scholarly journals, news papers do not usually have a volume and issue number. Instead, the full date and page number is required for a correct reference.

New York Times article
Chapman, M. M. U.A.W. Leaders Approve Proposed G.M. Contract. New York Times. October 29, 2015, p B3.

In-text citations

References should be cited in the text by sequential numbers in superscript:

This sentence cites one reference 1.
This sentence cites two references 1,2.
This sentence cites four references 1–4.

About the journal

Full journal titleJournal of Chemical Education
AbbreviationJ. Chem. Educ.
ISSN (print)0021-9584
ISSN (online)1938-1328
ScopeGeneral Chemistry

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