How to format your references using the Journal of Chemical Education citation style

This is a short guide how to format citations and the bibliography in a manuscript for Journal of Chemical Education. For a complete guide how to prepare your manuscript refer to the journal's instructions to authors.

Using reference management software

Typically you don't format your citations and bibliography by hand. The easiest way is to use a reference manager:

PaperpileThe citation style is built in and you can choose it in Settings > Citation Style or Paperpile > Citation Style in Google Docs.
EndNoteFind the style here: output styles overview
Mendeley, Zotero, Papers, and othersThe style is either built in or you can download a CSL file that is supported by most references management programs.
BibTeXBibTeX syles are usually part of a LaTeX template. Check the instructions to authors if the publisher offers a LaTeX template for this journal.

Journal articles

Those examples are references to articles in scholarly journals and how they are supposed to appear in your bibliography.

Not all journals organize their published articles in volumes and issues, so these fields are optional. Some electronic journals do not provide a page range, but instead list an article identifier. In a case like this it's safe to use the article identifier instead of the page range.

A journal article with 1 author
Tittel, W. Quantum Physics: Teleportation for Two. Nature 2015, 518 (7540), 491–492.
A journal article with 2 authors
Lollar, B. S.; McCollom, T. M. Geochemistry: Biosignatures and Abiotic Constraints on Early Life. Nature 2006, 444 (7121), E18; discussion E18-9.
A journal article with 3 authors
James, S.; Simmons, C. P.; James, A. A. Ecology. Mosquito Trials. Science 2011, 334 (6057), 771–772.
A journal article with 11 or more authors
Valiullin, R.; Naumov, S.; Galvosas, P.; Kärger, J.; Woo, H.-J.; Porcheron, F.; Monson, P. A. Exploration of Molecular Dynamics during Transient Sorption of Fluids in Mesoporous Materials. Nature 2006, 443 (7114), 965–968.

Books and book chapters

Here are examples of references for authored and edited books as well as book chapters.

An authored book
Kossiakoff, A.; Sweet, W. N. Systems Engineering Principles and Practice; John Wiley & Sons, Inc.: Hoboken, NJ, 2005.
An edited book
Tumors of the Chest: Biology, Diagnosis and Management; Syrigos, K. N., Nutting, C. M., Roussos, C., Eds.; Springer: Berlin, Heidelberg, 2006.
A chapter in an edited book
Ruiz-Amaya, J.; Delgado-Restituto, M.; Rodríguez-Vázquez, Á. Behavioural Modelling of Pipeline ADCs. In Device-Level Modeling and Synthesis of High-Performance Pipeline ADCs; Delgado-Restituto, M., Rodríguez-Vázquez, Á., Eds.; Springer: New York, NY, 2011; pp 65–103.

Web sites

Sometimes references to web sites should appear directly in the text rather than in the bibliography. Refer to the Instructions to authors for Journal of Chemical Education.

Blog post
Hamilton, K. Trailer For Man “Eaten Alive” By Anaconda Is Released (accessed Oct 30, 2018).


This example shows the general structure used for government reports, technical reports, and scientific reports. If you can't locate the report number then it might be better to cite the report as a book. For reports it is usually not individual people that are credited as authors, but a governmental department or agency like "U. S. Food and Drug Administration" or "National Cancer Institute".

Government report
Government Accountability Office. Desktop Outsourcing: Positive Results Reported, but Analyses Could Be Strengthened; GAO-02-329; U.S. Government Printing Office: Washington, DC, 2002.

Theses and dissertations

Theses including Ph.D. dissertations, Master's theses or Bachelor theses follow the basic format outlined below.

Doctoral dissertation
Morr, R. Age Discrimination: Prejudice Suppression in the Selection Process. Doctoral dissertation, Southern Illinois University: Edwardsville, IL, 2015.

News paper articles

Unlike scholarly journals, news papers do not usually have a volume and issue number. Instead, the full date and page number is required for a correct reference.

New York Times article
Williams, J. Here’s a Solution. New York Times. August 7, 2016, p BR4.

In-text citations

References should be cited in the text by sequential numbers in superscript:

This sentence cites one reference 1.
This sentence cites two references 1,2.
This sentence cites four references 1–4.

About the journal

Full journal titleJournal of Chemical Education
AbbreviationJ. Chem. Educ.
ISSN (print)0021-9584
ISSN (online)1938-1328
ScopeGeneral Chemistry

Other styles