How to format your references using the Journal of Chemical Education citation style

This is a short guide how to format citations and the bibliography in a manuscript for Journal of Chemical Education. For a complete guide how to prepare your manuscript refer to the journal's instructions to authors.

Using reference management software

Typically you don't format your citations and bibliography by hand. The easiest way is to use a reference manager:

PaperpileThe citation style is built in and you can choose it in Settings > Citation Style or Paperpile > Citation Style in Google Docs.
EndNoteFind the style here: output styles overview
Mendeley, Zotero, Papers, and othersThe style is either built in or you can download a CSL file that is supported by most references management programs.
BibTeXBibTeX syles are usually part of a LaTeX template. Check the instructions to authors if the publisher offers a LaTeX template for this journal.

Journal articles

Those examples are references to articles in scholarly journals and how they are supposed to appear in your bibliography.

Not all journals organize their published articles in volumes and issues, so these fields are optional. Some electronic journals do not provide a page range, but instead list an article identifier. In a case like this it's safe to use the article identifier instead of the page range.

A journal article with 1 author
Cyranoski, D. Taiwan: Biotech Vision. Nature 2003, 421 (6923), 672–673.
A journal article with 2 authors
Puszkarski, H.; Tomczak, P. Spin-Wave Resonance Model of Surface Pinning in Ferromagnetic Semiconductor (Ga,Mn)As Thin Films. Sci. Rep. 2014, 4, 6135.
A journal article with 3 authors
Huey, R. B.; Losos, J. B.; Moritz, C. Ecology. Are Lizards Toast? Science 2010, 328 (5980), 832–833.
A journal article with 11 or more authors
Silva, G. A.; Czeisler, C.; Niece, K. L.; Beniash, E.; Harrington, D. A.; Kessler, J. A.; Stupp, S. I. Selective Differentiation of Neural Progenitor Cells by High-Epitope Density Nanofibers. Science 2004, 303 (5662), 1352–1355.

Books and book chapters

Here are examples of references for authored and edited books as well as book chapters.

An authored book
Ming, D.; Glasser, D.; Hildebrandt, D.; Glasser, B.; Metzer, M. Attainable Region Theory; John Wiley & Sons, Inc.: Hoboken, NJ, 2016.
An edited book
Mathematics and the Aesthetic: New Approaches to an Ancient Affinity; Sinclair, N., Pimm, D., Higginson, W., Eds.; CMS Books in Mathematics; Springer: New York, NY, 2007.
A chapter in an edited book
Li, B.; Kim, Y.-C. Energy Efficient Spectrum Allocation in IP-over-EON with Traffic Grooming. In Nature of Computation and Communication: Second International Conference, ICTCC 2016, Rach Gia, Vietnam, March 17-18, 2016, Revised Selected Papers; Vinh, P. C., Barolli, L., Eds.; Lecture Notes of the Institute for Computer Sciences, Social Informatics and Telecommunications Engineering; Springer International Publishing: Cham, 2016; pp 33–42.

Web sites

Sometimes references to web sites should appear directly in the text rather than in the bibliography. Refer to the Instructions to authors for Journal of Chemical Education.

Blog post
Andrew, E. Born this way? An evolutionary view of ‘gay genes.’ IFLScience.‘gay-genes’/ (accessed 2018-10-30).


This example shows the general structure used for government reports, technical reports, and scientific reports. If you can't locate the report number then it might be better to cite the report as a book. For reports it is usually not individual people that are credited as authors, but a governmental department or agency like "U. S. Food and Drug Administration" or "National Cancer Institute".

Government report
Government Accountability Office. DOD Business Systems Modernization: Billions Being Invested without Adequate Oversight; GAO-05-381; U.S. Government Printing Office: Washington, DC, 2005.

Theses and dissertations

Theses including Ph.D. dissertations, Master's theses or Bachelor theses follow the basic format outlined below.

Doctoral dissertation
Harper, T. Going Public, Staying Private, and Everything in Between. Doctoral dissertation, University of Arizona, Tucson, AZ, 2010.

News paper articles

Unlike scholarly journals, news papers do not usually have a volume and issue number. Instead, the full date and page number is required for a correct reference.

New York Times article
Norton, M. B. At War With the Shakers. New York Times. September 19, 2010, p BR20.

In-text citations

References should be cited in the text by sequential numbers in superscript:

This sentence cites one reference 1.
This sentence cites two references 1,2.
This sentence cites four references 1–4.

About the journal

Full journal titleJournal of Chemical Education
AbbreviationJ. Chem. Educ.
ISSN (print)0021-9584
ISSN (online)1938-1328
ScopeGeneral Chemistry

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