How to format your references using the Journal of Chemical Education citation style

This is a short guide how to format citations and the bibliography in a manuscript for Journal of Chemical Education. For a complete guide how to prepare your manuscript refer to the journal's instructions to authors.

Using reference management software

Typically you don't format your citations and bibliography by hand. The easiest way is to use a reference manager:

PaperpileThe citation style is built in and you can choose it in Settings > Citation Style or Paperpile > Citation Style in Google Docs.
EndNoteFind the style here: output styles overview
Mendeley, Zotero, Papers, and othersThe style is either built in or you can download a CSL file that is supported by most references management programs.
BibTeXBibTeX syles are usually part of a LaTeX template. Check the instructions to authors if the publisher offers a LaTeX template for this journal.

Journal articles

Those examples are references to articles in scholarly journals and how they are supposed to appear in your bibliography.

Not all journals organize their published articles in volumes and issues, so these fields are optional. Some electronic journals do not provide a page range, but instead list an article identifier. In a case like this it's safe to use the article identifier instead of the page range.

A journal article with 1 author
Grillner, S. Neuroscience. Human Locomotor Circuits Conform. Science 2011, 334 (6058), 912–913.
A journal article with 2 authors
Davidson, K.; Humphreys, R. M. The Great Eruption of η Carinae. Nature 2012, 486 (7403), E1; discussion E1-2.
A journal article with 3 authors
Baumgart, T.; Hess, S. T.; Webb, W. W. Imaging Coexisting Fluid Domains in Biomembrane Models Coupling Curvature and Line Tension. Nature 2003, 425 (6960), 821–824.
A journal article with 11 or more authors
Mitchell, T. M.; Shinkareva, S. V.; Carlson, A.; Chang, K.-M.; Malave, V. L.; Mason, R. A.; Just, M. A. Predicting Human Brain Activity Associated with the Meanings of Nouns. Science 2008, 320 (5880), 1191–1195.

Books and book chapters

Here are examples of references for authored and edited books as well as book chapters.

An authored book
MacGowan, C. The Twentieth-Century American Fiction Handbook; Wiley-Blackwell: Oxford, UK, 2011.
An edited book
Data Integration in the Life Sciences: 4th International Workshop, DILS 2007, Philadelphia, PA, USA, June 27-29, 2007. Proceedings; Cohen-Boulakia, S., Tannen, V., Eds.; Lecture Notes in Computer Science; Springer: Berlin, Heidelberg, 2007; Vol. 4544.
A chapter in an edited book
Carless, M. A.; Griffiths, L. R. Cytogenetics of Primary Skin Tumors. In Molecular Diagnostics in Dermatology and Dermatopathology; Murphy, M. J., Ed.; Humana Press: Totowa, NJ, 2011; pp 57–72.

Web sites

Sometimes references to web sites should appear directly in the text rather than in the bibliography. Refer to the Instructions to authors for Journal of Chemical Education.

Blog post
Carpineti, A. Scientists Develop A New Method That Might Stop HIV From Replicating. IFLScience. (accessed 2018-10-30).


This example shows the general structure used for government reports, technical reports, and scientific reports. If you can't locate the report number then it might be better to cite the report as a book. For reports it is usually not individual people that are credited as authors, but a governmental department or agency like "U. S. Food and Drug Administration" or "National Cancer Institute".

Government report
Government Accountability Office. The Potential Impact of National Security Decision Directive 145 on Civil Agencies; 127279; U.S. Government Printing Office: Washington, DC, 1985.

Theses and dissertations

Theses including Ph.D. dissertations, Master's theses or Bachelor theses follow the basic format outlined below.

Doctoral dissertation
Kang, H. Essays on Methodologies in Contingent Valuation and the Sustainable Management of Common Pool Resources. Doctoral dissertation, Ohio State University, Columbus, OH, 2006.

News paper articles

Unlike scholarly journals, news papers do not usually have a volume and issue number. Instead, the full date and page number is required for a correct reference.

New York Times article
MacFARQUHAR, N. Russian Movie Gets Applause in Hollywood but Scorn at Home. New York Times. January 28, 2015, p A1.

In-text citations

References should be cited in the text by sequential numbers in superscript:

This sentence cites one reference 1.
This sentence cites two references 1,2.
This sentence cites four references 1–4.

About the journal

Full journal titleJournal of Chemical Education
AbbreviationJ. Chem. Educ.
ISSN (print)0021-9584
ISSN (online)1938-1328
ScopeGeneral Chemistry

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