How to format your references using the Journal of Biomechanical Engineering citation style

This is a short guide how to format citations and the bibliography in a manuscript for Journal of Biomechanical Engineering. For a complete guide how to prepare your manuscript refer to the journal's instructions to authors.

Using reference management software

Typically you don't format your citations and bibliography by hand. The easiest way is to use a reference manager:

PaperpileThe citation style is built in and you can choose it in Settings > Citation Style or Paperpile > Citation Style in Google Docs.
EndNoteDownload the output style file
Mendeley, Zotero, Papers, and othersThe style is either built in or you can download a CSL file that is supported by most references management programs.
BibTeXBibTeX syles are usually part of a LaTeX template. Check the instructions to authors if the publisher offers a LaTeX template for this journal.

Journal articles

Those examples are references to articles in scholarly journals and how they are supposed to appear in your bibliography.

Not all journals organize their published articles in volumes and issues, so these fields are optional. Some electronic journals do not provide a page range, but instead list an article identifier. In a case like this it's safe to use the article identifier instead of the page range.

A journal article with 1 author
Neumann, K., 2003, “Anthropology. New Guinea: A Cradle of Agriculture,” Science, 301(5630), pp. 180–181.
A journal article with 2 authors
Bowler, C., and Scanlan, D. J., 2014, “Genetics. Being Selective in the Prochlorococcus Collective,” Science, 344(6182), pp. 366–367.
A journal article with 3 authors
Richards-Dinger, K., Stein, R. S., and Toda, S., 2010, “Decay of Aftershock Density with Distance Does Not Indicate Triggering by Dynamic Stress,” Nature, 467(7315), pp. 583–586.
A journal article with 4 or more authors
Walker, M. L., Burgess, S. A., Sellers, J. R., Wang, F., Hammer, J. A., 3rd, Trinick, J., and Knight, P. J., 2000, “Two-Headed Binding of a Processive Myosin to F-Actin,” Nature, 405(6788), pp. 804–807.

Books and book chapters

Here are examples of references for authored and edited books as well as book chapters.

An authored book
Jones, G. F., 2010, Gravity-Driven Water Flow in Networks, John Wiley & Sons, Inc., Hoboken, NJ.
An edited book
Avilés, A., 2016, Separably Injective Banach Spaces, Springer International Publishing, Cham.
A chapter in an edited book
Wang, G.-G., Gandomi, A. H., and Alavi, A. H., 2015, “Study of Lagrangian and Evolutionary Parameters in Krill Herd Algorithm,” Adaptation and Hybridization in Computational Intelligence, I. Fister, and I. Fister Jr., eds., Springer International Publishing, Cham, pp. 111–128.

Web sites

Sometimes references to web sites should appear directly in the text rather than in the bibliography. Refer to the Instructions to authors for Journal of Biomechanical Engineering.

Blog post
Andrew, E., 2014, “Scientists Discover Effective Strategy To Switch Off Autoimmunity,” IFLScience [Online]. Available: [Accessed: 30-Oct-2018].


This example shows the general structure used for government reports, technical reports, and scientific reports. If you can't locate the report number then it might be better to cite the report as a book. For reports it is usually not individual people that are credited as authors, but a governmental department or agency like "U. S. Food and Drug Administration" or "National Cancer Institute".

Government report
Government Accountability Office, 1975, Opportunities for Improving Computer Use in the Bureau of the Mint, FGMSD-75-19, U.S. Government Printing Office, Washington, DC.

Theses and dissertations

Theses including Ph.D. dissertations, Master's theses or Bachelor theses follow the basic format outlined below.

Doctoral dissertation
Angervil, G., 2017, “Administrative Discretion in Public Policy Implementation: The Case of No Child Left Behind (NCLB),” Doctoral dissertation, Florida Atlantic University.

News paper articles

Unlike scholarly journals, news papers do not usually have a volume and issue number. Instead, the full date and page number is required for a correct reference.

New York Times article
Cooper, M., 2017, “Dudamel Condemns Venezuelan Politics,” New York Times, p. C2.

In-text citations

References should be cited in the text by sequential numbers in square brackets:

This sentence cites one reference [1].
This sentence cites two references [1,2].
This sentence cites four references [1–4].

About the journal

Full journal titleJournal of Biomechanical Engineering
AbbreviationJ. Biomech. Eng.
ISSN (print)0148-0731
ISSN (online)1528-8951
ScopeBiomedical Engineering
Physiology (medical)

Other styles