How to format your references using the Journal of Biomechanical Engineering citation style

This is a short guide how to format citations and the bibliography in a manuscript for Journal of Biomechanical Engineering. For a complete guide how to prepare your manuscript refer to the journal's instructions to authors.

Using reference management software

Typically you don't format your citations and bibliography by hand. The easiest way is to use a reference manager:

PaperpileThe citation style is built in and you can choose it in Settings > Citation Style or Paperpile > Citation Style in Google Docs.
EndNoteDownload the output style file
Mendeley, Zotero, Papers, and othersThe style is either built in or you can download a CSL file that is supported by most references management programs.
BibTeXBibTeX syles are usually part of a LaTeX template. Check the instructions to authors if the publisher offers a LaTeX template for this journal.

Journal articles

Those examples are references to articles in scholarly journals and how they are supposed to appear in your bibliography.

Not all journals organize their published articles in volumes and issues, so these fields are optional. Some electronic journals do not provide a page range, but instead list an article identifier. In a case like this it's safe to use the article identifier instead of the page range.

A journal article with 1 author
Franson, J. D., 2013, “Physics. Beating Classical Computing without a Quantum Computer,” Science, 339(6121), pp. 767–768.
A journal article with 2 authors
Silberzahn, R., and Uhlmann, E. L., 2015, “Crowdsourced Research: Many Hands Make Tight Work,” Nature, 526(7572), pp. 189–191.
A journal article with 3 authors
Lezec, H. J., Dionne, J. A., and Atwater, H. A., 2007, “Negative Refraction at Visible Frequencies,” Science, 316(5823), pp. 430–432.
A journal article with 4 or more authors
Dan, J., Li, M., Yang, J., Li, J., Okuka, M., Ye, X., and Liu, L., 2013, “Roles for Tbx3 in Regulation of Two-Cell State and Telomere Elongation in Mouse ES Cells,” Sci. Rep., 3, p. 3492.

Books and book chapters

Here are examples of references for authored and edited books as well as book chapters.

An authored book
Moreau, N., 2013, Tools for Signal Compression, John Wiley & Sons, Inc., Hoboken, NJ USA.
An edited book
Rello, J., Lipman, J., and Lisboa, T., eds., 2012, Sepsis Management: PIRO and MODS, Springer, Berlin, Heidelberg.
A chapter in an edited book
Encheva, S., 2010, “On Indiscernibility in Assessments,” U- and E-Service, Science and Technology: International Conference UNESST 2010, Held as Part of the Future Generation Information Technology Conference, FGIT 2010, Jeju Island, Korea, December 13-15, 2010. Proceedings, T.-H. Kim, J. Ma, W.-C. Fang, B. Park, B.-H. Kang, and D. Ślęzak, eds., Springer, Berlin, Heidelberg, pp. 39–47.

Web sites

Sometimes references to web sites should appear directly in the text rather than in the bibliography. Refer to the Instructions to authors for Journal of Biomechanical Engineering.

Blog post
Luntz, S., 2016, “Blending Conventional And Concentrated Solar Captures Light Under Cloudy Skies,” IFLScience [Online]. Available: [Accessed: 30-Oct-2018].


This example shows the general structure used for government reports, technical reports, and scientific reports. If you can't locate the report number then it might be better to cite the report as a book. For reports it is usually not individual people that are credited as authors, but a governmental department or agency like "U. S. Food and Drug Administration" or "National Cancer Institute".

Government report
Government Accountability Office, 1996, Surface Transportation: Research Funding, Federal Role, and Emerging Issues, RCED-96-233, U.S. Government Printing Office, Washington, DC.

Theses and dissertations

Theses including Ph.D. dissertations, Master's theses or Bachelor theses follow the basic format outlined below.

Doctoral dissertation
Wilson, M. W., 2012, “Angels in Tinseltown: Health Insurance, Hormone Use, and HIV among Transgender Women in Los Angeles,” Doctoral dissertation, California State University, Long Beach.

News paper articles

Unlike scholarly journals, news papers do not usually have a volume and issue number. Instead, the full date and page number is required for a correct reference.

New York Times article
Murphy, M. J. O., 2015, “Weekend Entertainments From the Archives of The New York Times,” New York Times, p. C29.

In-text citations

References should be cited in the text by sequential numbers in square brackets:

This sentence cites one reference [1].
This sentence cites two references [1,2].
This sentence cites four references [1–4].

About the journal

Full journal titleJournal of Biomechanical Engineering
AbbreviationJ. Biomech. Eng.
ISSN (print)0148-0731
ISSN (online)1528-8951
ScopeBiomedical Engineering
Physiology (medical)

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