How to format your references using the Journal of Biomechanical Engineering citation style

This is a short guide how to format citations and the bibliography in a manuscript for Journal of Biomechanical Engineering. For a complete guide how to prepare your manuscript refer to the journal's instructions to authors.

Using reference management software

Typically you don't format your citations and bibliography by hand. The easiest way is to use a reference manager:

PaperpileThe citation style is built in and you can choose it in Settings > Citation Style or Paperpile > Citation Style in Google Docs.
EndNoteDownload the output style file
Mendeley, Zotero, Papers, and othersThe style is either built in or you can download a CSL file that is supported by most references management programs.
BibTeXBibTeX syles are usually part of a LaTeX template. Check the instructions to authors if the publisher offers a LaTeX template for this journal.

Journal articles

Those examples are references to articles in scholarly journals and how they are supposed to appear in your bibliography.

Not all journals organize their published articles in volumes and issues, so these fields are optional. Some electronic journals do not provide a page range, but instead list an article identifier. In a case like this it's safe to use the article identifier instead of the page range.

A journal article with 1 author
Kiser, B., 2015, “Early Child Development: Body of Knowledge,” Nature, 523(7560), pp. 286–289.
A journal article with 2 authors
Johnson, C. M., and Beard, B. L., 2005, “Geochemistry. Biogeochemical Cycling of Iron Isotopes,” Science, 309(5737), pp. 1025–1027.
A journal article with 3 authors
Brandes, M., Willimann, K., and Moser, B., 2005, “Professional Antigen-Presentation Function by Human Gammadelta T Cells,” Science, 309(5732), pp. 264–268.
A journal article with 4 or more authors
Andoralov, V., Falk, M., Suyatin, D. B., Granmo, M., Sotres, J., Ludwig, R., Popov, V. O., Schouenborg, J., Blum, Z., and Shleev, S., 2013, “Biofuel Cell Based on Microscale Nanostructured Electrodes with Inductive Coupling to Rat Brain Neurons,” Sci. Rep., 3, p. 3270.

Books and book chapters

Here are examples of references for authored and edited books as well as book chapters.

An authored book
Morvillo, N., 2010, Science and Religion, Wiley-Blackwell, Oxford, UK.
An edited book
Mendes, P., and Snow, P., eds., 2016, Young People Transitioning from Out-of-Home Care: International Research, Policy and Practice, Palgrave Macmillan UK, London.
A chapter in an edited book
Beck, J., 2016, “Part of the Family: Age, Identity, and Burial in Copper Age Iberia,” Theoretical Approaches to Analysis and Interpretation of Commingled Human Remains, A.J. Osterholtz, ed., Springer International Publishing, Cham, pp. 47–73.

Web sites

Sometimes references to web sites should appear directly in the text rather than in the bibliography. Refer to the Instructions to authors for Journal of Biomechanical Engineering.

Blog post
Andrew, E., 2015, “Invasive Toads Are Becoming Blind And Deformed On Brazilian Island, Yet Still Thrive,” IFLScience [Online]. Available: [Accessed: 30-Oct-2018].


This example shows the general structure used for government reports, technical reports, and scientific reports. If you can't locate the report number then it might be better to cite the report as a book. For reports it is usually not individual people that are credited as authors, but a governmental department or agency like "U. S. Food and Drug Administration" or "National Cancer Institute".

Government report
Government Accountability Office, 1995, [Comments on Claim for Additional Charges on FAA Shipment], B-259720, U.S. Government Printing Office, Washington, DC.

Theses and dissertations

Theses including Ph.D. dissertations, Master's theses or Bachelor theses follow the basic format outlined below.

Doctoral dissertation
Gullion, D. K., 2009, “The Study of Interstate and Intrastate Mobility Effects on Student Achievement,” Doctoral dissertation, Indiana University.

News paper articles

Unlike scholarly journals, news papers do not usually have a volume and issue number. Instead, the full date and page number is required for a correct reference.

New York Times article
Vecsey, G., 2011, “Another Storm to Weather,” New York Times, p. D1.

In-text citations

References should be cited in the text by sequential numbers in square brackets:

This sentence cites one reference [1].
This sentence cites two references [1,2].
This sentence cites four references [1–4].

About the journal

Full journal titleJournal of Biomechanical Engineering
AbbreviationJ. Biomech. Eng.
ISSN (print)0148-0731
ISSN (online)1528-8951
ScopeBiomedical Engineering
Physiology (medical)

Other styles