How to format your references using the Journal of Biomechanical Engineering citation style

This is a short guide how to format citations and the bibliography in a manuscript for Journal of Biomechanical Engineering. For a complete guide how to prepare your manuscript refer to the journal's instructions to authors.

Using reference management software

Typically you don't format your citations and bibliography by hand. The easiest way is to use a reference manager:

PaperpileThe citation style is built in and you can choose it in Settings > Citation Style or Paperpile > Citation Style in Google Docs.
EndNoteDownload the output style file
Mendeley, Zotero, Papers, and othersThe style is either built in or you can download a CSL file that is supported by most references management programs.
BibTeXBibTeX syles are usually part of a LaTeX template. Check the instructions to authors if the publisher offers a LaTeX template for this journal.

Journal articles

Those examples are references to articles in scholarly journals and how they are supposed to appear in your bibliography.

Not all journals organize their published articles in volumes and issues, so these fields are optional. Some electronic journals do not provide a page range, but instead list an article identifier. In a case like this it's safe to use the article identifier instead of the page range.

A journal article with 1 author
Stith, J. E., 2000, “When I Was Your Age,” Nature, 407(6800), p. 23.
A journal article with 2 authors
Warneken, F., and Tomasello, M., 2006, “Altruistic Helping in Human Infants and Young Chimpanzees,” Science, 311(5765), pp. 1301–1303.
A journal article with 3 authors
Guo, G., Wang, W., and Bradley, A., 2004, “Mismatch Repair Genes Identified Using Genetic Screens in Blm-Deficient Embryonic Stem Cells,” Nature, 429(6994), pp. 891–895.
A journal article with 4 or more authors
Lickert, H., Takeuchi, J. K., Von Both, I., Walls, J. R., McAuliffe, F., Adamson, S. L., Henkelman, R. M., Wrana, J. L., Rossant, J., and Bruneau, B. G., 2004, “Baf60c Is Essential for Function of BAF Chromatin Remodelling Complexes in Heart Development,” Nature, 432(7013), pp. 107–112.

Books and book chapters

Here are examples of references for authored and edited books as well as book chapters.

An authored book
Szeman, I., and O’Brien, S., 2017, Popular Culture, John Wiley & Sons, Inc., Hoboken, NJ.
An edited book
Jones, M., and Stenseke, M., eds., 2011, The European Landscape Convention: Challenges of Participation, Springer Netherlands, Dordrecht.
A chapter in an edited book
Brox, P., Baturone, I., and Sánchez-Solano, S., 2010, “Fuzzy Motion-Adaptive De-Interlacing with Edge-Adaptive Spatial Interpolation,” Fuzzy Logic-Based Algorithms for Video De-Interlacing, I. Baturone, and S. Sánchez-Solano, eds., Springer, Berlin, Heidelberg, pp. 105–142.

Web sites

Sometimes references to web sites should appear directly in the text rather than in the bibliography. Refer to the Instructions to authors for Journal of Biomechanical Engineering.

Blog post
Andrew, E., 2015, “Scientists Find Stone Tools That Predate Humanity,” IFLScience [Online]. Available: [Accessed: 30-Oct-2018].


This example shows the general structure used for government reports, technical reports, and scientific reports. If you can't locate the report number then it might be better to cite the report as a book. For reports it is usually not individual people that are credited as authors, but a governmental department or agency like "U. S. Food and Drug Administration" or "National Cancer Institute".

Government report
Government Accountability Office, 1993, HHS-Supported Research on Violence Prevention, HRD-93-11R, U.S. Government Printing Office, Washington, DC.

Theses and dissertations

Theses including Ph.D. dissertations, Master's theses or Bachelor theses follow the basic format outlined below.

Doctoral dissertation
Al-Alawadhi, F., 2014, “Oral History of Women Educators in Kuwait: A Comparative Model of Care Ethics Between Noddings and Al-Ghazali,” Doctoral dissertation, University of Cincinnati.

News paper articles

Unlike scholarly journals, news papers do not usually have a volume and issue number. Instead, the full date and page number is required for a correct reference.

New York Times article
Brantley, B., 2016, “This Means Something, as Well as Something Else,” New York Times, p. C1.

In-text citations

References should be cited in the text by sequential numbers in square brackets:

This sentence cites one reference [1].
This sentence cites two references [1,2].
This sentence cites four references [1–4].

About the journal

Full journal titleJournal of Biomechanical Engineering
AbbreviationJ. Biomech. Eng.
ISSN (print)0148-0731
ISSN (online)1528-8951
ScopeBiomedical Engineering
Physiology (medical)

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