How to format your references using the Journal of Biomechanical Engineering citation style

This is a short guide how to format citations and the bibliography in a manuscript for Journal of Biomechanical Engineering. For a complete guide how to prepare your manuscript refer to the journal's instructions to authors.

Using reference management software

Typically you don't format your citations and bibliography by hand. The easiest way is to use a reference manager:

PaperpileThe citation style is built in and you can choose it in Settings > Citation Style or Paperpile > Citation Style in Google Docs.
EndNoteDownload the output style file
Mendeley, Zotero, Papers, and othersThe style is either built in or you can download a CSL file that is supported by most references management programs.
BibTeXBibTeX syles are usually part of a LaTeX template. Check the instructions to authors if the publisher offers a LaTeX template for this journal.

Journal articles

Those examples are references to articles in scholarly journals and how they are supposed to appear in your bibliography.

Not all journals organize their published articles in volumes and issues, so these fields are optional. Some electronic journals do not provide a page range, but instead list an article identifier. In a case like this it's safe to use the article identifier instead of the page range.

A journal article with 1 author
Schilling, G., 2000, “HIGH-ENERGY ASTROPHYSICS: X-Ray Satellites Seek Clues to Bursts,” Science, 290(5493), p. 927.
A journal article with 2 authors
Silver, P. G., and Holt, W. E., 2002, “The Mantle Flow Field beneath Western North America,” Science, 295(5557), pp. 1054–1057.
A journal article with 3 authors
Kovács, Á. M., Téglás, E., and Endress, A. D., 2010, “The Social Sense: Susceptibility to Others’ Beliefs in Human Infants and Adults,” Science, 330(6012), pp. 1830–1834.
A journal article with 4 or more authors
Schaefer, J. M., Denton, G. H., Barrell, D. J. A., Ivy-Ochs, S., Kubik, P. W., Andersen, B. G., Phillips, F. M., Lowell, T. V., and Schlüchter, C., 2006, “Near-Synchronous Interhemispheric Termination of the Last Glacial Maximum in Mid-Latitudes,” Science, 312(5779), pp. 1510–1513.

Books and book chapters

Here are examples of references for authored and edited books as well as book chapters.

An authored book
Levy, G., and Levin, B., 2014, The Biostatistics of Aging, John Wiley & Sons, Inc, Hoboken, NJ.
An edited book
Fusiello, A., Murino, V., and Cucchiara, R., eds., 2012, Computer Vision – ECCV 2012. Workshops and Demonstrations: Florence, Italy, October 7-13, 2012, Proceedings, Part III, Springer, Berlin, Heidelberg.
A chapter in an edited book
Hou, C., Chang, S., Lin, J., and Song, D., 2015, “Pedicled Perforator Flaps,” Surgical Atlas of Perforator Flaps: A Microsurgical Dissection Technique, S. Chang, J. Lin, and D. Song, eds., Springer Netherlands, Dordrecht, pp. 15–25.

Web sites

Sometimes references to web sites should appear directly in the text rather than in the bibliography. Refer to the Instructions to authors for Journal of Biomechanical Engineering.

Blog post
Andrew, E., 2014, “Teen Threatened With Graduation Ban For Yearbook Quote,” IFLScience.


This example shows the general structure used for government reports, technical reports, and scientific reports. If you can't locate the report number then it might be better to cite the report as a book. For reports it is usually not individual people that are credited as authors, but a governmental department or agency like "U. S. Food and Drug Administration" or "National Cancer Institute".

Government report
Government Accountability Office, 1996, BART Airport Extension Update, RCED-96-246R, U.S. Government Printing Office, Washington, DC.

Theses and dissertations

Theses including Ph.D. dissertations, Master's theses or Bachelor theses follow the basic format outlined below.

Doctoral dissertation
Kent, L., 2017, “Justification-Suppression of Gender and Race Bias in Hiring: The Impact of Accountability,” Doctoral dissertation, Southern Illinois University.

News paper articles

Unlike scholarly journals, news papers do not usually have a volume and issue number. Instead, the full date and page number is required for a correct reference.

New York Times article
Lyman, R., 2017, “Polish President Offers Plan to End Court Crisis, but the Response Is Tepid,” New York Times, p. A8.

In-text citations

References should be cited in the text by sequential numbers in square brackets:

This sentence cites one reference [1].
This sentence cites two references [1,2].
This sentence cites four references [1–4].

About the journal

Full journal titleJournal of Biomechanical Engineering
AbbreviationJ. Biomech. Eng.
ISSN (print)0148-0731
ISSN (online)1528-8951
ScopeBiomedical Engineering
Physiology (medical)

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