How to format your references using the Journal of Biomechanical Engineering citation style

This is a short guide how to format citations and the bibliography in a manuscript for Journal of Biomechanical Engineering. For a complete guide how to prepare your manuscript refer to the journal's instructions to authors.

Using reference management software

Typically you don't format your citations and bibliography by hand. The easiest way is to use a reference manager:

PaperpileThe citation style is built in and you can choose it in Settings > Citation Style or Paperpile > Citation Style in Google Docs.
EndNoteDownload the output style file
Mendeley, Zotero, Papers, and othersThe style is either built in or you can download a CSL file that is supported by most references management programs.
BibTeXBibTeX syles are usually part of a LaTeX template. Check the instructions to authors if the publisher offers a LaTeX template for this journal.

Journal articles

Those examples are references to articles in scholarly journals and how they are supposed to appear in your bibliography.

Not all journals organize their published articles in volumes and issues, so these fields are optional. Some electronic journals do not provide a page range, but instead list an article identifier. In a case like this it's safe to use the article identifier instead of the page range.

A journal article with 1 author
Rine, J., 2005, “Cell Biology. Twists in the Tale of the Aging Yeast,” Science, 310(5751), pp. 1124–1125.
A journal article with 2 authors
Veillette, A., and Davidson, D., 2014, “Immunology: When Lymphocytes Run out of Steam,” Nature, 510(7504), pp. 222–223.
A journal article with 3 authors
Taylor, A. H., Allen, J. I., and Clark, P. A., 2002, “Extraction of a Weak Climatic Signal by an Ecosystem,” Nature, 416(6881), pp. 629–632.
A journal article with 4 or more authors
Tsang, K. H., Lai, S. K., Li, Q., Yung, W. H., Liu, H., Mak, P. H. S., Ng, C. C. P., McAlonan, G., Chan, Y. S., and Chan, S. Y., 2014, “The Nucleosome Assembly Protein TSPYL2 Regulates the Expression of NMDA Receptor Subunits GluN2A and GluN2B,” Sci. Rep., 4, p. 3654.

Books and book chapters

Here are examples of references for authored and edited books as well as book chapters.

An authored book
Elliott, C. H., and Smith, L. L., 2010, Overcoming Anxiety for Dummies®, Wiley Publishing, Inc., Hoboken, NJ.
An edited book
Bahrami, H., 2005, Super-Flexibility for Knowledge Enterprises, Springer, Berlin, Heidelberg.
A chapter in an edited book
Faust, J. J., Masserano, B. M., Mielke, A. H., Abraham, A., and Capco, D. G., 2014, “Engineered Nanoparticles Induced Brush Border Disruption in a Human Model of the Intestinal Epithelium,” Nanomaterial: Impacts on Cell Biology and Medicine, D.G. Capco, and Y. Chen, eds., Springer Netherlands, Dordrecht, pp. 55–72.

Web sites

Sometimes references to web sites should appear directly in the text rather than in the bibliography. Refer to the Instructions to authors for Journal of Biomechanical Engineering.

Blog post
Luntz, S., 2015, “New Paper Solves Black Hole Paradox, Suggests They Don’t Erase Information After All,” IFLScience [Online]. Available: [Accessed: 30-Oct-2018].


This example shows the general structure used for government reports, technical reports, and scientific reports. If you can't locate the report number then it might be better to cite the report as a book. For reports it is usually not individual people that are credited as authors, but a governmental department or agency like "U. S. Food and Drug Administration" or "National Cancer Institute".

Government report
Government Accountability Office, 1984, National Public Radio, 123385, U.S. Government Printing Office, Washington, DC.

Theses and dissertations

Theses including Ph.D. dissertations, Master's theses or Bachelor theses follow the basic format outlined below.

Doctoral dissertation
Lanza, K. M., 2008, “The Antecedents of Automotive Brand Loyalty and Repurchase Intentions,” Doctoral dissertation, University of Phoenix.

News paper articles

Unlike scholarly journals, news papers do not usually have a volume and issue number. Instead, the full date and page number is required for a correct reference.

New York Times article
Wagner, J., 2017, “Gregorius and Judge Deliver Major Blows as Yanks Top Mets Again,” New York Times, p. B12.

In-text citations

References should be cited in the text by sequential numbers in square brackets:

This sentence cites one reference [1].
This sentence cites two references [1,2].
This sentence cites four references [1–4].

About the journal

Full journal titleJournal of Biomechanical Engineering
AbbreviationJ. Biomech. Eng.
ISSN (print)0148-0731
ISSN (online)1528-8951
ScopeBiomedical Engineering
Physiology (medical)

Other styles