How to format your references using the Journal of Applied Electrochemistry citation style

This is a short guide how to format citations and the bibliography in a manuscript for Journal of Applied Electrochemistry. For a complete guide how to prepare your manuscript refer to the journal's instructions to authors.

Using reference management software

Typically you don't format your citations and bibliography by hand. The easiest way is to use a reference manager:

PaperpileThe citation style is built in and you can choose it in Settings > Citation Style or Paperpile > Citation Style in Google Docs.
EndNoteFind the style here: output styles overview
Mendeley, Zotero, Papers, and othersThe style is either built in or you can download a CSL file that is supported by most references management programs.
BibTeXBibTeX syles are usually part of a LaTeX template. Check the instructions to authors if the publisher offers a LaTeX template for this journal.

Journal articles

Those examples are references to articles in scholarly journals and how they are supposed to appear in your bibliography.

Not all journals organize their published articles in volumes and issues, so these fields are optional. Some electronic journals do not provide a page range, but instead list an article identifier. In a case like this it's safe to use the article identifier instead of the page range.

A journal article with 1 author
Bullock RM (2013) Chemistry. Abundant metals give precious hydrogenation performance. Science 342:1054–1055
A journal article with 2 authors
Olsen A, Ninnemann U (2010) Large delta13C gradients in the preindustrial North Atlantic revealed. Science 330:658–659
A journal article with 3 authors
Wiedemann N, Meisinger C, Pfanner N (2009) Cell biology. Connecting organelles. Science 325:403–404
A journal article with 5 or more authors
Shoji M, Hamatani T, Ishikawa S, et al (2014) Sexual satisfaction of infertile couples assessed using the Golombok-Rust Inventory of Sexual Satisfaction (GRISS). Sci Rep 4:5203

Books and book chapters

Here are examples of references for authored and edited books as well as book chapters.

An authored book
Tatham M, Morton K (2006) Developments in Speech Synthesis. John Wiley & Sons, Ltd, Chichester, UK
An edited book
Zhang R (2005) Fuzzy Control of Queuing Systems. Springer, London
A chapter in an edited book
Garcia-Prieto P (2014) Psycho-Oncology: A Patient’s View. In: Goerling U (ed) Psycho-Oncology. Springer, Berlin, Heidelberg, pp 49–58

Web sites

Sometimes references to web sites should appear directly in the text rather than in the bibliography. Refer to the Instructions to authors for Journal of Applied Electrochemistry.

Blog post
Luntz S (2017) Ancient Populations Migrated Frequently, Mixing Up DNA. In: IFLScience. Accessed 30 Oct 2018


This example shows the general structure used for government reports, technical reports, and scientific reports. If you can't locate the report number then it might be better to cite the report as a book. For reports it is usually not individual people that are credited as authors, but a governmental department or agency like "U. S. Food and Drug Administration" or "National Cancer Institute".

Government report
Government Accountability Office (1999) IRS Management: Business and Systems Modernization Pose Challenges. U.S. Government Printing Office, Washington, DC

Theses and dissertations

Theses including Ph.D. dissertations, Master's theses or Bachelor theses follow the basic format outlined below.

Doctoral dissertation
Fresolone C (2012) The pedagogical use of Gerald Near’s “Chantworks.” Doctoral dissertation, University of Arizona

News paper articles

Unlike scholarly journals, news papers do not usually have a volume and issue number. Instead, the full date and page number is required for a correct reference.

New York Times article
Protess B, Silver-Greenberg J, Drucker J (2017) Regulators Review German Bank At the Center of Trump’s Finances. New York Times A1

In-text citations

References should be cited in the text by sequential numbers in square brackets:

This sentence cites one reference [1].
This sentence cites two references [1, 2].
This sentence cites four references [1–4].

About the journal

Full journal titleJournal of Applied Electrochemistry
AbbreviationJ. Appl. Electrochem.
ISSN (print)0021-891X
ISSN (online)1572-8838
ScopeGeneral Chemical Engineering
Materials Chemistry

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