How to format your references using the Journal of Anesthesia History citation style

This is a short guide how to format citations and the bibliography in a manuscript for Journal of Anesthesia History. For a complete guide how to prepare your manuscript refer to the journal's instructions to authors.

Using reference management software

Typically you don't format your citations and bibliography by hand. The easiest way is to use a reference manager:

PaperpileThe citation style is built in and you can choose it in Settings > Citation Style or Paperpile > Citation Style in Google Docs.
EndNoteFind the style here: output styles overview
Mendeley, Zotero, Papers, and othersThe style is either built in or you can download a CSL file that is supported by most references management programs.
BibTeXBibTeX syles are usually part of a LaTeX template. Check the instructions to authors if the publisher offers a LaTeX template for this journal.

Journal articles

Those examples are references to articles in scholarly journals and how they are supposed to appear in your bibliography.

Not all journals organize their published articles in volumes and issues, so these fields are optional. Some electronic journals do not provide a page range, but instead list an article identifier. In a case like this it's safe to use the article identifier instead of the page range.

A journal article with 1 author
Johnson E. Phase of matter. The elusive liquid-solid interface. Science. 2002;296(5567):477-478.
A journal article with 2 authors
Luo MX, Wang X. Parallel photonic quantum computation assisted by quantum dots in one-side optical microcavities. Sci Rep. 2014;4:5732.
A journal article with 3 authors
Zhang P, Wang J, Shi Y. Structure and mechanism of the S component of a bacterial ECF transporter. Nature. 2010;468(7324):717-720.
A journal article with 7 or more authors
Tan CSH, Pasculescu A, Lim WA, Pawson T, Bader GD, Linding R. Positive selection of tyrosine loss in metazoan evolution. Science. 2009;325(5948):1686-1688.

Books and book chapters

Here are examples of references for authored and edited books as well as book chapters.

An authored book
van der Heide P. Secondary Ion Mass Spectrometry. John Wiley & Sons, Inc.; 2014.
An edited book
Bartuska H, Buchsbaumer M, Mehta G, Pawlowsky G, Wiesnagrotzki S, eds. Psychotherapeutic Diagnostics: Guidelines for the New Standard. Springer; 2008.
A chapter in an edited book
Woolley SMN. The Songbird Auditory System. In: Helekar SA, ed. Animal Models of Speech and Language Disorders. Springer; 2013:61-88.

Web sites

Sometimes references to web sites should appear directly in the text rather than in the bibliography. Refer to the Instructions to authors for Journal of Anesthesia History.

Blog post
Andrew E. How To Find Micrometeorites In Your Home. IFLScience.


This example shows the general structure used for government reports, technical reports, and scientific reports. If you can't locate the report number then it might be better to cite the report as a book. For reports it is usually not individual people that are credited as authors, but a governmental department or agency like "U. S. Food and Drug Administration" or "National Cancer Institute".

Government report
Government Accountability Office. National Aeronautics and Space Administration: Significant Actions Needed to Address Long-Standing Financial Management Problems. U.S. Government Printing Office; 2004.

Theses and dissertations

Theses including Ph.D. dissertations, Master's theses or Bachelor theses follow the basic format outlined below.

Doctoral dissertation
Patra P. Image Scaling with Three Different Interpolation Techniques and Their Comparisons. Doctoral dissertation. California State University, Long Beach; 2009.

News paper articles

Unlike scholarly journals, news papers do not usually have a volume and issue number. Instead, the full date and page number is required for a correct reference.

New York Times article
Stewart JB. A Year of New Heights For the Dow, Led by Boeing. New York Times. August 10, 2017:B1.

In-text citations

References should be cited in the text by sequential numbers in superscript:

This sentence cites one reference 1.
This sentence cites two references 1,2.
This sentence cites four references 1–4.

About the journal

Full journal titleJournal of Anesthesia History
AbbreviationJ. Anesth. Hist.
ISSN (print)2352-4529

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