How to format your references using the Journal of Anesthesia History citation style

This is a short guide how to format citations and the bibliography in a manuscript for Journal of Anesthesia History. For a complete guide how to prepare your manuscript refer to the journal's instructions to authors.

Using reference management software

Typically you don't format your citations and bibliography by hand. The easiest way is to use a reference manager:

PaperpileThe citation style is built in and you can choose it in Settings > Citation Style or Paperpile > Citation Style in Google Docs.
EndNoteFind the style here: output styles overview
Mendeley, Zotero, Papers, and othersThe style is either built in or you can download a CSL file that is supported by most references management programs.
BibTeXBibTeX syles are usually part of a LaTeX template. Check the instructions to authors if the publisher offers a LaTeX template for this journal.

Journal articles

Those examples are references to articles in scholarly journals and how they are supposed to appear in your bibliography.

Not all journals organize their published articles in volumes and issues, so these fields are optional. Some electronic journals do not provide a page range, but instead list an article identifier. In a case like this it's safe to use the article identifier instead of the page range.

A journal article with 1 author
Youle RJ. Cell biology. Cellular demolition and the rules of engagement. Science. 2007;315(5813):776-777.
A journal article with 2 authors
Loehlin DW, Werren JH. Evolution of shape by multiple regulatory changes to a growth gene. Science. 2012;335(6071):943-947.
A journal article with 3 authors
Jasny BR, Zahn LM, Marshall E. Complex systems and networks. Connections. Introduction. Science. 2009;325(5939):405.
A journal article with 7 or more authors
Martínez-Galera AJ, Brihuega I, Gutiérrez-Rubio A, Stauber T, Gómez-Rodríguez JM. Towards scalable nano-engineering of graphene. Sci Rep. 2014;4:7314.

Books and book chapters

Here are examples of references for authored and edited books as well as book chapters.

An authored book
Miller RE. Optimization. Hoboken, NJ: John Wiley & Sons, Inc.; 1999.
An edited book
Mikhailov R. Lower Central and Dimension Series of Groups. Vol 1952. (Passi IBS, ed.). Berlin, Heidelberg: Springer; 2009.
A chapter in an edited book
Barro S. Another Half Century of Progress in Fuzzy Logic? In: Seising R, Trillas E, Moraga C, Termini S, eds. On Fuzziness: A Homage to Lotfi A. Zadeh – Volume 1. Studies in Fuzziness and Soft Computing. Berlin, Heidelberg: Springer; 2013:23-29.

Web sites

Sometimes references to web sites should appear directly in the text rather than in the bibliography. Refer to the Instructions to authors for Journal of Anesthesia History.

Blog post
Luntz S. Ancient Land Predator Hunted Sharks. IFLScience. Published October 27, 2014. Accessed October 30, 2018.


This example shows the general structure used for government reports, technical reports, and scientific reports. If you can't locate the report number then it might be better to cite the report as a book. For reports it is usually not individual people that are credited as authors, but a governmental department or agency like "U. S. Food and Drug Administration" or "National Cancer Institute".

Government report
Government Accountability Office. Planning for America’s Bicentennial Celebration--A Progress Report. Washington, DC: U.S. Government Printing Office; 1975.

Theses and dissertations

Theses including Ph.D. dissertations, Master's theses or Bachelor theses follow the basic format outlined below.

Doctoral dissertation
Harris DW. An examination of the impact of computer-based animations and visualization sequence on student understanding of Hadley Cells in atmospheric circulation. 2012.

News paper articles

Unlike scholarly journals, news papers do not usually have a volume and issue number. Instead, the full date and page number is required for a correct reference.

New York Times article
Poniewozik J. Chatter, in Hopes of Preventing Splatter. New York Times. October 12, 2017:C1.

In-text citations

References should be cited in the text by sequential numbers in superscript:

This sentence cites one reference 1.
This sentence cites two references 1,2.
This sentence cites four references 1–4.

About the journal

Full journal titleJournal of Anesthesia History
AbbreviationJ. Anesth. Hist.
ISSN (print)2352-4529

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