How to format your references using the Journal of Anesthesia History citation style

This is a short guide how to format citations and the bibliography in a manuscript for Journal of Anesthesia History. For a complete guide how to prepare your manuscript refer to the journal's instructions to authors.

Using reference management software

Typically you don't format your citations and bibliography by hand. The easiest way is to use a reference manager:

PaperpileThe citation style is built in and you can choose it in Settings > Citation Style or Paperpile > Citation Style in Google Docs.
EndNoteFind the style here: output styles overview
Mendeley, Zotero, Papers, and othersThe style is either built in or you can download a CSL file that is supported by most references management programs.
BibTeXBibTeX syles are usually part of a LaTeX template. Check the instructions to authors if the publisher offers a LaTeX template for this journal.

Journal articles

Those examples are references to articles in scholarly journals and how they are supposed to appear in your bibliography.

Not all journals organize their published articles in volumes and issues, so these fields are optional. Some electronic journals do not provide a page range, but instead list an article identifier. In a case like this it's safe to use the article identifier instead of the page range.

A journal article with 1 author
Dissanayake C. Global Voices of Science. Of stones and health: medical geology in Sri Lanka. Science. 2005;309(5736):883-885.
A journal article with 2 authors
Hillaire-Marcel C, de Vernal A. Comment on “Mixed-layer deepening during Heinrich events: a multi-planktonic foraminiferal delta18O approach.” Science. 2008;320(5880):1161; author reply 1161.
A journal article with 3 authors
Brown ME, Bouchez AH, Griffith CA. Direct detection of variable tropospheric clouds near Titan’s south pole. Nature. 2002;420(6917):795-797.
A journal article with 7 or more authors
Mao K, Li L, Zhang W, et al. A theoretical study of single-atom catalysis of CO oxidation using Au embedded 2D h-BN monolayer: a CO-promoted O₂ activation. Sci Rep. 2014;4:5441.

Books and book chapters

Here are examples of references for authored and edited books as well as book chapters.

An authored book
Quinlan J, VanderBrug J. Gender Lens Investing. John Wiley & Sons, Inc.; 2016.
An edited book
Liersch R, Berdel WE, Kessler T, eds. Angiogenesis Inhibition. Vol 180. Springer; 2010.
A chapter in an edited book
Kim KR, Kim DH, Kim HJ. Magnetic Resonance Wireless Power Transmission Using a LLC Resonant Circuit for a Locomotion Robot’s Battery Charging. In: Lee J, Lee MC, Liu H, Ryu JH, eds. Intelligent Robotics and Applications: 6th International Conference, ICIRA 2013, Busan, South Korea, September 25-28, 2013, Proceedings, Part I. Lecture Notes in Computer Science. Springer; 2013:31-37.

Web sites

Sometimes references to web sites should appear directly in the text rather than in the bibliography. Refer to the Instructions to authors for Journal of Anesthesia History.

Blog post
Hale T. Scientists Create Bikinis For Turtles. IFLScience. Published October 6, 2015. Accessed October 30, 2018.


This example shows the general structure used for government reports, technical reports, and scientific reports. If you can't locate the report number then it might be better to cite the report as a book. For reports it is usually not individual people that are credited as authors, but a governmental department or agency like "U. S. Food and Drug Administration" or "National Cancer Institute".

Government report
Government Accountability Office. Space Station: Cost Control Difficulties Continue. U.S. Government Printing Office; 1996.

Theses and dissertations

Theses including Ph.D. dissertations, Master's theses or Bachelor theses follow the basic format outlined below.

Doctoral dissertation
Zhuang S. Enhancing Implicit Finite Element Sheet Forming Simulation. Doctoral dissertation. Ohio State University; 2008.

News paper articles

Unlike scholarly journals, news papers do not usually have a volume and issue number. Instead, the full date and page number is required for a correct reference.

New York Times article
Mueller B. $25,000 Fine Proposed in Taxi’s Snub of Family. New York Times. August 7, 2015:A21.

In-text citations

References should be cited in the text by sequential numbers in superscript:

This sentence cites one reference 1.
This sentence cites two references 1,2.
This sentence cites four references 1–4.

About the journal

Full journal titleJournal of Anesthesia History
AbbreviationJ. Anesth. Hist.
ISSN (print)2352-4529

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