How to format your references using the Internet of Things citation style

This is a short guide how to format citations and the bibliography in a manuscript for Internet of Things. For a complete guide how to prepare your manuscript refer to the journal's instructions to authors.

Using reference management software

Typically you don't format your citations and bibliography by hand. The easiest way is to use a reference manager:

PaperpileThe citation style is built in and you can choose it in Settings > Citation Style or Paperpile > Citation Style in Google Docs.
EndNoteFind the style here: output styles overview
Mendeley, Zotero, Papers, and othersThe style is either built in or you can download a CSL file that is supported by most references management programs.
BibTeXBibTeX syles are usually part of a LaTeX template. Check the instructions to authors if the publisher offers a LaTeX template for this journal.

Journal articles

Those examples are references to articles in scholarly journals and how they are supposed to appear in your bibliography.

Not all journals organize their published articles in volumes and issues, so these fields are optional. Some electronic journals do not provide a page range, but instead list an article identifier. In a case like this it's safe to use the article identifier instead of the page range.

A journal article with 1 author
A. Maxmen, Pharmacogenomics: playing the odds, Nature. 474 (2011) S9-10.
A journal article with 2 authors
K.S. Law, A. Stohl, Arctic air pollution: origins and impacts, Science. 315 (2007) 1537–1540.
A journal article with 3 authors
P.F. Rey, N. Coltice, N. Flament, Spreading continents kick-started plate tectonics, Nature. 513 (2014) 405–408.
A journal article with 4 or more authors
C.-H. Hsieh, S.M. Glaser, A.J. Lucas, G. Sugihara, Distinguishing random environmental fluctuations from ecological catastrophes for the North Pacific Ocean, Nature. 435 (2005) 336–340.

Books and book chapters

Here are examples of references for authored and edited books as well as book chapters.

An authored book
Equipment Testing Procedures Committee of the American Institute of Chemical Engineers, Trayed and Packed Columns, John Wiley & Sons, Inc., Hoboken, NJ, 2014.
An edited book
W. Green, C. Whitsed, eds., Critical Perspectives on Internationalising the Curriculum in Disciplines: Reflective Narrative Accounts from Business, Education and Health, SensePublishers, Rotterdam, 2015.
A chapter in an edited book
M.C. Torri, T.M. Herrmann, Gram Mooligai Limited Company (GMCL) – An Alternative Bioprospecting and Development Model: Constitution, Structure and Its Functioning, in: T.M. Herrmann (Ed.), Bridges Between Tradition and Innovation in Ethnomedicine: Fostering Local Development Through Community-Based Enterprises in India, Springer Netherlands, Dordrecht, 2011: pp. 85–120.

Web sites

Sometimes references to web sites should appear directly in the text rather than in the bibliography. Refer to the Instructions to authors for Internet of Things.

Blog post
J. Fang, T. Rex Teeth Had A Secret Weapon, And Just One Animal Alive Today Has It Too, IFLScience. (2015). (accessed October 30, 2018).


This example shows the general structure used for government reports, technical reports, and scientific reports. If you can't locate the report number then it might be better to cite the report as a book. For reports it is usually not individual people that are credited as authors, but a governmental department or agency like "U. S. Food and Drug Administration" or "National Cancer Institute".

Government report
Government Accountability Office, ADP Acquisitions: Patent Automation Encountering Major Planning and Procurement Problems, U.S. Government Printing Office, Washington, DC, 1986.

Theses and dissertations

Theses including Ph.D. dissertations, Master's theses or Bachelor theses follow the basic format outlined below.

Doctoral dissertation
M. McCready, Examining the Role of Community Capacity for Sustainable Water Planning through Local Urban Governance: A Case Study Analysis of Waukesha, Wisconsin, Doctoral dissertation, Southern Illinois University, 2017.

News paper articles

Unlike scholarly journals, news papers do not usually have a volume and issue number. Instead, the full date and page number is required for a correct reference.

New York Times article
S. Kishkovsky, Conflict Tests Ties Between the Georgian and Russian Orthodox Churches, New York Times. (2008) A5.

In-text citations

References should be cited in the text by sequential numbers in square brackets:

This sentence cites one reference [1].
This sentence cites two references [1,2].
This sentence cites four references [1–4].

About the journal

Full journal titleInternet of Things
ISSN (print)2542-6605

Other styles