How to format your references using the Internet of Things citation style

This is a short guide how to format citations and the bibliography in a manuscript for Internet of Things. For a complete guide how to prepare your manuscript refer to the journal's instructions to authors.

Using reference management software

Typically you don't format your citations and bibliography by hand. The easiest way is to use a reference manager:

PaperpileThe citation style is built in and you can choose it in Settings > Citation Style or Paperpile > Citation Style in Google Docs.
EndNoteFind the style here: output styles overview
Mendeley, Zotero, Papers, and othersThe style is either built in or you can download a CSL file that is supported by most references management programs.
BibTeXBibTeX syles are usually part of a LaTeX template. Check the instructions to authors if the publisher offers a LaTeX template for this journal.

Journal articles

Those examples are references to articles in scholarly journals and how they are supposed to appear in your bibliography.

Not all journals organize their published articles in volumes and issues, so these fields are optional. Some electronic journals do not provide a page range, but instead list an article identifier. In a case like this it's safe to use the article identifier instead of the page range.

A journal article with 1 author
E.D. Sloan Jr, Fundamental principles and applications of natural gas hydrates, Nature. 426 (2003) 353–363.
A journal article with 2 authors
T.D. Wheeler, A.D. Stroock, The transpiration of water at negative pressures in a synthetic tree, Nature. 455 (2008) 208–212.
A journal article with 3 authors
G. Tsiavaliaris, S. Fujita-Becker, D.J. Manstein, Molecular engineering of a backwards-moving myosin motor, Nature. 427 (2004) 558–561.
A journal article with 4 or more authors
U. Vik, R. Logares, R. Blaalid, R. Halvorsen, T. Carlsen, I. Bakke, A.-B. Kolstø, O.A. Økstad, H. Kauserud, Different bacterial communities in ectomycorrhizae and surrounding soil, Sci. Rep. 3 (2013) 3471.

Books and book chapters

Here are examples of references for authored and edited books as well as book chapters.

An authored book
F. Hirsch, J. Kemp, J. Ilkka, Mobile Web Services, John Wiley & Sons, Ltd, Chichester, UK, 2006.
An edited book
C.G. Small, ed., Functional Equations and How to Solve Them, Springer, New York, NY, 2007.
A chapter in an edited book
S.J. Kim, B. Diamond, Endogenous Control of Dendritic Cell Activation by miRNA, in: C.M. Greene (Ed.), MicroRNAs and Other Non-Coding RNAs in Inflammation, Springer International Publishing, Cham, 2015: pp. 85–103.

Web sites

Sometimes references to web sites should appear directly in the text rather than in the bibliography. Refer to the Instructions to authors for Internet of Things.

Blog post
R. Andrews, Is This Italian Volcano About To Explode Into Life And Bury Rome?, IFLScience. (2016).


This example shows the general structure used for government reports, technical reports, and scientific reports. If you can't locate the report number then it might be better to cite the report as a book. For reports it is usually not individual people that are credited as authors, but a governmental department or agency like "U. S. Food and Drug Administration" or "National Cancer Institute".

Government report
Government Accountability Office, GAO Update on the Number of Prekindergarten Care and Education Programs, U.S. Government Printing Office, Washington, DC, 2005.

Theses and dissertations

Theses including Ph.D. dissertations, Master's theses or Bachelor theses follow the basic format outlined below.

Doctoral dissertation
K.R. Monteiro, An experimental study of corrective feedback on synchronous oral computer-mediated communication, Doctoral dissertation, California State University, Long Beach, 2012.

News paper articles

Unlike scholarly journals, news papers do not usually have a volume and issue number. Instead, the full date and page number is required for a correct reference.

New York Times article
J. Healy, S.F. Kovaleski, One Mother, 7 Dead Newborns and a Stunned Community in Utah, New York Times. (2014) A18.

In-text citations

References should be cited in the text by sequential numbers in square brackets:

This sentence cites one reference [1].
This sentence cites two references [1,2].
This sentence cites four references [1–4].

About the journal

Full journal titleInternet of Things
ISSN (print)2542-6605

Other styles