How to format your references using the Internet of Things citation style

This is a short guide how to format citations and the bibliography in a manuscript for Internet of Things. For a complete guide how to prepare your manuscript refer to the journal's instructions to authors.

Using reference management software

Typically you don't format your citations and bibliography by hand. The easiest way is to use a reference manager:

PaperpileThe citation style is built in and you can choose it in Settings > Citation Style or Paperpile > Citation Style in Google Docs.
EndNoteFind the style here: output styles overview
Mendeley, Zotero, Papers, and othersThe style is either built in or you can download a CSL file that is supported by most references management programs.
BibTeXBibTeX syles are usually part of a LaTeX template. Check the instructions to authors if the publisher offers a LaTeX template for this journal.

Journal articles

Those examples are references to articles in scholarly journals and how they are supposed to appear in your bibliography.

Not all journals organize their published articles in volumes and issues, so these fields are optional. Some electronic journals do not provide a page range, but instead list an article identifier. In a case like this it's safe to use the article identifier instead of the page range.

A journal article with 1 author
G. Gibson, Evolution. The synthesis and evolution of a supermodel, Science. 307 (2005) 1890–1891.
A journal article with 2 authors
I.H. Campbell, H.S.C. O’Neill, Evidence against a chondritic Earth, Nature. 483 (2012) 553–558.
A journal article with 3 authors
J.N. Rao, Y. Madasu, R. Dominguez, Mechanism of actin filament pointed-end capping by tropomodulin, Science. 345 (2014) 463–467.
A journal article with 4 or more authors
W. Fu, F.-H. Du, J. Su, X.-H. Li, X. Wei, T.-N. Ye, K.-X. Wang, J.-S. Chen, In situ catalytic growth of large-area multilayered graphene/MoS2 heterostructures, Sci. Rep. 4 (2014) 4673.

Books and book chapters

Here are examples of references for authored and edited books as well as book chapters.

An authored book
P.M. Griffin, H.B. Nembhard, C.J. DeFlitch, N.D. Bastian, H. Kang, D.A. Muñoz, Healthcare Systems Engineering, John Wiley & Sons, Inc, Hoboken, NJ, 2015.
An edited book
A.M. Evans, J.C. Flatman, N.C. Flemming, eds., Prehistoric Archaeology on the Continental Shelf: A Global Review, Springer, New York, NY, 2014.
A chapter in an edited book
H. Holden, B. Øksendal, J. Ubøe, T. Zhang, Stochastic Partial Differential Equations Driven by Brownian White Noise, in: B. Øksendal, J. Ubøe, T. Zhang (Eds.), Stochastic Partial Differential Equations: A Modeling, White Noise Functional Approach, Springer, New York, NY, 2010: pp. 159–212.

Web sites

Sometimes references to web sites should appear directly in the text rather than in the bibliography. Refer to the Instructions to authors for Internet of Things.

Blog post
E. Andrew, Staying Alive Is Just Step One For West Africa’s Ebola Survivors, IFLScience. (2015). (accessed October 30, 2018).


This example shows the general structure used for government reports, technical reports, and scientific reports. If you can't locate the report number then it might be better to cite the report as a book. For reports it is usually not individual people that are credited as authors, but a governmental department or agency like "U. S. Food and Drug Administration" or "National Cancer Institute".

Government report
Government Accountability Office, Head Start: An Effective Program but the Fund Distribution Formula Needs Revision and Management Controls Need Improvement, U.S. Government Printing Office, Washington, DC, 1981.

Theses and dissertations

Theses including Ph.D. dissertations, Master's theses or Bachelor theses follow the basic format outlined below.

Doctoral dissertation
B.H. Weisblatt, The numinous on Russian soil: A depth psychological interpretation of religious experience in “The Brothers Karamazov,” Doctoral dissertation, Pacifica Graduate Institute, 2010.

News paper articles

Unlike scholarly journals, news papers do not usually have a volume and issue number. Instead, the full date and page number is required for a correct reference.

New York Times article
J.B. Stewart, On Trump Tax Form, a Decade’s Worth of Questions, New York Times. (2017) B1.

In-text citations

References should be cited in the text by sequential numbers in square brackets:

This sentence cites one reference [1].
This sentence cites two references [1,2].
This sentence cites four references [1–4].

About the journal

Full journal titleInternet of Things
ISSN (print)2542-6605

Other styles