How to format your references using the International Journal on Digital Libraries citation style

This is a short guide how to format citations and the bibliography in a manuscript for International Journal on Digital Libraries. For a complete guide how to prepare your manuscript refer to the journal's instructions to authors.

Using reference management software

Typically you don't format your citations and bibliography by hand. The easiest way is to use a reference manager:

PaperpileThe citation style is built in and you can choose it in Settings > Citation Style or Paperpile > Citation Style in Google Docs.
EndNoteFind the style here: output styles overview
Mendeley, Zotero, Papers, and othersThe style is either built in or you can download a CSL file that is supported by most references management programs.
BibTeXBibTeX syles are usually part of a LaTeX template. Check the instructions to authors if the publisher offers a LaTeX template for this journal.

Journal articles

Those examples are references to articles in scholarly journals and how they are supposed to appear in your bibliography.

Not all journals organize their published articles in volumes and issues, so these fields are optional. Some electronic journals do not provide a page range, but instead list an article identifier. In a case like this it's safe to use the article identifier instead of the page range.

A journal article with 1 author
Aubert, J.: PLANETARY SCIENCE. Ancient planetary dynamos, take two. Science. 349, 475–476 (2015)
A journal article with 2 authors
Wculek, S.K., Malanchi, I.: Neutrophils support lung colonization of metastasis-initiating breast cancer cells. Nature. 528, 413–417 (2015)
A journal article with 3 authors
Bongard, J., Zykov, V., Lipson, H.: Resilient machines through continuous self-modeling. Science. 314, 1118–1121 (2006)
A journal article with 4 or more authors
Pramanik, S., Pingguan-Murphy, B., Cho, J., Abu Osman, N.A.: Design and development of potential tissue engineering scaffolds from structurally different longitudinal parts of a bovine-femur. Sci. Rep. 4, 5843 (2014)

Books and book chapters

Here are examples of references for authored and edited books as well as book chapters.

An authored book
Perini, K., Sabbion, P.: Urban Sustainability and River Restoration. John Wiley & Sons Ltd, Chichester, UK (2017)
An edited book
Tavernier, F.: High-Speed Optical Receivers with Integrated Photodiode in Nanoscale CMOS. Springer, New York, NY (2011)
A chapter in an edited book
Aho, T.: Reality TV and Its Audiences Reconsidered: Class and Poverty in Undercover Boss (CBS). In: Lemke, S. and Schniedermann, W. (eds.) Class Divisions in Serial Television. pp. 89–117. Palgrave Macmillan UK, London (2016)

Web sites

Sometimes references to web sites should appear directly in the text rather than in the bibliography. Refer to the Instructions to authors for International Journal on Digital Libraries.

Blog post
Carpineti, A.: Home-Grown Organic Materials Discovered On The Surface Of Ceres,


This example shows the general structure used for government reports, technical reports, and scientific reports. If you can't locate the report number then it might be better to cite the report as a book. For reports it is usually not individual people that are credited as authors, but a governmental department or agency like "U. S. Food and Drug Administration" or "National Cancer Institute".

Government report
Government Accountability Office: Protest Against Award of Data Processing and Mailing Contract. U.S. Government Printing Office, Washington, DC (1973)

Theses and dissertations

Theses including Ph.D. dissertations, Master's theses or Bachelor theses follow the basic format outlined below.

Doctoral dissertation
Satam, G.C.: The mechanical engineering approach for three dimensional modeling procedure and measurements of the heart anatomy, (2010)

News paper articles

Unlike scholarly journals, news papers do not usually have a volume and issue number. Instead, the full date and page number is required for a correct reference.

New York Times article
Kenigsberg, B.: Toys, Manolos and Tennis Champs, (2017)

In-text citations

References should be cited in the text by sequential numbers in square brackets:

This sentence cites one reference [1].
This sentence cites two references [1, 2].
This sentence cites four references [1–4].

About the journal

Full journal titleInternational Journal on Digital Libraries
ISSN (print)1432-5012
ISSN (online)1432-1300
ScopeLibrary and Information Sciences

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