How to format your references using the International Journal on Digital Libraries citation style

This is a short guide how to format citations and the bibliography in a manuscript for International Journal on Digital Libraries. For a complete guide how to prepare your manuscript refer to the journal's instructions to authors.

Using reference management software

Typically you don't format your citations and bibliography by hand. The easiest way is to use a reference manager:

PaperpileThe citation style is built in and you can choose it in Settings > Citation Style or Paperpile > Citation Style in Google Docs.
EndNoteFind the style here: output styles overview
Mendeley, Zotero, Papers, and othersThe style is either built in or you can download a CSL file that is supported by most references management programs.
BibTeXBibTeX syles are usually part of a LaTeX template. Check the instructions to authors if the publisher offers a LaTeX template for this journal.

Journal articles

Those examples are references to articles in scholarly journals and how they are supposed to appear in your bibliography.

Not all journals organize their published articles in volumes and issues, so these fields are optional. Some electronic journals do not provide a page range, but instead list an article identifier. In a case like this it's safe to use the article identifier instead of the page range.

A journal article with 1 author
Bahcall, O.: Precision medicine. Nature. 526, 335 (2015)
A journal article with 2 authors
Davis, C.S., McGillicuddy, D.J., Jr: Transatlantic abundance of the N2-fixing colonial cyanobacterium Trichodesmium. Science. 312, 1517–1520 (2006)
A journal article with 3 authors
Girvetz, E.H., Jaeger, J.A.G., Thorne, J.H.: Comment on “Roadless space of the conterminous United States.” Science. 318, 1240; author reply 1240 (2007)
A journal article with 4 or more authors
Wen, J.-D., Lancaster, L., Hodges, C., Zeri, A.-C., Yoshimura, S.H., Noller, H.F., Bustamante, C., Tinoco, I.: Following translation by single ribosomes one codon at a time. Nature. 452, 598–603 (2008)

Books and book chapters

Here are examples of references for authored and edited books as well as book chapters.

An authored book
Stewart, R.: Plautus and Roman Slavery. John Wiley & Sons, Ltd, Chichester, UK (2012)
An edited book
Plattner, H., Meinel, C., Leifer, L. eds: Design Thinking Research: Making Design Thinking Foundational. Springer International Publishing, Cham (2016)
A chapter in an edited book
Villa, P., Duan, H., Loiselle, S.A.: Using Remote Sensing to Assess the Impact of Human Activities on Water Quality: Case Study of Lake Taihu, China. In: Younos, T. and Parece, T.E. (eds.) Advances in Watershed Science and Assessment. pp. 85–110. Springer International Publishing, Cham (2015)

Web sites

Sometimes references to web sites should appear directly in the text rather than in the bibliography. Refer to the Instructions to authors for International Journal on Digital Libraries.

Blog post
Andrew, D.: Elon Musk Says We’re Probably Living In A Computer Simulation – Here’s The Science,


This example shows the general structure used for government reports, technical reports, and scientific reports. If you can't locate the report number then it might be better to cite the report as a book. For reports it is usually not individual people that are credited as authors, but a governmental department or agency like "U. S. Food and Drug Administration" or "National Cancer Institute".

Government report
Government Accountability Office: Railroad Retirement Board: Total and Permanent Disability Program at Risk of Improper Payments. U.S. Government Printing Office, Washington, DC (2014)

Theses and dissertations

Theses including Ph.D. dissertations, Master's theses or Bachelor theses follow the basic format outlined below.

Doctoral dissertation
Best, M.L.: Assistant Principals and Reform: A Socialization Paradox?, (2013)

News paper articles

Unlike scholarly journals, news papers do not usually have a volume and issue number. Instead, the full date and page number is required for a correct reference.

New York Times article
Kasich, J.: End Partisan Warfare on Health Care, (2017)

In-text citations

References should be cited in the text by sequential numbers in square brackets:

This sentence cites one reference [1].
This sentence cites two references [1, 2].
This sentence cites four references [1–4].

About the journal

Full journal titleInternational Journal on Digital Libraries
ISSN (print)1432-5012
ISSN (online)1432-1300
ScopeLibrary and Information Sciences

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