How to format your references using the International Journal on Digital Libraries citation style

This is a short guide how to format citations and the bibliography in a manuscript for International Journal on Digital Libraries. For a complete guide how to prepare your manuscript refer to the journal's instructions to authors.

Using reference management software

Typically you don't format your citations and bibliography by hand. The easiest way is to use a reference manager:

PaperpileThe citation style is built in and you can choose it in Settings > Citation Style or Paperpile > Citation Style in Google Docs.
EndNoteFind the style here: output styles overview
Mendeley, Zotero, Papers, and othersThe style is either built in or you can download a CSL file that is supported by most references management programs.
BibTeXBibTeX syles are usually part of a LaTeX template. Check the instructions to authors if the publisher offers a LaTeX template for this journal.

Journal articles

Those examples are references to articles in scholarly journals and how they are supposed to appear in your bibliography.

Not all journals organize their published articles in volumes and issues, so these fields are optional. Some electronic journals do not provide a page range, but instead list an article identifier. In a case like this it's safe to use the article identifier instead of the page range.

A journal article with 1 author
Eldakar, O.T.: Journal club. An evolutionary biologist learns how to be remembered: cheat someone. Nature. 460, 783 (2009)
A journal article with 2 authors
Koch, C., Reid, R.C.: Neuroscience: Observatories of the mind. Nature. 483, 397–398 (2012)
A journal article with 3 authors
Wurmser, A.E., Palmer, T.D., Gage, F.H.: Neuroscience. Cellular interactions in the stem cell niche. Science. 304, 1253–1255 (2004)
A journal article with 4 or more authors
Jaramillo, C., Ochoa, D., Contreras, L., Pagani, M., Carvajal-Ortiz, H., Pratt, L.M., Krishnan, S., Cardona, A., Romero, M., Quiroz, L., Rodriguez, G., Rueda, M.J., de la Parra, F., Morón, S., Green, W., Bayona, G., Montes, C., Quintero, O., Ramirez, R., Mora, G., Schouten, S., Bermudez, H., Navarrete, R., Parra, F., Alvarán, M., Osorno, J., Crowley, J.L., Valencia, V., Vervoort, J.: Effects of rapid global warming at the Paleocene-Eocene boundary on neotropical vegetation. Science. 330, 957–961 (2010)

Books and book chapters

Here are examples of references for authored and edited books as well as book chapters.

An authored book
Mitra, A.: Fundamentals of Quality Control and Improvement. John Wiley & Sons, Inc., Hoboken, NJ (2008)
An edited book
Audet, C., Hansen, P., Savard, G. eds: Essays and Surveys in Global Optimization. Springer US, Boston, MA (2005)
A chapter in an edited book
van Eck, W.H.J.M., Lenssen, J.P.M., van de Steeg, H.M., Blom, C.W.P.M., de Kroon, H.: Seasonal dependent effects of flooding on plant species survival and zonation: a comparative study of 10 terrestrial grassland species. In: Leuven, R.S.E.W., Ragas, A.M.J., Smits, A.J.M., and Velde, G. van der (eds.) Living Rivers: Trends and Challenges in Science and Management. pp. 59–69. Springer Netherlands, Dordrecht (2006)

Web sites

Sometimes references to web sites should appear directly in the text rather than in the bibliography. Refer to the Instructions to authors for International Journal on Digital Libraries.

Blog post
Carpineti, A.: Home-Grown Organic Materials Discovered On The Surface Of Ceres,


This example shows the general structure used for government reports, technical reports, and scientific reports. If you can't locate the report number then it might be better to cite the report as a book. For reports it is usually not individual people that are credited as authors, but a governmental department or agency like "U. S. Food and Drug Administration" or "National Cancer Institute".

Government report
Government Accountability Office: Older Driver Safety: Knowledge Sharing Should Help States Prepare for Increase in Older Driver Population. U.S. Government Printing Office, Washington, DC (2007)

Theses and dissertations

Theses including Ph.D. dissertations, Master's theses or Bachelor theses follow the basic format outlined below.

Doctoral dissertation
Garcia, M.: College preparedness program for high school students in South Los Angeles, California: A grant proposal, (2015)

News paper articles

Unlike scholarly journals, news papers do not usually have a volume and issue number. Instead, the full date and page number is required for a correct reference.

New York Times article
Gordon, M.R., Nechepurenko, I.: U.S. Is Warned After It Downs Syrian Fighter, (2017)

In-text citations

References should be cited in the text by sequential numbers in square brackets:

This sentence cites one reference [1].
This sentence cites two references [1, 2].
This sentence cites four references [1–4].

About the journal

Full journal titleInternational Journal on Digital Libraries
ISSN (print)1432-5012
ISSN (online)1432-1300
ScopeLibrary and Information Sciences

Other styles