How to format your references using the International Journal on Digital Libraries citation style

This is a short guide how to format citations and the bibliography in a manuscript for International Journal on Digital Libraries. For a complete guide how to prepare your manuscript refer to the journal's instructions to authors.

Using reference management software

Typically you don't format your citations and bibliography by hand. The easiest way is to use a reference manager:

PaperpileThe citation style is built in and you can choose it in Settings > Citation Style or Paperpile > Citation Style in Google Docs.
EndNoteFind the style here: output styles overview
Mendeley, Zotero, Papers, and othersThe style is either built in or you can download a CSL file that is supported by most references management programs.
BibTeXBibTeX syles are usually part of a LaTeX template. Check the instructions to authors if the publisher offers a LaTeX template for this journal.

Journal articles

Those examples are references to articles in scholarly journals and how they are supposed to appear in your bibliography.

Not all journals organize their published articles in volumes and issues, so these fields are optional. Some electronic journals do not provide a page range, but instead list an article identifier. In a case like this it's safe to use the article identifier instead of the page range.

A journal article with 1 author
Dalton, R.: Action urged to combat killer algae. Nature. 412, 260 (2001)
A journal article with 2 authors
Edmunds, J.W., Mahadevan, L.C.: Cell signaling. Protein kinases seek close encounters with active genes. Science. 313, 449–451 (2006)
A journal article with 3 authors
Lutz, W., O’Neill, B.C., Scherbov, S.: Demographics. Europe’s population at a turning point. Science. 299, 1991–1992 (2003)
A journal article with 4 or more authors
Dial, O.E., Ashoori, R.C., Pfeiffer, L.N., West, K.W.: High-resolution spectroscopy of two-dimensional electron systems. Nature. 448, 176–179 (2007)

Books and book chapters

Here are examples of references for authored and edited books as well as book chapters.

An authored book
Boberski, V.: Community Banking Strategies. John Wiley & Sons, Inc., Hoboken, NJ (2010)
An edited book
Scholl, H.P.N., Massof, R.W., West, S. eds: Ophthalmology and the Ageing Society. Springer, Berlin, Heidelberg (2013)
A chapter in an edited book
Borwein, P., Choi, S., Rooney, B., Weirathmueller, A.: Empirical Evidence. In: Borwein, P., Choi, S., Rooney, B., and Weirathmueller, A. (eds.) The Riemann Hypothesis: A Resource for the Afficionado and Virtuoso Alike. pp. 37–44. Springer, New York, NY (2008)

Web sites

Sometimes references to web sites should appear directly in the text rather than in the bibliography. Refer to the Instructions to authors for International Journal on Digital Libraries.

Blog post
Andrew, E.: What To Do When You’re Dead: Science Edition,


This example shows the general structure used for government reports, technical reports, and scientific reports. If you can't locate the report number then it might be better to cite the report as a book. For reports it is usually not individual people that are credited as authors, but a governmental department or agency like "U. S. Food and Drug Administration" or "National Cancer Institute".

Government report
Government Accountability Office: NASA’s Administrative Review of a Patent Infringement Claim. U.S. Government Printing Office, Washington, DC (2000)

Theses and dissertations

Theses including Ph.D. dissertations, Master's theses or Bachelor theses follow the basic format outlined below.

Doctoral dissertation
Allen, E.L.: Teacher Evaluation and Student Achievement in Elementary Education, (2015)

News paper articles

Unlike scholarly journals, news papers do not usually have a volume and issue number. Instead, the full date and page number is required for a correct reference.

New York Times article
Crow, K.: Fire Chief Questions Closing of Streets, (2002)

In-text citations

References should be cited in the text by sequential numbers in square brackets:

This sentence cites one reference [1].
This sentence cites two references [1, 2].
This sentence cites four references [1–4].

About the journal

Full journal titleInternational Journal on Digital Libraries
ISSN (print)1432-5012
ISSN (online)1432-1300
ScopeLibrary and Information Sciences

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