How to format your references using the International Journal of Pavement Research and Technology citation style

This is a short guide how to format citations and the bibliography in a manuscript for International Journal of Pavement Research and Technology. For a complete guide how to prepare your manuscript refer to the journal's instructions to authors.

Using reference management software

Typically you don't format your citations and bibliography by hand. The easiest way is to use a reference manager:

PaperpileThe citation style is built in and you can choose it in Settings > Citation Style or Paperpile > Citation Style in Google Docs.
EndNoteFind the style here: output styles overview
Mendeley, Zotero, Papers, and othersThe style is either built in or you can download a CSL file that is supported by most references management programs.
BibTeXBibTeX syles are usually part of a LaTeX template. Check the instructions to authors if the publisher offers a LaTeX template for this journal.

Journal articles

Those examples are references to articles in scholarly journals and how they are supposed to appear in your bibliography.

Not all journals organize their published articles in volumes and issues, so these fields are optional. Some electronic journals do not provide a page range, but instead list an article identifier. In a case like this it's safe to use the article identifier instead of the page range.

A journal article with 1 author
J.D. Shelton, Ensuring health in universal health coverage, Nature. 493 (2013) 453.
A journal article with 2 authors
C. Boesz, N. Lloyd, Collaborations: investigating international misconduct, Nature. 452 (2008) 686–687.
A journal article with 3 authors
L.C. James, P. Roversi, D.S. Tawfik, Antibody multispecificity mediated by conformational diversity, Science. 299 (2003) 1362–1367.
A journal article with 4 or more authors
E. Hornstein, J.H. Mansfield, S. Yekta, J.K.-H. Hu, B.D. Harfe, M.T. McManus, S. Baskerville, D.P. Bartel, C.J. Tabin, The microRNA miR-196 acts upstream of Hoxb8 and Shh in limb development, Nature. 438 (2005) 671–674.

Books and book chapters

Here are examples of references for authored and edited books as well as book chapters.

An authored book
E. Exposito, C. Diop, Smart SOA Platforms in Cloud Computing Architectures, John Wiley & Sons, Inc., Hoboken, NJ, 2014.
An edited book
E.H. Lieb, The Stability of Matter: From Atoms to Stars: Selecta of Elliott H. Lieb, Fourth Edition, Springer, Berlin, Heidelberg, 2005.
A chapter in an edited book
A. Simón Mata, A. Bataller Torras, J.A. Cabrera Carrillo, F. Ezquerro Juanco, A.J. Guerra Fernández, F. Nadal Martínez, A. Ortiz Fernández, Graphical and Analytical Methods for Dynamic Analysis of Planar Linkages, in: A. Bataller Torras, J.A. Cabrera Carrillo, F. Ezquerro Juanco, A.J. Guerra Fernández, F. Nadal Martínez, A. Ortiz Fernández (Eds.), Fundamentals of Machine Theory and Mechanisms, Springer International Publishing, Cham, 2016: pp. 143–193.

Web sites

Sometimes references to web sites should appear directly in the text rather than in the bibliography. Refer to the Instructions to authors for International Journal of Pavement Research and Technology.

Blog post
E. Andrew, Brainy Bones: The Hidden Complexity Inside Your Skeleton, IFLScience. (2015). (accessed October 30, 2018).


This example shows the general structure used for government reports, technical reports, and scientific reports. If you can't locate the report number then it might be better to cite the report as a book. For reports it is usually not individual people that are credited as authors, but a governmental department or agency like "U. S. Food and Drug Administration" or "National Cancer Institute".

Government report
Government Accountability Office, [Comments on H.R. 4086], U.S. Government Printing Office, Washington, DC, 1986.

Theses and dissertations

Theses including Ph.D. dissertations, Master's theses or Bachelor theses follow the basic format outlined below.

Doctoral dissertation
M.D. Swenson, Second generation Latinos and the perceived barriers to college enrollment, Doctoral dissertation, California State University, Long Beach, 2012.

News paper articles

Unlike scholarly journals, news papers do not usually have a volume and issue number. Instead, the full date and page number is required for a correct reference.

New York Times article
M.D. Shear, K. Kelly, Still Civic-Minded, but He’ll Speak for $400,000, New York Times. (2017) A13.

In-text citations

References should be cited in the text by sequential numbers in square brackets:

This sentence cites one reference [1].
This sentence cites two references [1,2].
This sentence cites four references [1–4].

About the journal

Full journal titleInternational Journal of Pavement Research and Technology
ISSN (print)1996-6814
ScopeCivil and Structural Engineering
Mechanics of Materials

Other styles