How to format your references using the International Journal of Pavement Research and Technology citation style

This is a short guide how to format citations and the bibliography in a manuscript for International Journal of Pavement Research and Technology. For a complete guide how to prepare your manuscript refer to the journal's instructions to authors.

Using reference management software

Typically you don't format your citations and bibliography by hand. The easiest way is to use a reference manager:

PaperpileThe citation style is built in and you can choose it in Settings > Citation Style or Paperpile > Citation Style in Google Docs.
EndNoteFind the style here: output styles overview
Mendeley, Zotero, Papers, and othersThe style is either built in or you can download a CSL file that is supported by most references management programs.
BibTeXBibTeX syles are usually part of a LaTeX template. Check the instructions to authors if the publisher offers a LaTeX template for this journal.

Journal articles

Those examples are references to articles in scholarly journals and how they are supposed to appear in your bibliography.

Not all journals organize their published articles in volumes and issues, so these fields are optional. Some electronic journals do not provide a page range, but instead list an article identifier. In a case like this it's safe to use the article identifier instead of the page range.

A journal article with 1 author
R. Lal, Soil carbon sequestration impacts on global climate change and food security, Science. 304 (2004) 1623–1627.
A journal article with 2 authors
P.R. Ehrlich, D. Kennedy, Sustainability. Millennium assessment of human behavior, Science. 309 (2005) 562–563.
A journal article with 3 authors
O. Aurelio, D.H. Hall, O. Hobert, Immunoglobulin-domain proteins required for maintenance of ventral nerve cord organization, Science. 295 (2002) 686–690.
A journal article with 4 or more authors
Y.-Y. Zhao, A. Inoue, C. Chang, J. Liu, B. Shen, X. Wang, R.-W. Li, Composition effect on intrinsic plasticity or brittleness in metallic glasses, Sci. Rep. 4 (2014) 5733.

Books and book chapters

Here are examples of references for authored and edited books as well as book chapters.

An authored book
J. De Spiegeleer, W. Schoutens, C. Van Hulle, The Handbook of Hybrid Securities, John Wiley & Sons, Ltd, Chichester, UK, 2014.
An edited book
A. Morandi, A.N.N. Nambi, eds., An Integrated View of Health and Well-being: Bridging Indian and Western Knowledge, Springer Netherlands, Dordrecht, 2013.
A chapter in an edited book
I. Kriz, A. Pultr, Integration II: Measurable Functions, Measure and the Techniques of Lebesgue Integration, in: A. Pultr (Ed.), Introduction to Mathematical Analysis, Springer, Basel, 2013: pp. 117–143.

Web sites

Sometimes references to web sites should appear directly in the text rather than in the bibliography. Refer to the Instructions to authors for International Journal of Pavement Research and Technology.

Blog post
S. Luntz, Black Hole Spinning at Half Light Speed, IFLScience. (2014). (accessed October 30, 2018).


This example shows the general structure used for government reports, technical reports, and scientific reports. If you can't locate the report number then it might be better to cite the report as a book. For reports it is usually not individual people that are credited as authors, but a governmental department or agency like "U. S. Food and Drug Administration" or "National Cancer Institute".

Government report
Government Accountability Office, Applying Agreed-Upon Procedures: Airport and Airway Trust Fund Excise Taxes, U.S. Government Printing Office, Washington, DC, 2007.

Theses and dissertations

Theses including Ph.D. dissertations, Master's theses or Bachelor theses follow the basic format outlined below.

Doctoral dissertation
L. Quinn, The poetics of soul: Mythic narrative as creative elegy, Doctoral dissertation, Pacifica Graduate Institute, 2013.

News paper articles

Unlike scholarly journals, news papers do not usually have a volume and issue number. Instead, the full date and page number is required for a correct reference.

New York Times article
J. Coscarelli, M. Ryzik, B. Sisario, Anger, Lawsuits and Inquiry Follow Music Festival’s Failure, New York Times. (2017) A1.

In-text citations

References should be cited in the text by sequential numbers in square brackets:

This sentence cites one reference [1].
This sentence cites two references [1,2].
This sentence cites four references [1–4].

About the journal

Full journal titleInternational Journal of Pavement Research and Technology
ISSN (print)1996-6814
ScopeCivil and Structural Engineering
Mechanics of Materials

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