How to format your references using the International Journal of Pavement Research and Technology citation style

This is a short guide how to format citations and the bibliography in a manuscript for International Journal of Pavement Research and Technology. For a complete guide how to prepare your manuscript refer to the journal's instructions to authors.

Using reference management software

Typically you don't format your citations and bibliography by hand. The easiest way is to use a reference manager:

PaperpileThe citation style is built in and you can choose it in Settings > Citation Style or Paperpile > Citation Style in Google Docs.
EndNoteFind the style here: output styles overview
Mendeley, Zotero, Papers, and othersThe style is either built in or you can download a CSL file that is supported by most references management programs.
BibTeXBibTeX syles are usually part of a LaTeX template. Check the instructions to authors if the publisher offers a LaTeX template for this journal.

Journal articles

Those examples are references to articles in scholarly journals and how they are supposed to appear in your bibliography.

Not all journals organize their published articles in volumes and issues, so these fields are optional. Some electronic journals do not provide a page range, but instead list an article identifier. In a case like this it's safe to use the article identifier instead of the page range.

A journal article with 1 author
L.H. Yang, Periodical cicadas as resource pulses in North American forests, Science. 306 (2004) 1565–1567.
A journal article with 2 authors
T.N. Sherratt, G. Roberts, Ecology. When paths to cooperation converge, Science. 337 (2012) 1304–1305.
A journal article with 3 authors
L.M. Beskow, L. Dame, E.J. Costello, Research ethics. Certificates of confidentiality and compelled disclosure of data, Science. 322 (2008) 1054–1055.
A journal article with 4 or more authors
A.R. Gómez Cano, J.L. Cantalapiedra, M.Á. Álvarez-Sierra, M. Hernández Fernández, A macroecological glance at the structure of late Miocene rodent assemblages from Southwest Europe, Sci. Rep. 4 (2014) 6557.

Books and book chapters

Here are examples of references for authored and edited books as well as book chapters.

An authored book
B.S. Fulton, Drug Discovery for the Treatment of Addiction, John Wiley & Sons, Inc., Hoboken, NJ, 2014.
An edited book
J. Stjepandić, N. Wognum, W. J.C. Verhagen, eds., Concurrent Engineering in the 21st Century: Foundations, Developments and Challenges, Springer International Publishing, Cham, 2015.
A chapter in an edited book
J.I. López, M. Brovka, J.M. Escobar, J.M. Cascón, R. Montenegro, T-spline Parameterization of 2D Geometries Based on the Meccano Method with a New T-mesh Optimization Algorithm, in: J. Sarrate, M. Staten (Eds.), Proceedings of the 22nd International Meshing Roundtable, Springer International Publishing, Cham, 2014: pp. 57–74.

Web sites

Sometimes references to web sites should appear directly in the text rather than in the bibliography. Refer to the Instructions to authors for International Journal of Pavement Research and Technology.

Blog post
E. Andrew, Can We Expand Solar Power Dramatically Without Damaging Protected Lands?, IFLScience. (2015).


This example shows the general structure used for government reports, technical reports, and scientific reports. If you can't locate the report number then it might be better to cite the report as a book. For reports it is usually not individual people that are credited as authors, but a governmental department or agency like "U. S. Food and Drug Administration" or "National Cancer Institute".

Government report
Government Accountability Office, Transportation-Disadvantaged Populations: Federal Agencies Are Taking Steps to Assist States and Local Agencies in Coordinating Transportation Services, U.S. Government Printing Office, Washington, DC, 2004.

Theses and dissertations

Theses including Ph.D. dissertations, Master's theses or Bachelor theses follow the basic format outlined below.

Doctoral dissertation
V.J. Moody, Examining leadership styles and employee engagement in the public and private sectors, Doctoral dissertation, University of Phoenix, 2012.

News paper articles

Unlike scholarly journals, news papers do not usually have a volume and issue number. Instead, the full date and page number is required for a correct reference.

New York Times article
M.D. Shear, R. Nixon, Ban on Travel Will Be Replaced With New Schedule of Targeted Restrictions, New York Times. (2017) A11.

In-text citations

References should be cited in the text by sequential numbers in square brackets:

This sentence cites one reference [1].
This sentence cites two references [1,2].
This sentence cites four references [1–4].

About the journal

Full journal titleInternational Journal of Pavement Research and Technology
ISSN (print)1996-6814
ScopeCivil and Structural Engineering
Mechanics of Materials

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