How to format your references using the International Journal of Nuclear Security citation style

This is a short guide how to format citations and the bibliography in a manuscript for International Journal of Nuclear Security. For a complete guide how to prepare your manuscript refer to the journal's instructions to authors.

Using reference management software

Typically you don't format your citations and bibliography by hand. The easiest way is to use a reference manager:

PaperpileThe citation style is built in and you can choose it in Settings > Citation Style or Paperpile > Citation Style in Google Docs.
EndNoteFind the style here: output styles overview
Mendeley, Zotero, Papers, and othersThe style is either built in or you can download a CSL file that is supported by most references management programs.
BibTeXBibTeX syles are usually part of a LaTeX template. Check the instructions to authors if the publisher offers a LaTeX template for this journal.

Journal articles

Those examples are references to articles in scholarly journals and how they are supposed to appear in your bibliography.

Not all journals organize their published articles in volumes and issues, so these fields are optional. Some electronic journals do not provide a page range, but instead list an article identifier. In a case like this it's safe to use the article identifier instead of the page range.

A journal article with 1 author
C. Finney, Conservation economics. Comment on “Using ecological thresholds to evaluate the costs and benefits of set-asides in a biodiversity hotspot.” Science. 347, 731 (2015).
A journal article with 2 authors
D.-Y. Kang, J. H. Moon, Lithographically defined three-dimensional pore-patterned carbon with nitrogen doping for high-performance ultrathin supercapacitor applications. Sci. Rep. 4, 5392 (2014).
A journal article with 3 authors
J. B. Pendry, D. Schurig, D. R. Smith, Controlling electromagnetic fields. Science. 312, 1780–1782 (2006).
A journal article with 10 or more authors
B. Xiao et al., Structure and catalytic mechanism of the human histone methyltransferase SET7/9. Nature. 421, 652–656 (2003).

Books and book chapters

Here are examples of references for authored and edited books as well as book chapters.

An authored book
R. Brown, Rational Choice and Judgment (John Wiley & Sons, Inc., Hoboken, NJ, 2005).
An edited book
R. Pollack, J. Pach, J. E. Goodman, Eds., Twentieth Anniversary Volume: Discrete & Computational Geometry (Springer, New York, NY, 2009).
A chapter in an edited book
L. Raffaghello, G. Bianchi, in Interaction of Immune and Cancer Cells, M. Klink, Ed. (Springer, Vienna, 2014), pp. 91–109.

Web sites

Sometimes references to web sites should appear directly in the text rather than in the bibliography. Refer to the Instructions to authors for International Journal of Nuclear Security.

Blog post
E. Andrew, This Will Revolutionize Education. IFLScience (2014), (available at


This example shows the general structure used for government reports, technical reports, and scientific reports. If you can't locate the report number then it might be better to cite the report as a book. For reports it is usually not individual people that are credited as authors, but a governmental department or agency like "U. S. Food and Drug Administration" or "National Cancer Institute".

Government report
Government Accountability Office, “NASA Procurement: Contract Management Oversight” (NSIAD-97-114R, U.S. Government Printing Office, Washington, DC, 1997).

Theses and dissertations

Theses including Ph.D. dissertations, Master's theses or Bachelor theses follow the basic format outlined below.

Doctoral dissertation
T. D. Chalmers, thesis, University of Arizona, Tucson, AZ (2009).

News paper articles

Unlike scholarly journals, news papers do not usually have a volume and issue number. Instead, the full date and page number is required for a correct reference.

New York Times article
J. Wagner, Harvey and the Mets Struggle Again. New York Times (2017), p. B9.

In-text citations

References should be cited in the text

About the journal

Full journal titleInternational Journal of Nuclear Security
AbbreviationInt. J. Nucl. Secur.
ISSN (print)2376-9955

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