How to format your references using the International Journal of Financial Studies citation style

This is a short guide how to format citations and the bibliography in a manuscript for International Journal of Financial Studies. For a complete guide how to prepare your manuscript refer to the journal's instructions to authors.

Using reference management software

Typically you don't format your citations and bibliography by hand. The easiest way is to use a reference manager:

PaperpileThe citation style is built in and you can choose it in Settings > Citation Style or Paperpile > Citation Style in Google Docs.
EndNoteFind the style here: output styles overview
Mendeley, Zotero, Papers, and othersThe style is either built in or you can download a CSL file that is supported by most references management programs.
BibTeXBibTeX syles are usually part of a LaTeX template. Check the instructions to authors if the publisher offers a LaTeX template for this journal.

Journal articles

Those examples are references to articles in scholarly journals and how they are supposed to appear in your bibliography.

Not all journals organize their published articles in volumes and issues, so these fields are optional. Some electronic journals do not provide a page range, but instead list an article identifier. In a case like this it's safe to use the article identifier instead of the page range.

A journal article with 1 author
Standen, N. Tuning Channels for Blood Pressure. Nature 2000, 407, 845, 847–848.
A journal article with 2 authors
Grandi, P.; Palumbo, G.G.C. Jet and Accretion-Disk Emission Untangled in 3C 273. Science 2004, 306, 998–1002.
A journal article with 3 authors
Attardo, A.; Fitzgerald, J.E.; Schnitzer, M.J. Impermanence of Dendritic Spines in Live Adult CA1 Hippocampus. Nature 2015, 523, 592–596.
A journal article with 4 or more authors
Richardson, C.J.; Reiss, P.; Hussain, N.A.; Alwash, A.J.; Pool, D.J. The Restoration Potential of the Mesopotamian Marshes of Iraq. Science 2005, 307, 1307–1311.

Books and book chapters

Here are examples of references for authored and edited books as well as book chapters.

An authored book
Pickles, J.; Smith, A.; Begg, R.; Buček, M.; Roukova, P.; Pástor, R. Articulations of Capital; John Wiley & Sons, Ltd: Chichester, UK, 2015; ISBN 9781118632864.
An edited book
Neurorehabilitation Technology; Dietz, V., Nef, T., Rymer, W.Z., Eds.; Springer: London, 2012; ISBN 9781447122760.
A chapter in an edited book
Gaur, M. Genetically Modified Logistic Regression with Radial Basis Function for Robust Software Effort Prediction. In Machine Intelligence and Signal Processing; Singh, R., Vatsa, M., Majumdar, A., Kumar, A., Eds.; Advances in Intelligent Systems and Computing; Springer India: New Delhi, 2016; pp. 55–66 ISBN 9788132226246.

Web sites

Sometimes references to web sites should appear directly in the text rather than in the bibliography. Refer to the Instructions to authors for International Journal of Financial Studies.

Blog post
Andrew, E. Ancient Virus Could Play A Role In Motor Neuron Disease Available online: (accessed on 30 October 2018).


This example shows the general structure used for government reports, technical reports, and scientific reports. If you can't locate the report number then it might be better to cite the report as a book. For reports it is usually not individual people that are credited as authors, but a governmental department or agency like "U. S. Food and Drug Administration" or "National Cancer Institute".

Government report
Government Accountability Office Surface Effect Ships; U.S. Government Printing Office: Washington, DC, 1973;

Theses and dissertations

Theses including Ph.D. dissertations, Master's theses or Bachelor theses follow the basic format outlined below.

Doctoral dissertation
Pahuja, S. Bandwidth Feedback Effects on Retained Movements in Young and Old Adults. Doctoral dissertation, California State University, Long Beach: Long Beach, CA, 2013.

News paper articles

Unlike scholarly journals, news papers do not usually have a volume and issue number. Instead, the full date and page number is required for a correct reference.

New York Times article
Williams, J. Hank’s Long Suffering. New York Times 2016, BR4.

In-text citations

References should be cited in the text by sequential numbers in square brackets:

This sentence cites one reference [1].
This sentence cites two references [1,2].
This sentence cites four references [1–4].

About the journal

Full journal titleInternational Journal of Financial Studies
AbbreviationInt. J. Fin. Stud.
ISSN (online)2227-7072

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