How to format your references using the International Journal of Financial Studies citation style

This is a short guide how to format citations and the bibliography in a manuscript for International Journal of Financial Studies. For a complete guide how to prepare your manuscript refer to the journal's instructions to authors.

Using reference management software

Typically you don't format your citations and bibliography by hand. The easiest way is to use a reference manager:

PaperpileThe citation style is built in and you can choose it in Settings > Citation Style or Paperpile > Citation Style in Google Docs.
EndNoteFind the style here: output styles overview
Mendeley, Zotero, Papers, and othersThe style is either built in or you can download a CSL file that is supported by most references management programs.
BibTeXBibTeX syles are usually part of a LaTeX template. Check the instructions to authors if the publisher offers a LaTeX template for this journal.

Journal articles

Those examples are references to articles in scholarly journals and how they are supposed to appear in your bibliography.

Not all journals organize their published articles in volumes and issues, so these fields are optional. Some electronic journals do not provide a page range, but instead list an article identifier. In a case like this it's safe to use the article identifier instead of the page range.

A journal article with 1 author
Smith, C. Drug Discovery in Reverse. Nature 2004, 428, 227.
A journal article with 2 authors
Zhu, M.; Yu, X. A Primitive Fish Close to the Common Ancestor of Tetrapods and Lungfish. Nature 2002, 418, 767–770.
A journal article with 3 authors
Branch, T.A.; Hively, D.J.; Hilborn, R. Is the Ocean Food Provision Index Biased? Nature 2013, 495, E5-6; discussion E7.
A journal article with 4 or more authors
Evrard, O.; Chartin, C.; Onda, Y.; Lepage, H.; Cerdan, O.; Lefèvre, I.; Ayrault, S. Renewed Soil Erosion and Remobilisation of Radioactive Sediment in Fukushima Coastal Rivers after the 2013 Typhoons. Sci. Rep. 2014, 4, 4574.

Books and book chapters

Here are examples of references for authored and edited books as well as book chapters.

An authored book
Aksamija, A. Integrating Innovation in Architecture; John Wiley & Sons, Ltd: Oxford, UK, 2016; ISBN 9781119164807.
An edited book
Ravindranath, N.H. Carbon Inventory Methods Handbook for Greenhouse Gas Inventory, Carbon Mitigation and Roundwood Production Projects; Ostwald, M., Ed.; Advances in Global Change Research; Springer Netherlands: Dordrecht, 2008; Vol. 29; ISBN 9781402065460.
A chapter in an edited book
Ki, D.-H.; Jung, Y.-D. Atomic Processes in Dusty Plasmas. In Atomic Processes in Basic and Applied Physics; Shevelko, V., Tawara, H., Eds.; Springer Series on Atomic, Optical, and Plasma Physics; Springer: Berlin, Heidelberg, 2012; pp. 103–121 ISBN 9783642255687.

Web sites

Sometimes references to web sites should appear directly in the text rather than in the bibliography. Refer to the Instructions to authors for International Journal of Financial Studies.

Blog post
Andrew, E. Plasma Fire Tornado Appears On The Sun (accessed on 30 October 2018).


This example shows the general structure used for government reports, technical reports, and scientific reports. If you can't locate the report number then it might be better to cite the report as a book. For reports it is usually not individual people that are credited as authors, but a governmental department or agency like "U. S. Food and Drug Administration" or "National Cancer Institute".

Government report
Government Accountability Office Immigration Benefits System: U.S. Citizenship and Immigration Services Can Improve Program Management; U.S. Government Printing Office: Washington, DC, 2016;

Theses and dissertations

Theses including Ph.D. dissertations, Master's theses or Bachelor theses follow the basic format outlined below.

Doctoral dissertation
Munn, J.E. Information Technology Certification Training Implementation: Exploratory Case Study of Air Force and Civilian Leaders Experiences. Doctoral dissertation, University of Phoenix: Phoenix, AZ, 2017.

News paper articles

Unlike scholarly journals, news papers do not usually have a volume and issue number. Instead, the full date and page number is required for a correct reference.

New York Times article
Sisario, B. Turmoil Continues at Pandora Media As C.E.O. Joins Management Exodus. New York Times 2017, B3.

In-text citations

References should be cited in the text by sequential numbers in square brackets:

This sentence cites one reference [1].
This sentence cites two references [1,2].
This sentence cites four references [1–4].

About the journal

Full journal titleInternational Journal of Financial Studies
AbbreviationInt. J. Fin. Stud.
ISSN (online)2227-7072

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