How to format your references using the International Journal of Financial Studies citation style

This is a short guide how to format citations and the bibliography in a manuscript for International Journal of Financial Studies. For a complete guide how to prepare your manuscript refer to the journal's instructions to authors.

Using reference management software

Typically you don't format your citations and bibliography by hand. The easiest way is to use a reference manager:

PaperpileThe citation style is built in and you can choose it in Settings > Citation Style or Paperpile > Citation Style in Google Docs.
EndNoteFind the style here: output styles overview
Mendeley, Zotero, Papers, and othersThe style is either built in or you can download a CSL file that is supported by most references management programs.
BibTeXBibTeX syles are usually part of a LaTeX template. Check the instructions to authors if the publisher offers a LaTeX template for this journal.

Journal articles

Those examples are references to articles in scholarly journals and how they are supposed to appear in your bibliography.

Not all journals organize their published articles in volumes and issues, so these fields are optional. Some electronic journals do not provide a page range, but instead list an article identifier. In a case like this it's safe to use the article identifier instead of the page range.

A journal article with 1 author
Miller, C. ClC chloride channels viewed through a transporter lens. Nature 2006, 440, 484–489.
A journal article with 2 authors
Hubbard, J.; Shaw, J.H. Uplift of the Longmen Shan and Tibetan plateau, and the 2008 Wenchuan (M = 7.9) earthquake. Nature 2009, 458, 194–197.
A journal article with 3 authors
Bar-Yam, Y.; Harmon, D.; de Bivort, B. Systems biology. Attractors and democratic dynamics. Science 2009, 323, 1016–1017.
A journal article with 4 or more authors
Gerber, L.R.; Morissette, L.; Kaschner, K.; Pauly, D. Ecology. Should whales be culled to increase fishery yield? Science 2009, 323, 880–881.

Books and book chapters

Here are examples of references for authored and edited books as well as book chapters.

An authored book
Deutsche Forschungsgemeinschaft MAK- und BAT-Werte-Liste 2014; Wiley-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA: Weinheim, Germany, 2014; ISBN 9783527682010.
An edited book
Governance in Transition; Buček, J., Ryder, A., Eds.; Springer Geography; Springer Netherlands: Dordrecht, 2015; ISBN 9789400755024.
A chapter in an edited book
Cristini, C.; Cesa-Bianchi, M.; Cesa-Bianchi, G.; Porro, A. Creatività nell’infanzia. In L’ultima creatività: Luci nella vecchiaia; Cesa-Bianchi, M., Cesa-Bianchi, G., Porro, A., Eds.; Springer: Milano, 2011; pp. 61–77 ISBN 9788847017993.

Web sites

Sometimes references to web sites should appear directly in the text rather than in the bibliography. Refer to the Instructions to authors for International Journal of Financial Studies.

Blog post
Fang, J. Cretaceous Insect Larvae Hunted Spiders Using Long Legs, Sharp Jaws Available online: (accessed on Oct 30, 2018).


This example shows the general structure used for government reports, technical reports, and scientific reports. If you can't locate the report number then it might be better to cite the report as a book. For reports it is usually not individual people that are credited as authors, but a governmental department or agency like "U. S. Food and Drug Administration" or "National Cancer Institute".

Government report
Government Accountability Office Ocean Mining Technology Transfer (Best available copy); U.S. Government Printing Office: Washington, DC, 1982;

Theses and dissertations

Theses including Ph.D. dissertations, Master's theses or Bachelor theses follow the basic format outlined below.

Doctoral dissertation
Meeks, J.D. From the belly of the HUAC: The HUAC investigations of Hollywood, 1947–1952. Doctoral dissertation, University of Maryland, College Park: College Park, MD, 2009.

News paper articles

Unlike scholarly journals, news papers do not usually have a volume and issue number. Instead, the full date and page number is required for a correct reference.

New York Times article
Vecsey, G. Modest Senior Gives Butler Special Moment. New York Times 2011, B15.

In-text citations

References should be cited in the text by sequential numbers in square brackets:

This sentence cites one reference [1].
This sentence cites two references [1,2].
This sentence cites four references [1–4].

About the journal

Full journal titleInternational Journal of Financial Studies
AbbreviationInt. J. Fin. Stud.
ISSN (online)2227-7072

Other styles