How to format your references using the International Journal of Financial Studies citation style

This is a short guide how to format citations and the bibliography in a manuscript for International Journal of Financial Studies. For a complete guide how to prepare your manuscript refer to the journal's instructions to authors.

Using reference management software

Typically you don't format your citations and bibliography by hand. The easiest way is to use a reference manager:

PaperpileThe citation style is built in and you can choose it in Settings > Citation Style or Paperpile > Citation Style in Google Docs.
EndNoteFind the style here: output styles overview
Mendeley, Zotero, Papers, and othersThe style is either built in or you can download a CSL file that is supported by most references management programs.
BibTeXBibTeX syles are usually part of a LaTeX template. Check the instructions to authors if the publisher offers a LaTeX template for this journal.

Journal articles

Those examples are references to articles in scholarly journals and how they are supposed to appear in your bibliography.

Not all journals organize their published articles in volumes and issues, so these fields are optional. Some electronic journals do not provide a page range, but instead list an article identifier. In a case like this it's safe to use the article identifier instead of the page range.

A journal article with 1 author
Smaglik, P. Big or small neuroscience? Nature 2001, 414, 3.
A journal article with 2 authors
Rubio, V.; Deng, X.W. Plant science. Standing on the shoulders of GIGANTEA. Science 2007, 318, 206–207.
A journal article with 3 authors
Goossen, L.J.; Deng, G.; Levy, L.M. Synthesis of biaryls via catalytic decarboxylative coupling. Science 2006, 313, 662–664.
A journal article with 4 or more authors
Petrovic, P.; Kalso, E.; Petersson, K.M.; Ingvar, M. Placebo and opioid analgesia-- imaging a shared neuronal network. Science 2002, 295, 1737–1740.

Books and book chapters

Here are examples of references for authored and edited books as well as book chapters.

An authored book
Chappell, D. The JCT Minor Works Building Contracts 2005; Blackwell Publishing Ltd: Oxford, UK, 2008; ISBN 9780470759776.
An edited book
Active Media Technology: 5th International Conference, AMT 2009, Beijing, China, October 22-24, 2009. Proceedings; Liu, J., Wu, J., Yao, Y., Nishida, T., Eds.; Lecture Notes in Computer Science; Springer: Berlin, Heidelberg, 2009; Vol. 5820; ISBN 9783642048746.
A chapter in an edited book
Bosco, G.; Matera, F.; Ennser, K.; Ibsen, M.; Marazzi, L.; Parmigiani, F.; Petropoulos, P.; Poggiolini, P.; Tabacchiera, M.; Zannin, M. Experiments on Long-Haul High-Capacity Transmission Systems. In Optical Transmission: The FP7 BONE Project Experience; Teixeira, A., Tosi Beleffi, G.M., Eds.; Signals and Communication Technology; Springer Netherlands: Dordrecht, 2012; pp. 185–234 ISBN 9789400717664.

Web sites

Sometimes references to web sites should appear directly in the text rather than in the bibliography. Refer to the Instructions to authors for International Journal of Financial Studies.

Blog post
Hale, T. The “Dreams” Of Artificial Intelligence Are Getting Even More Lifelike Available online: (accessed on Oct 30, 2018).


This example shows the general structure used for government reports, technical reports, and scientific reports. If you can't locate the report number then it might be better to cite the report as a book. For reports it is usually not individual people that are credited as authors, but a governmental department or agency like "U. S. Food and Drug Administration" or "National Cancer Institute".

Government report
Government Accountability Office Electronic Government: Implementation of the Federal Funding Accountability and Transparency Act of 2006; U.S. Government Printing Office: Washington, DC, 2010;

Theses and dissertations

Theses including Ph.D. dissertations, Master's theses or Bachelor theses follow the basic format outlined below.

Doctoral dissertation
Collins, L. A community risk assessment of the 90062 zip code. Doctoral dissertation, California State University, Long Beach: Long Beach, CA, 2009.

News paper articles

Unlike scholarly journals, news papers do not usually have a volume and issue number. Instead, the full date and page number is required for a correct reference.
New York Times article
Crow, K. You Let Your Hair Down, and This Barkeep Cuts It. New York Times 2001, 144.

In-text citations

References should be cited in the text by sequential numbers in square brackets:

This sentence cites one reference [1].
This sentence cites two references [1,2].
This sentence cites four references [1–4].

About the journal

Full journal titleInternational Journal of Financial Studies
AbbreviationInt. J. Fin. Stud.
ISSN (online)2227-7072

Other styles