How to format your references using the Interactive Learning Environments citation style

This is a short guide how to format citations and the bibliography in a manuscript for Interactive Learning Environments. For a complete guide how to prepare your manuscript refer to the journal's instructions to authors.

Using reference management software

Typically you don't format your citations and bibliography by hand. The easiest way is to use a reference manager:

PaperpileThe citation style is built in and you can choose it in Settings > Citation Style or Paperpile > Citation Style in Google Docs.
EndNoteFind the style here: output styles overview
Mendeley, Zotero, Papers, and othersThe style is either built in or you can download a CSL file that is supported by most references management programs.
BibTeXBibTeX syles are usually part of a LaTeX template. Check the instructions to authors if the publisher offers a LaTeX template for this journal.

Journal articles

Those examples are references to articles in scholarly journals and how they are supposed to appear in your bibliography.

Not all journals organize their published articles in volumes and issues, so these fields are optional. Some electronic journals do not provide a page range, but instead list an article identifier. In a case like this it's safe to use the article identifier instead of the page range.

A journal article with 1 author
King, J. (2014). Climate science: A resolution of the Antarctic paradox. Nature, 505(7484), 491–492.
A journal article with 2 authors
Yao, Z., & Shafer, O. T. (2014). The Drosophila circadian clock is a variably coupled network of multiple peptidergic units. Science (New York, N.Y.), 343(6178), 1516–1520.
A journal article with 3 authors
Li, C., Rieppel, O., & LaBarbera, M. C. (2004). A Triassic aquatic protorosaur with an extremely long neck. Science (New York, N.Y.), 305(5692), 1931.
A journal article with 8 or more authors
Luo, L.-B., Zeng, L.-H., Xie, C., Yu, Y.-Q., Liang, F.-X., Wu, C.-Y., Wang, L., & Hu, J.-G. (2014). Light trapping and surface plasmon enhanced high-performance NIR photodetector. Scientific Reports, 4, 3914.

Books and book chapters

Here are examples of references for authored and edited books as well as book chapters.

An authored book
Clark, G. (2014). The Making of a World City. John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.
An edited book
Bacon, D., Martin-Delgado, M., & Roetteler, M. (Eds.). (2014). Theory of Quantum Computation, Communication, and Cryptography: 6th Conference, TQC 2011, Madrid, Spain, May 24-26, 2011, Revised Selected Papers (Vol. 6745). Springer.
A chapter in an edited book
Rischpater, R., & Zucker, D. (2010). Doing More with Qt. In D. Zucker (Ed.), Beginning Nokia Apps Development: Qt and HTML5 for Symbian and MeeGo (pp. 87–137). Apress.

Web sites

Sometimes references to web sites should appear directly in the text rather than in the bibliography. Refer to the Instructions to authors for Interactive Learning Environments.

Blog post
Andrew, E. (2015, July 1). Boldly Going Into Space for 1,000 Days Presents a Series of Health Risks. IFLScience; IFLScience.


This example shows the general structure used for government reports, technical reports, and scientific reports. If you can't locate the report number then it might be better to cite the report as a book. For reports it is usually not individual people that are credited as authors, but a governmental department or agency like "U. S. Food and Drug Administration" or "National Cancer Institute".

Government report
Government Accountability Office. (1978). Third Party Funding Agreements: No Longer Appropriate for Serving the Handicapped Through the Vocational Rehabilitation Program (HRD-78-7). U.S. Government Printing Office.

Theses and dissertations

Theses including Ph.D. dissertations, Master's theses or Bachelor theses follow the basic format outlined below.

Doctoral dissertation
Dorsey, V. (2015). Impact of a family council intervention on owner knowledge and stewardship within a family business [Doctoral dissertation]. Pepperdine University.

News paper articles

Unlike scholarly journals, news papers do not usually have a volume and issue number. Instead, the full date and page number is required for a correct reference.

New York Times article
Wagner, J. (2017, April 7). Reconditioned Harvey Impresses in Winning Return for the Mets. New York Times, B13.

In-text citations

References should be cited in the text by name and year in parentheses:

This sentence cites one reference (King, 2014).
This sentence cites two references (King, 2014; Yao & Shafer, 2014).

Here are examples of in-text citations with multiple authors:

  • Two authors: (Yao & Shafer, 2014)
  • Three authors: (Li et al., 2004)
  • 6 or more authors: (Luo et al., 2014)

About the journal

Full journal titleInteractive Learning Environments
AbbreviationInteract. Learn. Environ.
ISSN (print)1049-4820
ISSN (online)1744-5191
ScopeComputer Science Applications

Other styles