How to format your references using the Interactive Learning Environments citation style

This is a short guide how to format citations and the bibliography in a manuscript for Interactive Learning Environments. For a complete guide how to prepare your manuscript refer to the journal's instructions to authors.

Using reference management software

Typically you don't format your citations and bibliography by hand. The easiest way is to use a reference manager:

PaperpileThe citation style is built in and you can choose it in Settings > Citation Style or Paperpile > Citation Style in Google Docs.
EndNoteFind the style here: output styles overview
Mendeley, Zotero, Papers, and othersThe style is either built in or you can download a CSL file that is supported by most references management programs.
BibTeXBibTeX syles are usually part of a LaTeX template. Check the instructions to authors if the publisher offers a LaTeX template for this journal.

Journal articles

Those examples are references to articles in scholarly journals and how they are supposed to appear in your bibliography.

Not all journals organize their published articles in volumes and issues, so these fields are optional. Some electronic journals do not provide a page range, but instead list an article identifier. In a case like this it's safe to use the article identifier instead of the page range.

A journal article with 1 author
Julian, B. (2002). Plate tectonics. Seismological detection of slab metamorphism. Science (New York, N.Y.), 296(5573), 1625–1626.
A journal article with 2 authors
Greig, D., & Travisano, M. (2003). Evolution. Haploid superiority. Science (New York, N.Y.), 299(5606), 524–525.
A journal article with 3 authors
Ferrari, G., Stornaiuolo, A., & Mavilio, F. (2001). Failure to correct murine muscular dystrophy. Nature, 411(6841), 1014–1015.
A journal article with 8 or more authors
Karki, K. J., Ma, F., Zheng, K., Zidek, K., Mousa, A., Abdellah, M. A., … Pullerits, T. (2013). Multiple exciton generation in nano-crystals revisited: consistent calculation of the yield based on pump-probe spectroscopy. Scientific Reports, 3, 2287.

Books and book chapters

Here are examples of references for authored and edited books as well as book chapters.

An authored book
Carvalho, M. C. (2016). Practical Laboratory Automation. Weinheim, Germany: Wiley-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA.
An edited book
Asano, T. (Ed.). (2006). Algorithms and Computation: 17th International Symposium, ISAAC 2006, Kolkata, India, December 18-20, 2006. Proceedings (Vol. 4288). Berlin, Heidelberg: Springer.
A chapter in an edited book
Andrzejewski, K., Rovenski, V., & Walczak, P. (2014). Integral Formulas in Foliation Theory. In V. Rovenski & P. Walczak (Eds.), Geometry and its Applications (pp. 73–82). Cham: Springer International Publishing.

Web sites

Sometimes references to web sites should appear directly in the text rather than in the bibliography. Refer to the Instructions to authors for Interactive Learning Environments.

Blog post
Carpineti, A. (2017, May 11). Watery Extrasolar Neptune Gives Astronomers Clues About Its Formation. Retrieved October 30, 2018, from


This example shows the general structure used for government reports, technical reports, and scientific reports. If you can't locate the report number then it might be better to cite the report as a book. For reports it is usually not individual people that are credited as authors, but a governmental department or agency like "U. S. Food and Drug Administration" or "National Cancer Institute".

Government report
Government Accountability Office. (1994). Ready Reserve Force: Ship Readiness Has Improved, but Other Concerns Remain (No. NSIAD-95-24). Washington, DC: U.S. Government Printing Office.

Theses and dissertations

Theses including Ph.D. dissertations, Master's theses or Bachelor theses follow the basic format outlined below.

Doctoral dissertation
Crider, M. C. (2012). The social and environmental effects of shrimp mariculture: Case studies of two coastal villages in Ecuador (Doctoral dissertation). Florida Atlantic University, Boca Raton, FL.

News paper articles

Unlike scholarly journals, news papers do not usually have a volume and issue number. Instead, the full date and page number is required for a correct reference.

New York Times article
Johnson, G. (2014, August 19). The Intelligent-Life Lottery. New York Times, p. D3.

In-text citations

References should be cited in the text by name and year in parentheses:

This sentence cites one reference (Julian, 2002).
This sentence cites two references (Greig & Travisano, 2003; Julian, 2002).

Here are examples of in-text citations with multiple authors:

  • Two authors: (Greig & Travisano, 2003)
  • Three authors: (Ferrari, Stornaiuolo, & Mavilio, 2001)
  • 6 or more authors: (Karki et al., 2013)

About the journal

Full journal titleInteractive Learning Environments
AbbreviationInteract. Learn. Environ.
ISSN (print)1049-4820
ISSN (online)1744-5191
ScopeComputer Science Applications

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