How to format your references using the Interactive Learning Environments citation style

This is a short guide how to format citations and the bibliography in a manuscript for Interactive Learning Environments. For a complete guide how to prepare your manuscript refer to the journal's instructions to authors.

Using reference management software

Typically you don't format your citations and bibliography by hand. The easiest way is to use a reference manager:

PaperpileThe citation style is built in and you can choose it in Settings > Citation Style or Paperpile > Citation Style in Google Docs.
EndNoteFind the style here: output styles overview
Mendeley, Zotero, Papers, and othersThe style is either built in or you can download a CSL file that is supported by most references management programs.
BibTeXBibTeX syles are usually part of a LaTeX template. Check the instructions to authors if the publisher offers a LaTeX template for this journal.

Journal articles

Those examples are references to articles in scholarly journals and how they are supposed to appear in your bibliography.

Not all journals organize their published articles in volumes and issues, so these fields are optional. Some electronic journals do not provide a page range, but instead list an article identifier. In a case like this it's safe to use the article identifier instead of the page range.

A journal article with 1 author
Stocker, R. (2012). Marine microbes see a sea of gradients. Science (New York, N.Y.), 338(6107), 628–633.
A journal article with 2 authors
Hiiragi, T., & Solter, D. (2004). First cleavage plane of the mouse egg is not predetermined but defined by the topology of the two apposing pronuclei. Nature, 430(6997), 360–364.
A journal article with 3 authors
Zhao, J., Benlekbir, S., & Rubinstein, J. L. (2015). Electron cryomicroscopy observation of rotational states in a eukaryotic V-ATPase. Nature, 521(7551), 241–245.
A journal article with 8 or more authors
Mukherjee, S., Joarder, B., Manna, B., Desai, A. V., Chaudhari, A. K., & Ghosh, S. K. (2014). Framework-flexibility driven selective sorption of p-xylene over other isomers by a dynamic metal-organic framework. Scientific Reports, 4, 5761.

Books and book chapters

Here are examples of references for authored and edited books as well as book chapters.

An authored book
Kuo, J. B., & Lin, S.-C. (2002). Low-Voltage SOI CMOS VLSI Devices and Circuits. John Wiley & Sons, Inc.
An edited book
Kuznetsov, S. O., Ślęzak, D., Hepting, D. H., & Mirkin, B. G. (Eds.). (2011). Rough Sets, Fuzzy Sets, Data Mining and Granular Computing: 13th International Conference, RSFDGrC 2011, Moscow, Russia, June 25-27, 2011. Proceedings (Vol. 6743). Springer.
A chapter in an edited book
De Simone, A., Dong, Y., Vivancos, P. D., & Foyer, C. H. (2015). GSH Partitioning Between the Nucleus and Cytosol in Arabidopsis thaliana. In L. J. De Kok, M. J. Hawkesford, H. Rennenberg, K. Saito, & E. Schnug (Eds.), Molecular Physiology and Ecophysiology of Sulfur (pp. 37–48). Springer International Publishing.

Web sites

Sometimes references to web sites should appear directly in the text rather than in the bibliography. Refer to the Instructions to authors for Interactive Learning Environments.

Blog post
Andrew, E. (2014, December 24). Ancient Rock Offers New Clues About Past Habitability of Mars. IFLScience; IFLScience.


This example shows the general structure used for government reports, technical reports, and scientific reports. If you can't locate the report number then it might be better to cite the report as a book. For reports it is usually not individual people that are credited as authors, but a governmental department or agency like "U. S. Food and Drug Administration" or "National Cancer Institute".

Government report
Government Accountability Office. (1998). Transportation Issue Area: Active Assignments (AA-98-18(1)). U.S. Government Printing Office.

Theses and dissertations

Theses including Ph.D. dissertations, Master's theses or Bachelor theses follow the basic format outlined below.

Doctoral dissertation
Howard, J. T. (2010). Transracial adoption psychoeducational services for potential adoptive parents: A grant proposal [Doctoral dissertation]. California State University, Long Beach.

News paper articles

Unlike scholarly journals, news papers do not usually have a volume and issue number. Instead, the full date and page number is required for a correct reference.

New York Times article
Kelly, C. (2013, August 25). When Hill Country Feels Too Much Like Shreveport. New York Times, A23B.

In-text citations

References should be cited in the text by name and year in parentheses:

This sentence cites one reference (Stocker, 2012).
This sentence cites two references (Hiiragi & Solter, 2004; Stocker, 2012).

Here are examples of in-text citations with multiple authors:

  • Two authors: (Hiiragi & Solter, 2004)
  • Three authors: (Zhao et al., 2015)
  • 6 or more authors: (Mukherjee et al., 2014)

About the journal

Full journal titleInteractive Learning Environments
AbbreviationInteract. Learn. Environ.
ISSN (print)1049-4820
ISSN (online)1744-5191
ScopeComputer Science Applications

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