How to format your references using the Instructional Science citation style

This is a short guide how to format citations and the bibliography in a manuscript for Instructional Science. For a complete guide how to prepare your manuscript refer to the journal's instructions to authors.

Using reference management software

Typically you don't format your citations and bibliography by hand. The easiest way is to use a reference manager:

PaperpileThe citation style is built in and you can choose it in Settings > Citation Style or Paperpile > Citation Style in Google Docs.
EndNoteFind the style here: output styles overview
Mendeley, Zotero, Papers, and othersThe style is either built in or you can download a CSL file that is supported by most references management programs.
BibTeXBibTeX syles are usually part of a LaTeX template. Check the instructions to authors if the publisher offers a LaTeX template for this journal.

Journal articles

Those examples are references to articles in scholarly journals and how they are supposed to appear in your bibliography.

Not all journals organize their published articles in volumes and issues, so these fields are optional. Some electronic journals do not provide a page range, but instead list an article identifier. In a case like this it's safe to use the article identifier instead of the page range.

A journal article with 1 author
Norman, C. (2004). HIV/AIDS in Asia. A time for action. Introduction. Science (New York, N.Y.), 304(5679), 1931.
A journal article with 2 authors
Köhler, H.-R., & Triebskorn, R. (2013). Wildlife ecotoxicology of pesticides: can we track effects to the population level and beyond? Science (New York, N.Y.), 341(6147), 759–765.
A journal article with 3 authors
GrandPré, T., Li, S., & Strittmatter, S. M. (2002). Nogo-66 receptor antagonist peptide promotes axonal regeneration. Nature, 417(6888), 547–551.
A journal article with 8 or more authors
Ortega-Esteban, A., Pérez-Berná, A. J., Menéndez-Conejero, R., Flint, S. J., San Martín, C., & de Pablo, P. J. (2013). Monitoring dynamics of human adenovirus disassembly induced by mechanical fatigue. Scientific reports, 3, 1434.

Books and book chapters

Here are examples of references for authored and edited books as well as book chapters.

An authored book
Murphy, D. B., & Davidson, M. W. (2012). Fundamentals of Light Microscopy and Electronic Imaging. Hoboken, NJ: John Wiley & Sons, Inc.
An edited book
Jüttler, B., & Piene, R. (Eds.). (2008). Geometric Modeling and Algebraic Geometry. Berlin, Heidelberg: Springer.
A chapter in an edited book
Schlüter, R. G., & Norrild, J. (2015). Enotourism in Argentina: The Power of Wine to Promote a Region. In A. Panosso Netto & L. G. G. Trigo (Eds.), Tourism in Latin America: Cases of Success (pp. 71–84). Cham: Springer International Publishing.

Web sites

Sometimes references to web sites should appear directly in the text rather than in the bibliography. Refer to the Instructions to authors for Instructional Science.

Blog post
Davis, J. (2015, July 6). Should we be Afraid of Asteroids? IFLScience. IFLScience. Accessed 30 October 2018


This example shows the general structure used for government reports, technical reports, and scientific reports. If you can't locate the report number then it might be better to cite the report as a book. For reports it is usually not individual people that are credited as authors, but a governmental department or agency like "U. S. Food and Drug Administration" or "National Cancer Institute".

Government report
Government Accountability Office. (1987). Federal Research Projects: Concerns About DOE’s Super Collider Site Selection Process (No. RCED-87-175FS). Washington, DC: U.S. Government Printing Office.

Theses and dissertations

Theses including Ph.D. dissertations, Master's theses or Bachelor theses follow the basic format outlined below.

Doctoral dissertation
Bates, K. (2017). Drivers of Engagement for Volunteers in a Nonprofit (Doctoral dissertation). Pepperdine University, Malibu, CA.

News paper articles

Unlike scholarly journals, news papers do not usually have a volume and issue number. Instead, the full date and page number is required for a correct reference.

New York Times article
Hodara, S. (2017, May 3). A Creative Enclave That Welcomes the Eclectic. New York Times, p. RE13.

In-text citations

References should be cited in the text by name and year in parentheses:

This sentence cites one reference (Norman 2004).
This sentence cites two references (Köhler and Triebskorn 2013; Norman 2004).

Here are examples of in-text citations with multiple authors:

  • Two authors: (Köhler and Triebskorn 2013)
  • Three or more authors: (Ortega-Esteban et al. 2013)

About the journal

Full journal titleInstructional Science
AbbreviationInstr. Sci.
ISSN (print)0020-4277
ISSN (online)1573-1952
ScopeDevelopmental and Educational Psychology

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