How to format your references using the Instructional Science citation style

This is a short guide how to format citations and the bibliography in a manuscript for Instructional Science. For a complete guide how to prepare your manuscript refer to the journal's instructions to authors.

Using reference management software

Typically you don't format your citations and bibliography by hand. The easiest way is to use a reference manager:

PaperpileThe citation style is built in and you can choose it in Settings > Citation Style or Paperpile > Citation Style in Google Docs.
EndNoteFind the style here: output styles overview
Mendeley, Zotero, Papers, and othersThe style is either built in or you can download a CSL file that is supported by most references management programs.
BibTeXBibTeX syles are usually part of a LaTeX template. Check the instructions to authors if the publisher offers a LaTeX template for this journal.

Journal articles

Those examples are references to articles in scholarly journals and how they are supposed to appear in your bibliography.

Not all journals organize their published articles in volumes and issues, so these fields are optional. Some electronic journals do not provide a page range, but instead list an article identifier. In a case like this it's safe to use the article identifier instead of the page range.

A journal article with 1 author
Check, E. (2002). Alternative therapies leave US commission divided. Nature, 416(6879), 355.
A journal article with 2 authors
Patel, M. R., & Shen, K. (2009). RSY-1 is a local inhibitor of presynaptic assembly in C. elegans. Science (New York, N.Y.), 323(5920), 1500–1503.
A journal article with 3 authors
Ofstad, T. A., Zuker, C. S., & Reiser, M. B. (2011). Visual place learning in Drosophila melanogaster. Nature, 474(7350), 204–207.
A journal article with 8 or more authors
Boggon, T. J., Murray, J., Chappuis-Flament, S., Wong, E., Gumbiner, B. M., & Shapiro, L. (2002). C-cadherin ectodomain structure and implications for cell adhesion mechanisms. Science (New York, N.Y.), 296(5571), 1308–1313.

Books and book chapters

Here are examples of references for authored and edited books as well as book chapters.

An authored book
Scheinfeld, R. (2009). Busting Loose from the Business Game. Hoboken, NJ: John Wiley & Sons, Inc.
An edited book
Enss, C. (Ed.). (2005). Cryogenic Particle Detection (Vol. 99). Berlin, Heidelberg: Springer.
A chapter in an edited book
Sheldon, N., & Wallace, M. (2014). Enhancing Career Pathways. In T. Short & R. Harris (Eds.), Workforce Development: Strategies and Practices (pp. 45–58). Singapore: Springer.

Web sites

Sometimes references to web sites should appear directly in the text rather than in the bibliography. Refer to the Instructions to authors for Instructional Science.

Blog post
Andrew, E. (2015, August 4). Baby Raccoon Climbs Tree With A Lot Of Help From Its Mom. IFLScience. IFLScience. https://www.iflscience.com/plants-and-animals/baby-raccoon-climbs-tree-lot-help-its-mom/. Accessed 30 October 2018

Reports

This example shows the general structure used for government reports, technical reports, and scientific reports. If you can't locate the report number then it might be better to cite the report as a book. For reports it is usually not individual people that are credited as authors, but a governmental department or agency like "U. S. Food and Drug Administration" or "National Cancer Institute".

Government report
Government Accountability Office. (1989). ADP Acquisition: Army Civilian Personnel System (No. IMTEC-89-22FS). Washington, DC: U.S. Government Printing Office.

Theses and dissertations

Theses including Ph.D. dissertations, Master's theses or Bachelor theses follow the basic format outlined below.

Doctoral dissertation
Child, R. J. (2013). The evolution of BARREN INFLORESCENCE1 and related AUX/IAA genes in angiosperms (Doctoral dissertation). California State University, Long Beach, Long Beach, CA.

News paper articles

Unlike scholarly journals, news papers do not usually have a volume and issue number. Instead, the full date and page number is required for a correct reference.

New York Times article
Wagner, J. (2017, March 11). Returning for Friendship, and Drums. New York Times, p. SP3.

In-text citations

References should be cited in the text by name and year in parentheses:

This sentence cites one reference (Check 2002).
This sentence cites two references (Check 2002; Patel and Shen 2009).

Here are examples of in-text citations with multiple authors:

  • Two authors: (Patel and Shen 2009)
  • Three or more authors: (Boggon et al. 2002)

About the journal

Full journal titleInstructional Science
AbbreviationInstr. Sci.
ISSN (print)0020-4277
ISSN (online)1573-1952
ScopeDevelopmental and Educational Psychology
Education

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