How to format your references using the Injury citation style

This is a short guide how to format citations and the bibliography in a manuscript for Injury. For a complete guide how to prepare your manuscript refer to the journal's instructions to authors.

Using reference management software

Typically you don't format your citations and bibliography by hand. The easiest way is to use a reference manager:

PaperpileThe citation style is built in and you can choose it in Settings > Citation Style or Paperpile > Citation Style in Google Docs.
EndNoteDownload the output style file
Mendeley, Zotero, Papers, and othersThe style is either built in or you can download a CSL file that is supported by most references management programs.
BibTeXBibTeX syles are usually part of a LaTeX template. Check the instructions to authors if the publisher offers a LaTeX template for this journal.

Journal articles

Those examples are references to articles in scholarly journals and how they are supposed to appear in your bibliography.

Not all journals organize their published articles in volumes and issues, so these fields are optional. Some electronic journals do not provide a page range, but instead list an article identifier. In a case like this it's safe to use the article identifier instead of the page range.

A journal article with 1 author
Alexander MH. Chemistry. Chemical kinetics under test. Science 2011;331:411–2.
A journal article with 2 authors
Prather MJ, Blake DR. F. Sherwood Rowland (1927-2012). Nature 2012;484:168.
A journal article with 3 authors
James S, Simmons CP, James AA. Ecology. Mosquito trials. Science 2011;334:771–2.
A journal article with 7 or more authors
Chang H, Saito M, Nagai T, Liang Y, Kawazoe Y, Wang Z, et al. Single adatom dynamics at monatomic steps of free-standing few-layer reduced graphene. Sci Rep 2014;4:6037.

Books and book chapters

Here are examples of references for authored and edited books as well as book chapters.

An authored book
Tunley M, Whittaker A, Gee J, Button M. The Accredited Counter Fraud Specialist Handbook. Chichester, UK: John Wiley & Sons, Ltd; 2015.
An edited book
Amid A, editor. Recombinant Enzymes - From Basic Science to Commercialization. Cham: Springer International Publishing; 2015.
A chapter in an edited book
Campbell-Kelly M. From Theory to Practice: The Invention of Programming, 1947-51. In: Jones CB, Lloyd JL, editors. Dependable and Historic Computing: Essays Dedicated to Brian Randell on the Occasion of His 75th Birthday, Berlin, Heidelberg: Springer; 2011, p. 23–37.

Web sites

Sometimes references to web sites should appear directly in the text rather than in the bibliography. Refer to the Instructions to authors for Injury.

Blog post
Davis J. Last 5 Years Were Hottest On Record, Leading To Loss Of Life And High Economic Costs. IFLScience 2016. (accessed October 30, 2018).


This example shows the general structure used for government reports, technical reports, and scientific reports. If you can't locate the report number then it might be better to cite the report as a book. For reports it is usually not individual people that are credited as authors, but a governmental department or agency like "U. S. Food and Drug Administration" or "National Cancer Institute".

Government report
Government Accountability Office. FTS 2001 Implementation Issues. Washington, DC: U.S. Government Printing Office; 2001.

Theses and dissertations

Theses including Ph.D. dissertations, Master's theses or Bachelor theses follow the basic format outlined below.

Doctoral dissertation
Jenkins MM. Clinical decision-making and pediatric bipolar disorder. Doctoral dissertation. University of North Carolina, 2009.

News paper articles

Unlike scholarly journals, news papers do not usually have a volume and issue number. Instead, the full date and page number is required for a correct reference.

New York Times article
Barron J. Vintage ‘Glass Menagerie’ Performance Will Return to Air. New York Times 2016:A23.

In-text citations

References should be cited in the text by sequential numbers in square brackets:

This sentence cites one reference [1].
This sentence cites two references [1,2].
This sentence cites four references [1–4].

About the journal

Full journal titleInjury
ISSN (print)0020-1383
ScopeEmergency Medicine
Orthopedics and Sports Medicine

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