How to format your references using the Infrared Physics and Technology citation style

This is a short guide how to format citations and the bibliography in a manuscript for Infrared Physics and Technology. For a complete guide how to prepare your manuscript refer to the journal's instructions to authors.

Using reference management software

Typically you don't format your citations and bibliography by hand. The easiest way is to use a reference manager:

PaperpileThe citation style is built in and you can choose it in Settings > Citation Style or Paperpile > Citation Style in Google Docs.
EndNoteDownload the output style file
Mendeley, Zotero, Papers, and othersThe style is either built in or you can download a CSL file that is supported by most references management programs.
BibTeXBibTeX syles are usually part of a LaTeX template. Check the instructions to authors if the publisher offers a LaTeX template for this journal.

Journal articles

Those examples are references to articles in scholarly journals and how they are supposed to appear in your bibliography.

Not all journals organize their published articles in volumes and issues, so these fields are optional. Some electronic journals do not provide a page range, but instead list an article identifier. In a case like this it's safe to use the article identifier instead of the page range.

A journal article with 1 author
L.E.T. Jansen, Genetics. Sowing the seeds of centromeres, Science. 335 (2012) 299–300.
A journal article with 2 authors
M. Levine, R. Tjian, Transcription regulation and animal diversity, Nature. 424 (2003) 147–151.
A journal article with 3 authors
F. Lyko, B.H. Ramsahoye, R. Jaenisch, DNA methylation in Drosophila melanogaster, Nature. 408 (2000) 538–540.
A journal article with 4 or more authors
R. Op den Camp, A. Streng, S. De Mita, Q. Cao, E. Polone, W. Liu, J.S.S. Ammiraju, D. Kudrna, R. Wing, A. Untergasser, T. Bisseling, R. Geurts, LysM-type mycorrhizal receptor recruited for rhizobium symbiosis in nonlegume Parasponia, Science. 331 (2011) 909–912.

Books and book chapters

Here are examples of references for authored and edited books as well as book chapters.

An authored book
V.A. Kelly, ADDICTION in the Family: What Every Counselor Needs to Know, American Counseling Association, Alexandria, USA, 2015.
An edited book
J. Teller, J.R. Lee, C. Roussey, eds., Ontologies for Urban Development, Springer, Berlin, Heidelberg, 2007.
A chapter in an edited book
A.K. Toma, M.C. Papadopoulos, S. Stapleton, N.D. Kitchen, L.D. Watkins, Conservative Versus Surgical Management of Idiopathic Normal Pressure Hydrocephalus: A Prospective Double-Blind Randomized Controlled Trial: Study Protocol, in: G.A. Aygok, H.L. Rekate (Eds.), Hydrocephalus: Selected Papers from the International Workshop in Crete, 2010, Springer, Vienna, 2012: pp. 21–23.

Web sites

Sometimes references to web sites should appear directly in the text rather than in the bibliography. Refer to the Instructions to authors for Infrared Physics and Technology.

Blog post
A. Carpineti, Neutron Star In Stellar Nursery Could Be The Cause Of A Repeating Fast Radio Burst, IFLScience. (2017). (accessed October 30, 2018).


This example shows the general structure used for government reports, technical reports, and scientific reports. If you can't locate the report number then it might be better to cite the report as a book. For reports it is usually not individual people that are credited as authors, but a governmental department or agency like "U. S. Food and Drug Administration" or "National Cancer Institute".

Government report
Government Accountability Office, Hurricanes Katrina and Rita: Temporary Emergency Impact Aid Provided Education Support for Displaced Students, U.S. Government Printing Office, Washington, DC, 2011.

Theses and dissertations

Theses including Ph.D. dissertations, Master's theses or Bachelor theses follow the basic format outlined below.

Doctoral dissertation
S.S. Zolfaghari, The relationship between folic acid, vitamin B12, and vitamin B6 intakes and depression in women who use hormonal oral contraceptives, Doctoral dissertation, California State University, Long Beach, 2015.

News paper articles

Unlike scholarly journals, news papers do not usually have a volume and issue number. Instead, the full date and page number is required for a correct reference.

New York Times article
J.H. Davis, M. Rosenberg, Even Defining Victory in Afghanistan Is Hard, New York Times. (2017) A7.

In-text citations

References should be cited in the text by sequential numbers in square brackets:

This sentence cites one reference [1].
This sentence cites two references [1,2].
This sentence cites four references [1–4].

About the journal

Full journal titleInfrared Physics and Technology
AbbreviationInfrared Phys. Technol.
ISSN (print)1350-4495
ScopeElectronic, Optical and Magnetic Materials
Condensed Matter Physics
Atomic and Molecular Physics, and Optics

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