How to format your references using the Infrared Physics and Technology citation style

This is a short guide how to format citations and the bibliography in a manuscript for Infrared Physics and Technology. For a complete guide how to prepare your manuscript refer to the journal's instructions to authors.

Using reference management software

Typically you don't format your citations and bibliography by hand. The easiest way is to use a reference manager:

PaperpileThe citation style is built in and you can choose it in Settings > Citation Style or Paperpile > Citation Style in Google Docs.
EndNoteDownload the output style file
Mendeley, Zotero, Papers, and othersThe style is either built in or you can download a CSL file that is supported by most references management programs.
BibTeXBibTeX syles are usually part of a LaTeX template. Check the instructions to authors if the publisher offers a LaTeX template for this journal.

Journal articles

Those examples are references to articles in scholarly journals and how they are supposed to appear in your bibliography.

Not all journals organize their published articles in volumes and issues, so these fields are optional. Some electronic journals do not provide a page range, but instead list an article identifier. In a case like this it's safe to use the article identifier instead of the page range.

A journal article with 1 author
J.R. Choi, The effects of nonextensivity on quantum dissipation, Sci. Rep. 4 (2014) 3911.
A journal article with 2 authors
E. Postma, A.J. van Noordwijk, Gene flow maintains a large genetic difference in clutch size at a small spatial scale, Nature. 433 (2005) 65–68.
A journal article with 3 authors
T. Kayukawa, K. Tateishi, T. Shinoda, Establishment of a versatile cell line for juvenile hormone signaling analysis in Tribolium castaneum, Sci. Rep. 3 (2013) 1570.
A journal article with 4 or more authors
A. Ostermann, R. Waschipky, F.G. Parak, G.U. Nienhaus, Ligand binding and conformational motions in myoglobin, Nature. 404 (2000) 205–208.

Books and book chapters

Here are examples of references for authored and edited books as well as book chapters.

An authored book
S. Collings, Interpretation and Application of UK GAAP, John Wiley & Sons, Ltd, Chichester, UK, 2015.
An edited book
J. Lenarcic, Robot Mechanisms, Springer Netherlands, Dordrecht, 2013.
A chapter in an edited book
A.M. Beck, J.W. Robinson, Sexual Resilience in Couples, in: K. Skerrett, K. Fergus (Eds.), Couple Resilience: Emerging Perspectives, Springer Netherlands, Dordrecht, 2015: pp. 63–82.

Web sites

Sometimes references to web sites should appear directly in the text rather than in the bibliography. Refer to the Instructions to authors for Infrared Physics and Technology.

Blog post
R. Andrews, This Is What Caused The Most Powerful Eruption In Human History, IFLScience. (2017). (accessed October 30, 2018).


This example shows the general structure used for government reports, technical reports, and scientific reports. If you can't locate the report number then it might be better to cite the report as a book. For reports it is usually not individual people that are credited as authors, but a governmental department or agency like "U. S. Food and Drug Administration" or "National Cancer Institute".

Government report
Government Accountability Office, Federal Procurement of ADP Systems, U.S. Government Printing Office, Washington, DC, 1971.

Theses and dissertations

Theses including Ph.D. dissertations, Master's theses or Bachelor theses follow the basic format outlined below.

Doctoral dissertation
J.A. Brecese, Out of Our Depth: Hyper-Extensionality and the Return of Three-Dimensional Media, Doctoral dissertation, University of South Florida, 2012.

News paper articles

Unlike scholarly journals, news papers do not usually have a volume and issue number. Instead, the full date and page number is required for a correct reference.

New York Times article
B. Kenigsberg, A Romance With Long Distances, New York Times. (2017) C10.

In-text citations

References should be cited in the text by sequential numbers in square brackets:

This sentence cites one reference [1].
This sentence cites two references [1,2].
This sentence cites four references [1–4].

About the journal

Full journal titleInfrared Physics and Technology
AbbreviationInfrared Phys. Technol.
ISSN (print)1350-4495
ScopeElectronic, Optical and Magnetic Materials
Condensed Matter Physics
Atomic and Molecular Physics, and Optics

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