How to format your references using the Infrared Physics and Technology citation style

This is a short guide how to format citations and the bibliography in a manuscript for Infrared Physics and Technology. For a complete guide how to prepare your manuscript refer to the journal's instructions to authors.

Using reference management software

Typically you don't format your citations and bibliography by hand. The easiest way is to use a reference manager:

PaperpileThe citation style is built in and you can choose it in Settings > Citation Style or Paperpile > Citation Style in Google Docs.
EndNoteDownload the output style file
Mendeley, Zotero, Papers, and othersThe style is either built in or you can download a CSL file that is supported by most references management programs.
BibTeXBibTeX syles are usually part of a LaTeX template. Check the instructions to authors if the publisher offers a LaTeX template for this journal.

Journal articles

Those examples are references to articles in scholarly journals and how they are supposed to appear in your bibliography.

Not all journals organize their published articles in volumes and issues, so these fields are optional. Some electronic journals do not provide a page range, but instead list an article identifier. In a case like this it's safe to use the article identifier instead of the page range.

A journal article with 1 author
W.B. Hamilton, Comment on “A vestige of Earth’s oldest ophiolite,” Science. 318 (2007) 746; author reply 746.
A journal article with 2 authors
H.-J. Jin, J. Weissmüller, A material with electrically tunable strength and flow stress, Science. 332 (2011) 1179–1182.
A journal article with 3 authors
S.C. Johnson, P.S. Rabinovitch, M. Kaeberlein, mTOR is a key modulator of ageing and age-related disease, Nature. 493 (2013) 338–345.
A journal article with 4 or more authors
Y. Yamaguchi, J. Filipovska, K. Yano, A. Furuya, N. Inukai, T. Narita, T. Wada, S. Sugimoto, M.M. Konarska, H. Handa, Stimulation of RNA polymerase II elongation by hepatitis delta antigen, Science. 293 (2001) 124–127.

Books and book chapters

Here are examples of references for authored and edited books as well as book chapters.

An authored book
J. Adámek, Foundations of Coding, John Wiley & Sons, Inc., Hoboken, NJ, 1991.
An edited book
M.S. Rao, ed., Neural Development and Stem Cells, Second Edition, Humana Press, Totowa, NJ, 2006.
A chapter in an edited book
F. Orsi, HCC, in: E. Van Cutsem, T.J. Vogl, F. Orsi, A. Sobrero (Eds.), Locoregional Tumor Therapy, Springer, Berlin, Heidelberg, 2015: pp. 31–54.

Web sites

Sometimes references to web sites should appear directly in the text rather than in the bibliography. Refer to the Instructions to authors for Infrared Physics and Technology.

Blog post
C. Carpineti, Watch This Cyborg Dragonfly Drone Take Flight, IFLScience. (2017). (accessed October 30, 2018).


This example shows the general structure used for government reports, technical reports, and scientific reports. If you can't locate the report number then it might be better to cite the report as a book. For reports it is usually not individual people that are credited as authors, but a governmental department or agency like "U. S. Food and Drug Administration" or "National Cancer Institute".

Government report
Government Accountability Office, Computer Technology at IRS: Present and Planned, U.S. Government Printing Office, Washington, DC, 1983.

Theses and dissertations

Theses including Ph.D. dissertations, Master's theses or Bachelor theses follow the basic format outlined below.

Doctoral dissertation
A. Bowles, The development of a standard of care for competency to stand trial evaluations, Doctoral dissertation, Pepperdine University, 2012.

News paper articles

Unlike scholarly journals, news papers do not usually have a volume and issue number. Instead, the full date and page number is required for a correct reference.

New York Times article
J. Wagner, As Injury Carousel Spins, the Mets Keep Reeling, New York Times. (2017) SP4.

In-text citations

References should be cited in the text by sequential numbers in square brackets:

This sentence cites one reference [1].
This sentence cites two references [1,2].
This sentence cites four references [1–4].

About the journal

Full journal titleInfrared Physics and Technology
AbbreviationInfrared Phys. Technol.
ISSN (print)1350-4495
ScopeElectronic, Optical and Magnetic Materials
Condensed Matter Physics
Atomic and Molecular Physics, and Optics

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