How to format your references using the Implementation Science citation style

This is a short guide how to format citations and the bibliography in a manuscript for Implementation Science. For a complete guide how to prepare your manuscript refer to the journal's instructions to authors.

Using reference management software

Typically you don't format your citations and bibliography by hand. The easiest way is to use a reference manager:

PaperpileThe citation style is built in and you can choose it in Settings > Citation Style or Paperpile > Citation Style in Google Docs.
EndNoteFind the style here: output styles overview
Mendeley, Zotero, Papers, and othersThe style is either built in or you can download a CSL file that is supported by most references management programs.
BibTeXBibTeX syles are usually part of a LaTeX template. Check the instructions to authors if the publisher offers a LaTeX template for this journal.

Journal articles

Those examples are references to articles in scholarly journals and how they are supposed to appear in your bibliography.

Not all journals organize their published articles in volumes and issues, so these fields are optional. Some electronic journals do not provide a page range, but instead list an article identifier. In a case like this it's safe to use the article identifier instead of the page range.

A journal article with 1 author
1. Wadman M. A merger too far? Nature. 2007;446:15.
A journal article with 2 authors
1. van den Heuvel MGL, Dekker C. Motor proteins at work for nanotechnology. Science. 2007;317:333–6.
A journal article with 3 authors
1. Miyazaki T, Sueyoshi K, Hiraga T. Olivine crystals align during diffusion creep of Earth’s upper mantle. Nature. 2013;502:321–6.
A journal article with 7 or more authors
1. Richman DD, Margolis DM, Delaney M, Greene WC, Hazuda D, Pomerantz RJ. The challenge of finding a cure for HIV infection. Science. 2009;323:1304–7.

Books and book chapters

Here are examples of references for authored and edited books as well as book chapters.

An authored book
1. Riches J. Galatians Through the Centuries. Oxford: Blackwell Publishing Ltd; 2008.
An edited book
1. Mankekar G, editor. Implantable Hearing Devices other than Cochlear Implants. New Delhi: Springer India; 2014.
A chapter in an edited book
1. Pedreschi D, Bonchi F, Turini F, Verykios VS, Atzori M, Malin B, et al. Privacy Protection: Regulations and Technologies, Opportunities and Threats. In: Giannotti F, Pedreschi D, editors. Mobility, Data Mining and Privacy: Geographic Knowledge Discovery. Berlin, Heidelberg: Springer; 2008. p. 101–19.

Web sites

Sometimes references to web sites should appear directly in the text rather than in the bibliography. Refer to the Instructions to authors for Implementation Science.

Blog post
1. Andrew E. New Study Reveals Most Influential Languages [Internet]. IFLScience. IFLScience; 2014 [cited 2018 Oct 30]. Available from: https://www.iflscience.com/brain/new-study-reveals-most-influential-languages/

Reports

This example shows the general structure used for government reports, technical reports, and scientific reports. If you can't locate the report number then it might be better to cite the report as a book. For reports it is usually not individual people that are credited as authors, but a governmental department or agency like "U. S. Food and Drug Administration" or "National Cancer Institute".

Government report
1. Government Accountability Office. Trainer Aircraft: Plans to Replace the Existing Fleet. Washington, DC: U.S. Government Printing Office; 1989 Mar. Report No.: NSIAD-89-94.

Theses and dissertations

Theses including Ph.D. dissertations, Master's theses or Bachelor theses follow the basic format outlined below.

Doctoral dissertation
1. Cetin B. Leaching of metals from high carbon fly ash mixed soils [Doctoral dissertation]. [College Park, MD]: University of Maryland, College Park; 2012.

News paper articles

Unlike scholarly journals, news papers do not usually have a volume and issue number. Instead, the full date and page number is required for a correct reference.

New York Times article
1. Casey N. Pregnant and Facing Dilemma Over Zika. New York Times. 2016 Feb 16;A4.

In-text citations

References should be cited in the text by sequential numbers in square brackets:

This sentence cites one reference [1].
This sentence cites two references [1,2].
This sentence cites four references [1–4].

About the journal

Full journal titleImplementation Science
AbbreviationImplement. Sci.
ISSN (online)1748-5908
ScopeGeneral Medicine
Health Informatics
Health Policy
Public Health, Environmental and Occupational Health

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