How to format your references using the IEEE Transactions on Signal Processing citation style

This is a short guide how to format citations and the bibliography in a manuscript for IEEE Transactions on Signal Processing. For a complete guide how to prepare your manuscript refer to the journal's instructions to authors.

Using reference management software

Typically you don't format your citations and bibliography by hand. The easiest way is to use a reference manager:

PaperpileThe citation style is built in and you can choose it in Settings > Citation Style or Paperpile > Citation Style in Google Docs.
EndNoteDownload the output style file
Mendeley, Zotero, Papers, and othersThe style is either built in or you can download a CSL file that is supported by most references management programs.
BibTeXBibTeX syles are usually part of a LaTeX template. Check the instructions to authors if the publisher offers a LaTeX template for this journal.

Journal articles

Those examples are references to articles in scholarly journals and how they are supposed to appear in your bibliography.

Not all journals organize their published articles in volumes and issues, so these fields are optional. Some electronic journals do not provide a page range, but instead list an article identifier. In a case like this it's safe to use the article identifier instead of the page range.

A journal article with 1 author
H. Gavaghan, “Mergers and acquisitions rock UK chemical industry infrastructure,” Nature, vol. 406, no. 6797, p. 812, Aug. 2000.
A journal article with 2 authors
S. Misra and P. N. Froelich, “Lithium isotope history of Cenozoic seawater: changes in silicate weathering and reverse weathering,” Science, vol. 335, no. 6070, pp. 818–823, Feb. 2012.
A journal article with 3 authors
T. Chouard, U. Weiss, and R. Dhand, “Good ‘omics’ for the poor?,” Nature, vol. 419, no. 6906, p. 489, Oct. 2002.
A journal article with 4 or more authors
L. F. Chibotaru, A. Ceulemans, V. Bruyndoncx, and V. V. Moshchalkov, “Symmetry-induced formation of antivortices in mesoscopic superconductors,” Nature, vol. 408, no. 6814, pp. 833–835, Dec. 2000.

Books and book chapters

Here are examples of references for authored and edited books as well as book chapters.

An authored book
W. T. Federer and F. King, Variations on Split Plot and Split Block Experiment Designs: Federer/Variations on Split Plot and Split Block Experiment Designs. Hoboken, NJ: John Wiley & Sons, Inc., 2007.
An edited book
D. I. Gabrilovich and A. A. Hurwitz, Eds., Tumor-Induced Immune Suppression: Mechanisms and Therapeutic Reversal, 2nd ed. 2014. New York, NY: Springer, 2014.
A chapter in an edited book
C. N. De Cecco, J. L. Wichmann, G. Muscogiuri, A. Hardie, and A. Laghi, “Dual Energy CT in Liver Tumors,” in Dual Energy CT in Oncology, C. N. De Cecco, A. Laghi, U. J. Schoepf, and F. G. Meinel, Eds. Cham: Springer International Publishing, 2015, pp. 59–73.

Web sites

Sometimes references to web sites should appear directly in the text rather than in the bibliography. Refer to the Instructions to authors for IEEE Transactions on Signal Processing.

Blog post
S. Luntz, “Men And Women Have The Same Size Amygdalae,” IFLScience, 20-Jan-2017. [Online]. Available: [Accessed: 30-Oct-2018].


This example shows the general structure used for government reports, technical reports, and scientific reports. If you can't locate the report number then it might be better to cite the report as a book. For reports it is usually not individual people that are credited as authors, but a governmental department or agency like "U. S. Food and Drug Administration" or "National Cancer Institute".

Government report
Government Accountability Office, “Advanced Reactor Research: DOE Supports Multiple Technologies, but Actions Needed to Ensure a Prototype Is Built,” U.S. Government Printing Office, Washington, DC, GAO-14-545, Jun. 2014.

Theses and dissertations

Theses including Ph.D. dissertations, Master's theses or Bachelor theses follow the basic format outlined below.

Doctoral dissertation
R. Pincolini, “Latchkey girls,” Doctoral dissertation, California State University, Long Beach, Long Beach, CA, 2017.

News paper articles

Unlike scholarly journals, news papers do not usually have a volume and issue number. Instead, the full date and page number is required for a correct reference.

New York Times article
S. Hodara, “A Master of Metallurgy,” New York Times, p. WE10, 01-Feb-2015.

In-text citations

References should be cited in the text by sequential numbers in square brackets:

This sentence cites one reference [1].
This sentence cites two references [1], [2].
This sentence cites four references [1]–[4].

About the journal

Full journal titleIEEE Transactions on Signal Processing
AbbreviationIEEE Trans. Signal Process.
ISSN (print)1053-587X
ScopeSignal Processing
Electrical and Electronic Engineering

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