How to format your references using the IEEE Transactions on Signal Processing citation style

This is a short guide how to format citations and the bibliography in a manuscript for IEEE Transactions on Signal Processing. For a complete guide how to prepare your manuscript refer to the journal's instructions to authors.

Using reference management software

Typically you don't format your citations and bibliography by hand. The easiest way is to use a reference manager:

PaperpileThe citation style is built in and you can choose it in Settings > Citation Style or Paperpile > Citation Style in Google Docs.
EndNoteDownload the output style file
Mendeley, Zotero, Papers, and othersThe style is either built in or you can download a CSL file that is supported by most references management programs.
BibTeXBibTeX syles are usually part of a LaTeX template. Check the instructions to authors if the publisher offers a LaTeX template for this journal.

Journal articles

Those examples are references to articles in scholarly journals and how they are supposed to appear in your bibliography.

Not all journals organize their published articles in volumes and issues, so these fields are optional. Some electronic journals do not provide a page range, but instead list an article identifier. In a case like this it's safe to use the article identifier instead of the page range.

A journal article with 1 author
S. Giblin, “Applied physics. One electron makes current flow,” Science, vol. 316, no. 5828, pp. 1130–1131, May 2007.
A journal article with 2 authors
M. A. Veronin and B.-B. C. Youan, “Medicine. Magic bullet gone astray: medications and the Internet,” Science, vol. 305, no. 5683, p. 481, Jul. 2004.
A journal article with 3 authors
R. W. Carlson, M. Boyet, and M. Horan, “Chondrite barium, neodymium, and samarium isotopic heterogeneity and early Earth differentiation,” Science, vol. 316, no. 5828, pp. 1175–1178, May 2007.
A journal article with 4 or more authors
D. L. Barber et al., “Restoring function in exhausted CD8 T cells during chronic viral infection,” Nature, vol. 439, no. 7077, pp. 682–687, Feb. 2006.

Books and book chapters

Here are examples of references for authored and edited books as well as book chapters.

An authored book
G. Held, Virtual Private Networking. Chichester, UK: John Wiley & Sons, Ltd, 2005.
An edited book
A. Ollero and I. Maza, Eds., Multiple Heterogeneous Unmanned Aerial Vehicles, vol. 37. in Springer Tracts in Advanced Robotics, vol. 37. Berlin, Heidelberg: Springer, 2007.
A chapter in an edited book
S. Othman, J. I. Khan, and F. Nafa, “Does Location Matter? The Efficiency of Request Propagation Based on Location in Online Social Networks,” in Social Computing and Social Media: 8th International Conference, SCSM 2016, Held as Part of HCI International 2016, Toronto, ON, Canada, July 17–22, 2016. Proceedings, G. Meiselwitz, Ed., in Lecture Notes in Computer Science. , Cham: Springer International Publishing, 2016, pp. 47–58.

Web sites

Sometimes references to web sites should appear directly in the text rather than in the bibliography. Refer to the Instructions to authors for IEEE Transactions on Signal Processing.

Blog post
E. Andrew, “Why do some controversies persist despite the evidence?,” IFLScience. Accessed: Oct. 30, 2018. [Online]. Available:


This example shows the general structure used for government reports, technical reports, and scientific reports. If you can't locate the report number then it might be better to cite the report as a book. For reports it is usually not individual people that are credited as authors, but a governmental department or agency like "U. S. Food and Drug Administration" or "National Cancer Institute".

Government report
Government Accountability Office, “Job Training Partnership Act: Services and Outcomes for Participants With Differing Needs,” U.S. Government Printing Office, Washington, DC, HRD-89-52, Jun. 1989.

Theses and dissertations

Theses including Ph.D. dissertations, Master's theses or Bachelor theses follow the basic format outlined below.

Doctoral dissertation
S. W. Horn, “Syntax, Semantics, and Pragmatics of Accusative-Quotative Constructions in Japanese,” Doctoral dissertation, Ohio State University, Columbus, OH, 2008.

News paper articles

Unlike scholarly journals, news papers do not usually have a volume and issue number. Instead, the full date and page number is required for a correct reference.

New York Times article
B. Hubbard, “Militants and Refugees Are Bused Back to Syria,” New York Times, p. A5, Aug. 03, 2017.

In-text citations

References should be cited in the text by sequential numbers in square brackets:

This sentence cites one reference [1].
This sentence cites two references [1], [2].
This sentence cites four references [1]–[4].

About the journal

Full journal titleIEEE Transactions on Signal Processing
AbbreviationIEEE Trans. Signal Process.
ISSN (print)1053-587X
ScopeSignal Processing
Electrical and Electronic Engineering

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