How to format your references using the IEEE Transactions on Signal Processing citation style

This is a short guide how to format citations and the bibliography in a manuscript for IEEE Transactions on Signal Processing. For a complete guide how to prepare your manuscript refer to the journal's instructions to authors.

Using reference management software

Typically you don't format your citations and bibliography by hand. The easiest way is to use a reference manager:

PaperpileThe citation style is built in and you can choose it in Settings > Citation Style or Paperpile > Citation Style in Google Docs.
EndNoteDownload the output style file
Mendeley, Zotero, Papers, and othersThe style is either built in or you can download a CSL file that is supported by most references management programs.
BibTeXBibTeX syles are usually part of a LaTeX template. Check the instructions to authors if the publisher offers a LaTeX template for this journal.

Journal articles

Those examples are references to articles in scholarly journals and how they are supposed to appear in your bibliography.

Not all journals organize their published articles in volumes and issues, so these fields are optional. Some electronic journals do not provide a page range, but instead list an article identifier. In a case like this it's safe to use the article identifier instead of the page range.

A journal article with 1 author
S. E. Brenner, “Be prepared for the big genome leak,” Nature, vol. 498, no. 7453, p. 139, Jun. 2013.
A journal article with 2 authors
S. D. Brittain and T. W. Rettig, “CO and H(3)(+) in the protoplanetary disk around the star HD141569,” Nature, vol. 418, no. 6893, pp. 57–59, Jul. 2002.
A journal article with 3 authors
T. Sugawara, F. Kano, and M. Murata, “Rab2A is a pivotal switch protein that promotes either secretion or ER-associated degradation of (pro)insulin in insulin-secreting cells,” Sci. Rep., vol. 4, p. 6952, Nov. 2014.
A journal article with 4 or more authors
E. Jacchetti, C. Di Rienzo, S. Meucci, F. Nocchi, F. Beltram, and M. Cecchini, “Wharton’s Jelly human mesenchymal stem cell contact guidance by noisy nanotopographies,” Sci. Rep., vol. 4, p. 3830, Jan. 2014.

Books and book chapters

Here are examples of references for authored and edited books as well as book chapters.

An authored book
F. J. Fabozzi and P. P. Drake, Finance. Hoboken, NJ: John Wiley & Sons, Inc., 2009.
An edited book
J. Crespo Cuaresma, T. Palokangas, and A. Tarasyev, Eds., Dynamic Systems, Economic Growth, and the Environment, vol. 12. Berlin, Heidelberg: Springer, 2010.
A chapter in an edited book
P. Van Weert, J. Sneyers, and B. Demoen, “Aggregates for CHR through Program Transformation,” in Logic-Based Program Synthesis and Transformation: 17th International Symposium, LOPSTR 2007, Kongens Lyngby, Denmark, August 23-24, 2007, Revised Selected Papers, A. King, Ed. Berlin, Heidelberg: Springer, 2008, pp. 59–73.

Web sites

Sometimes references to web sites should appear directly in the text rather than in the bibliography. Refer to the Instructions to authors for IEEE Transactions on Signal Processing.

Blog post
E. Andrew, “Clumps Of Alzheimer’s-Associated Molecule Found In Young Adult Brains,” IFLScience, Mar. 02, 2015.


This example shows the general structure used for government reports, technical reports, and scientific reports. If you can't locate the report number then it might be better to cite the report as a book. For reports it is usually not individual people that are credited as authors, but a governmental department or agency like "U. S. Food and Drug Administration" or "National Cancer Institute".

Government report
Government Accountability Office, “Performance and Accountability: Transportation Challenges Facing Congress and the Department of Transportation,” U.S. Government Printing Office, Washington, DC, GAO-07-545T, Mar. 2007.

Theses and dissertations

Theses including Ph.D. dissertations, Master's theses or Bachelor theses follow the basic format outlined below.

Doctoral dissertation
R. J. Clendening, “A structured methodology for unifying functional analysis with systems analysis to enhance system behavior knowledge,” Doctoral dissertation, George Washington University, Washington, DC, 2009.

News paper articles

Unlike scholarly journals, news papers do not usually have a volume and issue number. Instead, the full date and page number is required for a correct reference.

New York Times article
J. Koblin, “FX Plans a Commercial-Free Service With Comcast,” New York Times, p. B6, Aug. 07, 2017.

In-text citations

References should be cited in the text by sequential numbers in square brackets:

This sentence cites one reference [1].
This sentence cites two references [1], [2].
This sentence cites four references [1]–[4].

About the journal

Full journal titleIEEE Transactions on Signal Processing
AbbreviationIEEE Trans. Signal Process.
ISSN (print)1053-587X
ScopeSignal Processing
Electrical and Electronic Engineering

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