How to format your references using the IEEE Transactions on Signal Processing citation style

This is a short guide how to format citations and the bibliography in a manuscript for IEEE Transactions on Signal Processing. For a complete guide how to prepare your manuscript refer to the journal's instructions to authors.

Using reference management software

Typically you don't format your citations and bibliography by hand. The easiest way is to use a reference manager:

PaperpileThe citation style is built in and you can choose it in Settings > Citation Style or Paperpile > Citation Style in Google Docs.
EndNoteDownload the output style file
Mendeley, Zotero, Papers, and othersThe style is either built in or you can download a CSL file that is supported by most references management programs.
BibTeXBibTeX syles are usually part of a LaTeX template. Check the instructions to authors if the publisher offers a LaTeX template for this journal.

Journal articles

Those examples are references to articles in scholarly journals and how they are supposed to appear in your bibliography.

Not all journals organize their published articles in volumes and issues, so these fields are optional. Some electronic journals do not provide a page range, but instead list an article identifier. In a case like this it's safe to use the article identifier instead of the page range.

A journal article with 1 author
G. Bowen, “Hydrology: The diversified economics of soil water,” Nature, vol. 525, no. 7567, pp. 43–44, Sep. 2015.
A journal article with 2 authors
E. P. Mimitou and L. S. Symington, “Sae2, Exo1 and Sgs1 collaborate in DNA double-strand break processing,” Nature, vol. 455, no. 7214, pp. 770–774, Oct. 2008.
A journal article with 3 authors
E. Nir, K. Kleinermanns, and M. S. de Vries, “Pairing of isolated nucleic-acid bases in the absence of the DNA backbone,” Nature, vol. 408, no. 6815, pp. 949–951, 2000.
A journal article with 4 or more authors
K. S. Ramamurthi, S. Lecuyer, H. A. Stone, and R. Losick, “Geometric cue for protein localization in a bacterium,” Science, vol. 323, no. 5919, pp. 1354–1357, Mar. 2009.

Books and book chapters

Here are examples of references for authored and edited books as well as book chapters.

An authored book
H. Yang and E. K. Lee, Healthcare Analytics: From Data to Knowledge to Healthcare Improvement. Hoboken, New Jersey: John Wiley & Sons, Inc., 2016.
An edited book
R. Mukerjee, A Modern Theory of Factorial Designs. New York, NY: Springer, 2006.
A chapter in an edited book
C. M. S. Malaque, O. M. Chaim, M. Entres, and K. C. Barbaro, “Loxosceles and Loxoscelism: Biology, Venom, Envenomation, and Treatment,” in Spider Venoms, P. Gopalakrishnakone, G. A. Corzo, M. E. de Lima, and E. Diego-García, Eds. Dordrecht: Springer Netherlands, 2016, pp. 419–444.

Web sites

Sometimes references to web sites should appear directly in the text rather than in the bibliography. Refer to the Instructions to authors for IEEE Transactions on Signal Processing.

Blog post
E. Andrew, “What’s The Most Dangerous Place On Earth?,” IFLScience, Aug. 02, 2014. (accessed Oct. 30, 2018).


This example shows the general structure used for government reports, technical reports, and scientific reports. If you can't locate the report number then it might be better to cite the report as a book. For reports it is usually not individual people that are credited as authors, but a governmental department or agency like "U. S. Food and Drug Administration" or "National Cancer Institute".

Government report
Government Accountability Office, “Highway Funding: The Federal Highway Administration’s Funding Apportionment Model,” U.S. Government Printing Office, Washington, DC, RCED-97-159, Jun. 1997.

Theses and dissertations

Theses including Ph.D. dissertations, Master's theses or Bachelor theses follow the basic format outlined below.

Doctoral dissertation
K. Hernandez, “Life skills education for at-risk youth at Soledad Enrichment Action Charter High School: A grant proposal,” Doctoral dissertation, California State University, Long Beach, Long Beach, CA, 2015.

News paper articles

Unlike scholarly journals, news papers do not usually have a volume and issue number. Instead, the full date and page number is required for a correct reference.

New York Times article
J. Branch, “Kaepernick’s Conscience,” New York Times, p. SP1, Sep. 07, 2017.

In-text citations

References should be cited in the text by sequential numbers in square brackets:

This sentence cites one reference [1].
This sentence cites two references [1], [2].
This sentence cites four references [1]–[4].

About the journal

Full journal titleIEEE Transactions on Signal Processing
AbbreviationIEEE Trans. Signal Process.
ISSN (print)1053-587X
ScopeSignal Processing
Electrical and Electronic Engineering

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