How to format your references using the IEEE Transactions on Signal Processing citation style

This is a short guide how to format citations and the bibliography in a manuscript for IEEE Transactions on Signal Processing. For a complete guide how to prepare your manuscript refer to the journal's instructions to authors.

Using reference management software

Typically you don't format your citations and bibliography by hand. The easiest way is to use a reference manager:

PaperpileThe citation style is built in and you can choose it in Settings > Citation Style or Paperpile > Citation Style in Google Docs.
EndNoteDownload the output style file
Mendeley, Zotero, Papers, and othersThe style is either built in or you can download a CSL file that is supported by most references management programs.
BibTeXBibTeX syles are usually part of a LaTeX template. Check the instructions to authors if the publisher offers a LaTeX template for this journal.

Journal articles

Those examples are references to articles in scholarly journals and how they are supposed to appear in your bibliography.

Not all journals organize their published articles in volumes and issues, so these fields are optional. Some electronic journals do not provide a page range, but instead list an article identifier. In a case like this it's safe to use the article identifier instead of the page range.

A journal article with 1 author
F. Mavilio, “Gene therapies need new development models,” Nature, vol. 490, no. 7418, p. 7, Oct. 2012.
A journal article with 2 authors
D. Li and M. Caffrey, “Renaturing membrane proteins in the lipid cubic phase, a nanoporous membrane mimetic,” Sci. Rep., vol. 4, p. 5806, Jul. 2014.
A journal article with 3 authors
C. D. Dahl, C.-C. Chen, and M. J. Rasch, “Own-race and own-species advantages in face perception: a computational view,” Sci. Rep., vol. 4, p. 6654, Oct. 2014.
A journal article with 4 or more authors
H.-C. Wu, O. N. Mryasov, M. Abid, K. Radican, and I. V. Shvets, “Magnetization states of all-oxide spin valves controlled by charge-orbital ordering of coupled ferromagnets,” Sci. Rep., vol. 3, p. 1830, 2013.

Books and book chapters

Here are examples of references for authored and edited books as well as book chapters.

An authored book
G. B. Dijksterhuis, Multivariate Data Analysis in Sensory and Consumer Science. Trumbull, Connecticut, USA: Food & Nutrition Press, Inc., 2008.
An edited book
Y. Yang, M. Ma, and B. Liu, Eds., Information Computing and Applications: 4th International Conference, ICICA 2013, Singapore, August 16-18, 2013 Revised Selected Papers, Part II, vol. 392. Berlin, Heidelberg: Springer, 2013.
A chapter in an edited book
J. W. P. Hirschfeld and J. A. Thas, “Embedded geometries,” in General Galois Geometries, J. A. Thas, Ed. London: Springer, 2016, pp. 223–303.

Web sites

Sometimes references to web sites should appear directly in the text rather than in the bibliography. Refer to the Instructions to authors for IEEE Transactions on Signal Processing.

Blog post
E. Andrew, “Supercooling Organs Could Lengthen Transplant Window,” IFLScience, Jul. 01, 2014. (accessed Oct. 30, 2018).


This example shows the general structure used for government reports, technical reports, and scientific reports. If you can't locate the report number then it might be better to cite the report as a book. For reports it is usually not individual people that are credited as authors, but a governmental department or agency like "U. S. Food and Drug Administration" or "National Cancer Institute".

Government report
Government Accountability Office, “Federal Agencies’ Actions To Implement Section 11 of the Stevenson-Wydler Technology Innovation Act of 1980,” U.S. Government Printing Office, Washington, DC, RCED-84-60, Aug. 1984.

Theses and dissertations

Theses including Ph.D. dissertations, Master's theses or Bachelor theses follow the basic format outlined below.

Doctoral dissertation
P. J. Davis, “A comparison of a high and low -performing school in the Soroti Catholic Diocese, Uganda, East -Africa,” Doctoral dissertation, Northcentral University, Scottsdale, AZ, 2009.

News paper articles

Unlike scholarly journals, news papers do not usually have a volume and issue number. Instead, the full date and page number is required for a correct reference.

New York Times article
K. Crow, “A Once-Quiet Precinct Council Quarrels Over Its Makeup,” New York Times, p. 147, Jun. 24, 2001.

In-text citations

References should be cited in the text by sequential numbers in square brackets:

This sentence cites one reference [1].
This sentence cites two references [1], [2].
This sentence cites four references [1]–[4].

About the journal

Full journal titleIEEE Transactions on Signal Processing
AbbreviationIEEE Trans. Signal Process.
ISSN (print)1053-587X
ScopeSignal Processing
Electrical and Electronic Engineering

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