How to format your references using the IEEE Geoscience and Remote Sensing Letters citation style

This is a short guide how to format citations and the bibliography in a manuscript for IEEE Geoscience and Remote Sensing Letters. For a complete guide how to prepare your manuscript refer to the journal's instructions to authors.

Using reference management software

Typically you don't format your citations and bibliography by hand. The easiest way is to use a reference manager:

PaperpileThe citation style is built in and you can choose it in Settings > Citation Style or Paperpile > Citation Style in Google Docs.
EndNoteFind the style here: output styles overview
Mendeley, Zotero, Papers, and othersThe style is either built in or you can download a CSL file that is supported by most references management programs.
BibTeXBibTeX syles are usually part of a LaTeX template. Check the instructions to authors if the publisher offers a LaTeX template for this journal.

Journal articles

Those examples are references to articles in scholarly journals and how they are supposed to appear in your bibliography.

Not all journals organize their published articles in volumes and issues, so these fields are optional. Some electronic journals do not provide a page range, but instead list an article identifier. In a case like this it's safe to use the article identifier instead of the page range.

A journal article with 1 author
R. D. Fields, “Neuroscience. Myelin--more than insulation,” Science, vol. 344, no. 6181, pp. 264–266, Apr. 2014.
A journal article with 2 authors
R. M. Nadeau and A. Guilhem, “Nonvolcanic tremor evolution and the San Simeon and Parkfield, California, earthquakes,” Science, vol. 325, no. 5937, pp. 191–193, Jul. 2009.
A journal article with 3 authors
H. J. B. Dick, J. Lin, and H. Schouten, “An ultraslow-spreading class of ocean ridge,” Nature, vol. 426, no. 6965, pp. 405–412, Nov. 2003.
A journal article with 4 or more authors
Z. Xiao, K. Sun, J. Subbiah, S. Ji, D. J. Jones, and W. W. H. Wong, “Hydrogen bonding in bulk heterojunction solar cells: a case study,” Sci. Rep., vol. 4, p. 5701, Jul. 2014.

Books and book chapters

Here are examples of references for authored and edited books as well as book chapters.

An authored book
R. A. Davis, Demand-Driven Inventory Optimization and Replenishment. Hoboken, New Jersey, USA: John Wiley & Sons, Inc, 2015.
An edited book
A. Assi, Numerical Semigroups and Applications, vol. 1. Cham: Springer International Publishing, 2016.
A chapter in an edited book
Lisahunter, E. Emerald, and G. Martin, “Where Do You Stand: Philosophical Orientations,” in Participatory Activist Research in the Globalised World: Social Change Through the Cultural Professions, E. Emerald and G. Martin, Eds. Dordrecht: Springer Netherlands, 2013, pp. 45–58.

Web sites

Sometimes references to web sites should appear directly in the text rather than in the bibliography. Refer to the Instructions to authors for IEEE Geoscience and Remote Sensing Letters.

Blog post
E. Andrew, “Trial Of Stem Cell Transplants Yields Positive Results For Patients With MS,” IFLScience, Dec. 31, 2014. (accessed Oct. 30, 2018).


This example shows the general structure used for government reports, technical reports, and scientific reports. If you can't locate the report number then it might be better to cite the report as a book. For reports it is usually not individual people that are credited as authors, but a governmental department or agency like "U. S. Food and Drug Administration" or "National Cancer Institute".

Government report
Government Accountability Office, “Transportation Security Information Sharing: Results of GAO’s Survey of Stakeholder Satisfaction with TSA Products and Mechanisms (GAO-14-488SP, June 2014), an E-supplement to GAO-14-506,” U.S. Government Printing Office, Washington, DC, GAO-14-488SP, Jun. 2014.

Theses and dissertations

Theses including Ph.D. dissertations, Master's theses or Bachelor theses follow the basic format outlined below.

Doctoral dissertation
M. Y. Flores, “Delinquency prevention program for Latino youth: A grant proposal project,” Doctoral dissertation, California State University, Long Beach, Long Beach, CA, 2010.

News paper articles

Unlike scholarly journals, news papers do not usually have a volume and issue number. Instead, the full date and page number is required for a correct reference.

New York Times article
T. Cowen, “A U.S. Middle-Class Revival, Powered by China,” New York Times, p. BU6, Apr. 15, 2016.

In-text citations

References should be cited in the text by sequential numbers in square brackets:

This sentence cites one reference [1].
This sentence cites two references [1], [2].
This sentence cites four references [1]–[4].

About the journal

Full journal titleIEEE Geoscience and Remote Sensing Letters
AbbreviationIEEE Geosci. Remote Sens. Lett.
ISSN (print)1545-598X
ScopeGeotechnical Engineering and Engineering Geology
Electrical and Electronic Engineering

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