How to format your references using the Human Microbiome Journal citation style

This is a short guide how to format citations and the bibliography in a manuscript for Human Microbiome Journal. For a complete guide how to prepare your manuscript refer to the journal's instructions to authors.

Using reference management software

Typically you don't format your citations and bibliography by hand. The easiest way is to use a reference manager:

PaperpileThe citation style is built in and you can choose it in Settings > Citation Style or Paperpile > Citation Style in Google Docs.
EndNoteDownload the output style file
Mendeley, Zotero, Papers, and othersThe style is either built in or you can download a CSL file that is supported by most references management programs.
BibTeXBibTeX syles are usually part of a LaTeX template. Check the instructions to authors if the publisher offers a LaTeX template for this journal.

Journal articles

Those examples are references to articles in scholarly journals and how they are supposed to appear in your bibliography.

Not all journals organize their published articles in volumes and issues, so these fields are optional. Some electronic journals do not provide a page range, but instead list an article identifier. In a case like this it's safe to use the article identifier instead of the page range.

A journal article with 1 author
Jayaraman KS. Funding crisis for Indian biotech centre. Nature 2000;403:694.
A journal article with 2 authors
Roberts L, Jasny B. HIV/AIDS: money matters. Science 2008;321:511.
A journal article with 3 authors
Hembacher S, Giessibl FJ, Mannhart J. Force microscopy with light-atom probes. Science 2004;305:380–3.
A journal article with 7 or more authors
Lodahl P, Floris Van Driel A, Nikolaev IS, Irman A, Overgaag K, Vanmaekelbergh D, et al. Controlling the dynamics of spontaneous emission from quantum dots by photonic crystals. Nature 2004;430:654–7.

Books and book chapters

Here are examples of references for authored and edited books as well as book chapters.

An authored book
Alexander M, Walkenbach J. Excel® Dashboards & Reports. Hoboken, NJ: Wiley Publishing, Inc.; 2010.
An edited book
Paterson MS. Experimental Rock Deformation — The Brittle Field. Second, Completely Revised and Updated Edition. Berlin, Heidelberg: Springer; 2005.
A chapter in an edited book
Lyons AC, Mondragon AEC, Piller F, Poler R. Mass Customisation: A Strategy for Customer-Centric Enterprises. In: Coronado Mondragon AE, Piller F, Poler R, editors. Customer-Driven Supply Chains: From Glass Pipelines to Open Innovation Networks, London: Springer; 2012, p. 71–94.

Web sites

Sometimes references to web sites should appear directly in the text rather than in the bibliography. Refer to the Instructions to authors for Human Microbiome Journal.

Blog post
Hale T. Pedals The Bipedal Bear Is Believed To Have Been Shot Dead. IFLScience 2016. (accessed October 30, 2018).


This example shows the general structure used for government reports, technical reports, and scientific reports. If you can't locate the report number then it might be better to cite the report as a book. For reports it is usually not individual people that are credited as authors, but a governmental department or agency like "U. S. Food and Drug Administration" or "National Cancer Institute".

Government report
Government Accountability Office. Tax System Modernization: Management Mistakes Caused Delays in Automated Underreporter System. Washington, DC: U.S. Government Printing Office; 1990.

Theses and dissertations

Theses including Ph.D. dissertations, Master's theses or Bachelor theses follow the basic format outlined below.

Doctoral dissertation
Gupta P. Enhanced acquisition of data in the presence of transfaulty nodes in a wireless sensor network. Doctoral dissertation. California State University, Long Beach, 2017.

News paper articles

Unlike scholarly journals, news papers do not usually have a volume and issue number. Instead, the full date and page number is required for a correct reference.

New York Times article
Eligon J. Protests Start a Dialogue, But About What, Exactly? New York Times 2017:A14.

In-text citations

References should be cited in the text by sequential numbers in square brackets:

This sentence cites one reference [1].
This sentence cites two references [1,2].
This sentence cites four references [1–4].

About the journal

Full journal titleHuman Microbiome Journal
ISSN (print)2452-2317
ScopeInfectious Diseases
Microbiology (medical)

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