How to format your references using the Human Microbiome Journal citation style

This is a short guide how to format citations and the bibliography in a manuscript for Human Microbiome Journal. For a complete guide how to prepare your manuscript refer to the journal's instructions to authors.

Using reference management software

Typically you don't format your citations and bibliography by hand. The easiest way is to use a reference manager:

PaperpileThe citation style is built in and you can choose it in Settings > Citation Style or Paperpile > Citation Style in Google Docs.
EndNoteDownload the output style file
Mendeley, Zotero, Papers, and othersThe style is either built in or you can download a CSL file that is supported by most references management programs.
BibTeXBibTeX syles are usually part of a LaTeX template. Check the instructions to authors if the publisher offers a LaTeX template for this journal.

Journal articles

Those examples are references to articles in scholarly journals and how they are supposed to appear in your bibliography.

Not all journals organize their published articles in volumes and issues, so these fields are optional. Some electronic journals do not provide a page range, but instead list an article identifier. In a case like this it's safe to use the article identifier instead of the page range.

A journal article with 1 author
[1]
Kopelman PG. Obesity as a medical problem. Nature 2000;404:635–43.
A journal article with 2 authors
[1]
Granick S, Bae SC. Chemistry. A curious antipathy for water. Science 2008;322:1477–8.
A journal article with 3 authors
[1]
Gregory JM, Huybrechts P, Raper SCB. Climatology: threatened loss of the Greenland ice-sheet. Nature 2004;428:616.
A journal article with 7 or more authors
[1]
Zappacosta DC, Ochogavía AC, Rodrigo JM, Romero JR, Meier MS, Garbus I, et al. Increased apomixis expression concurrent with genetic and epigenetic variation in a newly synthesized Eragrostis curvula polyploid. Sci Rep 2014;4:4423.

Books and book chapters

Here are examples of references for authored and edited books as well as book chapters.

An authored book
[1]
Cotarca L, Eckert H. Phosgenations - A Handbook. Weinheim, FRG: Wiley-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA; 2005.
An edited book
[1]
Kadarmideen HN, editor. Systems Biology in Animal Production and Health, Vol. 2. Cham: Springer International Publishing; 2016.
A chapter in an edited book
[1]
Terzic O, de Voogt P. Modern Sample Preparation Techniques for Gas Chromatography-Mass Spectrometry Analysis of Environmental Markers of Chemical Warfare Agents Use. In: Banoub J, editor. Detection of Chemical, Biological, Radiological and Nuclear Agents for the Prevention of Terrorism: Mass Spectrometry and Allied Topics, Dordrecht: Springer Netherlands; 2014, p. 33–67.

Web sites

Sometimes references to web sites should appear directly in the text rather than in the bibliography. Refer to the Instructions to authors for Human Microbiome Journal.

Blog post
[1]
O`Callaghan J. Graphene Sieves Could Remove Salt From Water And Make It Drinkable. IFLScience 2017. https://www.iflscience.com/technology/graphene-sieves-could-remove-salt-from-water-and-make-it-drinkable/ (accessed October 30, 2018).

Reports

This example shows the general structure used for government reports, technical reports, and scientific reports. If you can't locate the report number then it might be better to cite the report as a book. For reports it is usually not individual people that are credited as authors, but a governmental department or agency like "U. S. Food and Drug Administration" or "National Cancer Institute".

Government report
[1]
Government Accountability Office. Electronic Surveillance. Washington, DC: U.S. Government Printing Office; 1994.

Theses and dissertations

Theses including Ph.D. dissertations, Master's theses or Bachelor theses follow the basic format outlined below.

Doctoral dissertation
[1]
Hardin J. A study of social cognitive theory: The relationship between professional learning communities and collective teacher efficacy in international school settings. Doctoral dissertation. Capella University, 2010.

News paper articles

Unlike scholarly journals, news papers do not usually have a volume and issue number. Instead, the full date and page number is required for a correct reference.

New York Times article
[1]
Risen J. An Ex-Detainee, but Still a Captive of ‘The Darkness.’ New York Times 2016:A1.

In-text citations

References should be cited in the text by sequential numbers in square brackets:

This sentence cites one reference [1].
This sentence cites two references [1,2].
This sentence cites four references [1–4].

About the journal

Full journal titleHuman Microbiome Journal
ISSN (print)2452-2317
ScopeInfectious Diseases
Microbiology (medical)

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