How to format your references using the Human Microbiome Journal citation style

This is a short guide how to format citations and the bibliography in a manuscript for Human Microbiome Journal. For a complete guide how to prepare your manuscript refer to the journal's instructions to authors.

Using reference management software

Typically you don't format your citations and bibliography by hand. The easiest way is to use a reference manager:


PaperpileThe citation style is built in and you can choose it in Settings > Citation Style or Paperpile > Citation Style in Google Docs.
EndNoteDownload the output style file
Mendeley, Zotero, Papers, and othersThe style is either built in or you can download a CSL file that is supported by most references management programs.
BibTeXBibTeX syles are usually part of a LaTeX template. Check the instructions to authors if the publisher offers a LaTeX template for this journal.

Journal articles

Those examples are references to articles in scholarly journals and how they are supposed to appear in your bibliography.

Not all journals organize their published articles in volumes and issues, so these fields are optional. Some electronic journals do not provide a page range, but instead list an article identifier. In a case like this it's safe to use the article identifier instead of the page range.

A journal article with 1 author
[1]
Vanclay JK. The effectiveness of parks. Science 2001;293:1007.
A journal article with 2 authors
[1]
Nicewicz DA, MacMillan DWC. Merging photoredox catalysis with organocatalysis: the direct asymmetric alkylation of aldehydes. Science 2008;322:77–80.
A journal article with 3 authors
[1]
Zhang YG, Pagani M, Liu Z. Response to Comment on “A 12-million-year temperature history of the tropical Pacific Ocean.” Science 2014;346:1467.
A journal article with 7 or more authors
[1]
Brauchle E, Thude S, Brucker SY, Schenke-Layland K. Cell death stages in single apoptotic and necrotic cells monitored by Raman microspectroscopy. Sci Rep 2014;4:4698.

Books and book chapters

Here are examples of references for authored and edited books as well as book chapters.

An authored book
[1]
Hannam J. What Everyone Needs to Know about Tax. Chichester, UK: John Wiley & Sons, Ltd; 2017.
An edited book
[1]
Aimar T. Business Cycles in the Run of History. Cham: Springer International Publishing; 2016.
A chapter in an edited book
[1]
Singh M, Anandan SK, Malik S, Sistla S, Wright S. Business Connectivity Services. In: Anandan SK, Malik S, Sistla S, Wright S, editors. Pro SharePoint 2013 Business Intelligence Solutions, Berkeley, CA: Apress; 2013, p. 187–245.

Web sites

Sometimes references to web sites should appear directly in the text rather than in the bibliography. Refer to the Instructions to authors for Human Microbiome Journal.

Blog post
[1]
Carpineti A. One Third Of Humanity Can’t See The Milky Way In The Night Sky. IFLScience 2016. https://www.iflscience.com/space/one-third-of-humanity-cant-see-the-milky-way-in-the-night-sky/ (accessed October 30, 2018).

Reports

This example shows the general structure used for government reports, technical reports, and scientific reports. If you can't locate the report number then it might be better to cite the report as a book. For reports it is usually not individual people that are credited as authors, but a governmental department or agency like "U. S. Food and Drug Administration" or "National Cancer Institute".

Government report
[1]
Government Accountability Office. The Indian Self-Determination Act: Many Obstacles Remain. Washington, DC: U.S. Government Printing Office; 1978.

Theses and dissertations

Theses including Ph.D. dissertations, Master's theses or Bachelor theses follow the basic format outlined below.

Doctoral dissertation
[1]
De Felice D. A Phenomenological Study of Teaching Endangered Languages Online: Perspectives from Nahua and Mayan Educators. Doctoral dissertation. University of South Florida, 2013.

News paper articles

Unlike scholarly journals, news papers do not usually have a volume and issue number. Instead, the full date and page number is required for a correct reference.

New York Times article
[1]
Pilon M. Kuwaiti Sheik’s Influence in Olympic World Grows. New York Times 2013:B10.

In-text citations

References should be cited in the text by sequential numbers in square brackets:

This sentence cites one reference [1].
This sentence cites two references [1,2].
This sentence cites four references [1–4].

About the journal

Full journal titleHuman Microbiome Journal
ISSN (print)2452-2317
ScopeInfectious Diseases
Microbiology (medical)

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