How to format your references using the Human Immunology citation style

This is a short guide how to format citations and the bibliography in a manuscript for Human Immunology. For a complete guide how to prepare your manuscript refer to the journal's instructions to authors.

Using reference management software

Typically you don't format your citations and bibliography by hand. The easiest way is to use a reference manager:

PaperpileThe citation style is built in and you can choose it in Settings > Citation Style or Paperpile > Citation Style in Google Docs.
EndNoteDownload the output style file
Mendeley, Zotero, Papers, and othersThe style is either built in or you can download a CSL file that is supported by most references management programs.
BibTeXBibTeX syles are usually part of a LaTeX template. Check the instructions to authors if the publisher offers a LaTeX template for this journal.

Journal articles

Those examples are references to articles in scholarly journals and how they are supposed to appear in your bibliography.

Not all journals organize their published articles in volumes and issues, so these fields are optional. Some electronic journals do not provide a page range, but instead list an article identifier. In a case like this it's safe to use the article identifier instead of the page range.

A journal article with 1 author
J. Bohannon, The Gonzonaut goes to Mars, Science. 318 (2007) 1719.
A journal article with 2 authors
M.D. Spalding, B.E. Brown, Warm-water coral reefs and climate change, Science. 350 (2015) 769–771.
A journal article with 3 authors
K.P. Dial, B.E. Jackson, P. Segre, A fundamental avian wing-stroke provides a new perspective on the evolution of flight, Nature. 451 (2008) 985–989.
A journal article with 4 or more authors
D. Barken, C.J. Wang, J. Kearns, R. Cheong, A. Hoffmann, A. Levchenko, Comment on “Oscillations in NF-kappaB signaling control the dynamics of gene expression,” Science. 308 (2005) 52; author reply 52.

Books and book chapters

Here are examples of references for authored and edited books as well as book chapters.

An authored book
K.S. Thyagarajan, Still Image and Video Compression with MATLAB, John Wiley & Sons, Inc., Hoboken, NJ, 2010.
An edited book
C. Meadows, C. Fernandez-Gago, eds., Security and Trust Management: 7th International Workshop, STM 2011, Copenhagen, Denmark, June 27-28, 2011, Revised Selected Papers, Springer, Berlin, Heidelberg, 2012.
A chapter in an edited book
P. Gu, EFL Teacher Learning in the Chinese Sociocultural Context, in: D. Coniam (Ed.), English Language Education and Assessment: Recent Developments in Hong Kong and the Chinese Mainland, Springer, Singapore, 2014: pp. 69–85.

Web sites

Sometimes references to web sites should appear directly in the text rather than in the bibliography. Refer to the Instructions to authors for Human Immunology.

Blog post
E. Andrew, What Is The Dark Web?, IFLScience. (2015).


This example shows the general structure used for government reports, technical reports, and scientific reports. If you can't locate the report number then it might be better to cite the report as a book. For reports it is usually not individual people that are credited as authors, but a governmental department or agency like "U. S. Food and Drug Administration" or "National Cancer Institute".

Government report
Government Accountability Office, Air Traffic Control: Complete and Enforced Architecture Needed for FAA Systems Modernization, U.S. Government Printing Office, Washington, DC, 1997.

Theses and dissertations

Theses including Ph.D. dissertations, Master's theses or Bachelor theses follow the basic format outlined below.

Doctoral dissertation
A.M. Pena, Perceptions of Spanish/English bilingual school psychologists regarding competency in assessment and future training needs, Doctoral dissertation, University of Maryland, College Park, 2012.

News paper articles

Unlike scholarly journals, news papers do not usually have a volume and issue number. Instead, the full date and page number is required for a correct reference.

New York Times article
G. Loomis, Franz Schreker’s Triumphant Return, New York Times. (2012) 0.

In-text citations

References should be cited in the text by sequential numbers in square brackets:

This sentence cites one reference [1].
This sentence cites two references [1,2].
This sentence cites four references [1–4].

About the journal

Full journal titleHuman Immunology
AbbreviationHum. Immunol.
ISSN (print)0198-8859
General Medicine
Immunology and Allergy

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