How to format your references using the Human Immunology citation style

This is a short guide how to format citations and the bibliography in a manuscript for Human Immunology. For a complete guide how to prepare your manuscript refer to the journal's instructions to authors.

Using reference management software

Typically you don't format your citations and bibliography by hand. The easiest way is to use a reference manager:

PaperpileThe citation style is built in and you can choose it in Settings > Citation Style or Paperpile > Citation Style in Google Docs.
EndNoteDownload the output style file
Mendeley, Zotero, Papers, and othersThe style is either built in or you can download a CSL file that is supported by most references management programs.
BibTeXBibTeX syles are usually part of a LaTeX template. Check the instructions to authors if the publisher offers a LaTeX template for this journal.

Journal articles

Those examples are references to articles in scholarly journals and how they are supposed to appear in your bibliography.

Not all journals organize their published articles in volumes and issues, so these fields are optional. Some electronic journals do not provide a page range, but instead list an article identifier. In a case like this it's safe to use the article identifier instead of the page range.

A journal article with 1 author
C. Nathan, Points of control in inflammation, Nature. 420 (2002) 846–852.
A journal article with 2 authors
R.M. Steinman, J. Banchereau, Taking dendritic cells into medicine, Nature. 449 (2007) 419–426.
A journal article with 3 authors
M.R. Goddard, H.C.J. Godfray, A. Burt, Sex increases the efficacy of natural selection in experimental yeast populations, Nature. 434 (2005) 636–640.
A journal article with 4 or more authors
B.M. Ott, M. Cruciger, A.M. Dacks, R.V.M. Rio, Hitchhiking of host biology by beneficial symbionts enhances transmission, Sci. Rep. 4 (2014) 5825.

Books and book chapters

Here are examples of references for authored and edited books as well as book chapters.

An authored book
A. Alsop, Continuing Professional Development in Health and Social Care, John Wiley & Sons, Ltd., Hoboken, NJ USA, 2013.
An edited book
C. Grosse, M. Ohtsu, eds., Acoustic Emission Testing: Basics for Research - Applications in Civil Engineering, Springer, Berlin, Heidelberg, 2008.
A chapter in an edited book
Y. Li, S. Zirah, S. Rebuffat, Lasso Peptide Bioengineering and Bioprospecting, in: S. Zirah, S. Rebuffat (Eds.), Lasso Peptides: Bacterial Strategies to Make and Maintain Bioactive Entangled Scaffolds, Springer, New York, NY, 2015: pp. 97–103.

Web sites

Sometimes references to web sites should appear directly in the text rather than in the bibliography. Refer to the Instructions to authors for Human Immunology.

Blog post
C. Carpineti, Brian Cox Recently Made A Surprising Statement About The Existence Of Ghosts, IFLScience. (2017). (accessed October 30, 2018).


This example shows the general structure used for government reports, technical reports, and scientific reports. If you can't locate the report number then it might be better to cite the report as a book. For reports it is usually not individual people that are credited as authors, but a governmental department or agency like "U. S. Food and Drug Administration" or "National Cancer Institute".

Government report
Government Accountability Office, Motor Carriers: Establishing System for Self-Reporting Equipment Problems Appears Feasible, but Safety Benefits Questionable and Costs Unknown, U.S. Government Printing Office, Washington, DC, 2016.

Theses and dissertations

Theses including Ph.D. dissertations, Master's theses or Bachelor theses follow the basic format outlined below.

Doctoral dissertation
T.R. Gros, A templated agarose scaffold for axon guidance in the central and peripheral nervous system, Doctoral dissertation, University of California San Diego, 2009.

News paper articles

Unlike scholarly journals, news papers do not usually have a volume and issue number. Instead, the full date and page number is required for a correct reference.

New York Times article
M.J.O. Murphy, Weekend Entertainments From the Archives of The New York Times, New York Times. (2015) C32.

In-text citations

References should be cited in the text by sequential numbers in square brackets:

This sentence cites one reference [1].
This sentence cites two references [1,2].
This sentence cites four references [1–4].

About the journal

Full journal titleHuman Immunology
AbbreviationHum. Immunol.
ISSN (print)0198-8859
General Medicine
Immunology and Allergy

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