How to format your references using the Human Immunology citation style

This is a short guide how to format citations and the bibliography in a manuscript for Human Immunology. For a complete guide how to prepare your manuscript refer to the journal's instructions to authors.

Using reference management software

Typically you don't format your citations and bibliography by hand. The easiest way is to use a reference manager:

PaperpileThe citation style is built in and you can choose it in Settings > Citation Style or Paperpile > Citation Style in Google Docs.
EndNoteDownload the output style file
Mendeley, Zotero, Papers, and othersThe style is either built in or you can download a CSL file that is supported by most references management programs.
BibTeXBibTeX syles are usually part of a LaTeX template. Check the instructions to authors if the publisher offers a LaTeX template for this journal.

Journal articles

Those examples are references to articles in scholarly journals and how they are supposed to appear in your bibliography.

Not all journals organize their published articles in volumes and issues, so these fields are optional. Some electronic journals do not provide a page range, but instead list an article identifier. In a case like this it's safe to use the article identifier instead of the page range.

A journal article with 1 author
M. Van Doren, Development. Determining sexual identity, Science. 333 (2011) 829–830.
A journal article with 2 authors
D. Kennedy, C. Norman, What don’t we know?, Science. 309 (2005) 75.
A journal article with 3 authors
J.W. Szostak, D.P. Bartel, P.L. Luisi, Synthesizing life, Nature. 409 (2001) 387–390.
A journal article with 4 or more authors
D. Roy, D.R. Liston, V.J. Idone, A. Di, D.J. Nelson, C. Pujol, J.B. Bliska, S. Chakrabarti, N.W. Andrews, A process for controlling intracellular bacterial infections induced by membrane injury, Science. 304 (2004) 1515–1518.

Books and book chapters

Here are examples of references for authored and edited books as well as book chapters.

An authored book
R.J. Wootton, C. Smith, Reproductive Biology of Teleost Fishes, John Wiley & Sons, Ltd, Chichester, UK, 2014.
An edited book
A. Gaspar-Cunha, C. Henggeler Antunes, C.C. Coello, eds., Evolutionary Multi-Criterion Optimization: 8th International Conference, EMO 2015, Guimarães, Portugal, March 29 --April 1, 2015. Proceedings, Part II, Springer International Publishing, Cham, 2015.
A chapter in an edited book
H.C.M. van Trijp, A.R.H. Fischer, Mobilizing consumer demand for sustainable development, in: H. van Latesteijn, K. Andeweg (Eds.), The TransForum Model: Transforming Agro Innovation Toward Sustainable Development, Springer Netherlands, Dordrecht, 2011: pp. 73–96.

Web sites

Sometimes references to web sites should appear directly in the text rather than in the bibliography. Refer to the Instructions to authors for Human Immunology.

Blog post
S. Luntz, Why Is Saturn So Bizarrely Hot?, IFLScience. (2015). (accessed October 30, 2018).


This example shows the general structure used for government reports, technical reports, and scientific reports. If you can't locate the report number then it might be better to cite the report as a book. For reports it is usually not individual people that are credited as authors, but a governmental department or agency like "U. S. Food and Drug Administration" or "National Cancer Institute".

Government report
Government Accountability Office, Actions Needed To Improve the Federal Communications Commission’s Financial Disclosure System, U.S. Government Printing Office, Washington, DC, 1976.

Theses and dissertations

Theses including Ph.D. dissertations, Master's theses or Bachelor theses follow the basic format outlined below.

Doctoral dissertation
H. Swartz, The Multitude Speaks in Style: An Analysis of Vernacular Agency through Images of Ruth Bader Ginsburg, Doctoral dissertation, Florida Atlantic University, 2017.

News paper articles

Unlike scholarly journals, news papers do not usually have a volume and issue number. Instead, the full date and page number is required for a correct reference.

New York Times article
M. Billard, A Texas Address Migrates, New York Times. (2010) E6.

In-text citations

References should be cited in the text by sequential numbers in square brackets:

This sentence cites one reference [1].
This sentence cites two references [1,2].
This sentence cites four references [1–4].

About the journal

Full journal titleHuman Immunology
AbbreviationHum. Immunol.
ISSN (print)0198-8859
General Medicine
Immunology and Allergy

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