How to format your references using the Geosciences citation style

This is a short guide how to format citations and the bibliography in a manuscript for Geosciences. For a complete guide how to prepare your manuscript refer to the journal's instructions to authors.

Using reference management software

Typically you don't format your citations and bibliography by hand. The easiest way is to use a reference manager:

PaperpileThe citation style is built in and you can choose it in Settings > Citation Style or Paperpile > Citation Style in Google Docs.
EndNoteFind the style here: output styles overview
Mendeley, Zotero, Papers, and othersThe style is either built in or you can download a CSL file that is supported by most references management programs.
BibTeXBibTeX syles are usually part of a LaTeX template. Check the instructions to authors if the publisher offers a LaTeX template for this journal.

Journal articles

Those examples are references to articles in scholarly journals and how they are supposed to appear in your bibliography.

Not all journals organize their published articles in volumes and issues, so these fields are optional. Some electronic journals do not provide a page range, but instead list an article identifier. In a case like this it's safe to use the article identifier instead of the page range.

A journal article with 1 author
Neff, B.D. Decisions about Parental Care in Response to Perceived Paternity. Nature 2003, 422, 716–719.
A journal article with 2 authors
Forterre, Y.; Dumais, J. Materials Science. Generating Helices in Nature. Science 2011, 333, 1715–1716.
A journal article with 3 authors
Lee, H.; Chah, O.-K.; Sheen, J. Stem-Cell-Triggered Immunity through CLV3p-FLS2 Signalling. Nature 2011, 473, 376–379.
A journal article with 4 or more authors
Prakriya, M.; Feske, S.; Gwack, Y.; Srikanth, S.; Rao, A.; Hogan, P.G. Orai1 Is an Essential Pore Subunit of the CRAC Channel. Nature 2006, 443, 230–233.

Books and book chapters

Here are examples of references for authored and edited books as well as book chapters.

An authored book
Lee, J.Y.B. Scalable Continuous Media Streaming Systems; John Wiley & Sons, Ltd: Chichester, UK, 2005; ISBN 9780470015391.
An edited book
Saad, A.P.B. Wear Prediction on Total Ankle Replacement: Effect of Design Parameters; Syahrom, A., Harun, M.N., Kadir, M.R.A., Eds.; SpringerBriefs in Applied Sciences and Technology; Springer International Publishing: Cham, 2016; ISBN 9783319217222.
A chapter in an edited book
Schmidt, F.R.; Töppe, E.; Cremers, D.; Boykov, Y. Efficient Shape Matching Via Graph Cuts. In Energy Minimization Methods in Computer Vision and Pattern Recognition: 6th International Conference, EMMCVPR 2007, Ezhou, China, August 27-29, 2007. Proceedings; Yuille, A.L., Zhu, S.-C., Cremers, D., Wang, Y., Eds.; Lecture Notes in Computer Science; Springer: Berlin, Heidelberg, 2007; pp. 39–54 ISBN 9783540741954.

Web sites

Sometimes references to web sites should appear directly in the text rather than in the bibliography. Refer to the Instructions to authors for Geosciences.

Blog post
Hamilton, K. Why So Many People Regain Weight After Dieting Available online: (accessed on 30 October 2018).


This example shows the general structure used for government reports, technical reports, and scientific reports. If you can't locate the report number then it might be better to cite the report as a book. For reports it is usually not individual people that are credited as authors, but a governmental department or agency like "U. S. Food and Drug Administration" or "National Cancer Institute".

Government report
Government Accountability Office License Suspensions for Nondriving Offenses: Practices in Four States That May Ease the Financial Impact on Low-Income Individuals; U.S. Government Printing Office: Washington, DC, 2010;

Theses and dissertations

Theses including Ph.D. dissertations, Master's theses or Bachelor theses follow the basic format outlined below.

Doctoral dissertation
Ayres, R. Optimization of a Novel Oxy-Michael Ugi-Smiles Reaction. Doctoral dissertation, Southern Illinois University: Edwardsville, IL, 2017.

News paper articles

Unlike scholarly journals, news papers do not usually have a volume and issue number. Instead, the full date and page number is required for a correct reference.

New York Times article
Vecsey, G. One Bowl That Counts And 34 Others. New York Times 2010, B9.

In-text citations

References should be cited in the text by sequential numbers in square brackets:

This sentence cites one reference [1].
This sentence cites two references [1,2].
This sentence cites four references [1–4].

About the journal

Full journal titleGeosciences
AbbreviationGeosciences (Basel)
ISSN (online)2076-3263

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