How to format your references using the Geosciences citation style

This is a short guide how to format citations and the bibliography in a manuscript for Geosciences. For a complete guide how to prepare your manuscript refer to the journal's instructions to authors.

Using reference management software

Typically you don't format your citations and bibliography by hand. The easiest way is to use a reference manager:

PaperpileThe citation style is built in and you can choose it in Settings > Citation Style or Paperpile > Citation Style in Google Docs.
EndNoteFind the style here: output styles overview
Mendeley, Zotero, Papers, and othersThe style is either built in or you can download a CSL file that is supported by most references management programs.
BibTeXBibTeX syles are usually part of a LaTeX template. Check the instructions to authors if the publisher offers a LaTeX template for this journal.

Journal articles

Those examples are references to articles in scholarly journals and how they are supposed to appear in your bibliography.

Not all journals organize their published articles in volumes and issues, so these fields are optional. Some electronic journals do not provide a page range, but instead list an article identifier. In a case like this it's safe to use the article identifier instead of the page range.

A journal article with 1 author
Spiegelhalter, D.J. Statistics. The Future Lies in Uncertainty. Science 2014, 345, 264–265.
A journal article with 2 authors
Li, G.; Zhang, J. Ultra-Broadband and Efficient Surface Plasmon Polariton Launching through Metallic Nanoslits of Subwavelength Period. Sci. Rep. 2014, 4, 5914.
A journal article with 3 authors
Whiting, M.F.; Bradler, S.; Maxwell, T. Loss and Recovery of Wings in Stick Insects. Nature 2003, 421, 264–267.
A journal article with 4 or more authors
Ortmann, J.E.; Liu, J.Y.; Hu, J.; Zhu, M.; Peng, J.; Matsuda, M.; Ke, X.; Mao, Z.Q. Competition between Antiferromagnetism and Ferromagnetism in Sr2RuO4 Probed by Mn and Co Doping. Sci. Rep. 2013, 3, 2950.

Books and book chapters

Here are examples of references for authored and edited books as well as book chapters.

An authored book
Olofsson, P. Probabilities; John Wiley & Sons, Inc: Hoboken, NJ, 2014; ISBN 9781118898864.
An edited book
Proceedings of the 17th International Symposium on Advancement of Construction Management and Real Estate; Wang, J., Ding, Z., Zou, L., Zuo, J., Eds.; Springer: Berlin, Heidelberg, 2014; ISBN 9783642355479.
A chapter in an edited book
Jakushokas, R.; Popovich, M.; Mezhiba, A.V.; Köse, S.; Friedman, E.G. Decoupling Capacitance. In Power Distribution Networks with On-Chip Decoupling Capacitors; Popovich, M., Mezhiba, A.V., Köse, S., Friedman, E.G., Eds.; Springer: New York, NY, 2011; pp. 89–138 ISBN 9781441978707.

Web sites

Sometimes references to web sites should appear directly in the text rather than in the bibliography. Refer to the Instructions to authors for Geosciences.

Blog post
Andrew, E. Thousands of Red Crabs Invade Southern California Shores Available online: (accessed on 30 October 2018).


This example shows the general structure used for government reports, technical reports, and scientific reports. If you can't locate the report number then it might be better to cite the report as a book. For reports it is usually not individual people that are credited as authors, but a governmental department or agency like "U. S. Food and Drug Administration" or "National Cancer Institute".

Government report
Government Accountability Office Review of Expenditures of Federal Funds Granted Under the Community Service and Continuing Education Program; U.S. Government Printing Office: Washington, DC, 1970;

Theses and dissertations

Theses including Ph.D. dissertations, Master's theses or Bachelor theses follow the basic format outlined below.

Doctoral dissertation
Plosky, W.D. An Investment Case for Addressing Social Drivers of Structural Stigma and Discrimination Against Refugees in Resource-Poor Urban Areas. Doctoral dissertation, Columbia University: New York, NY, 2017.

News paper articles

Unlike scholarly journals, news papers do not usually have a volume and issue number. Instead, the full date and page number is required for a correct reference.

New York Times article
Mueller, B.; Rashbaum, W.K. Before Times Sq. Crash, A String of Legal Issues And a Fall Into Paranoia. New York Times 2017, A21.

In-text citations

References should be cited in the text by sequential numbers in square brackets:

This sentence cites one reference [1].
This sentence cites two references [1,2].
This sentence cites four references [1–4].

About the journal

Full journal titleGeosciences
AbbreviationGeosciences (Basel)
ISSN (online)2076-3263

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