How to format your references using the Geosciences citation style

This is a short guide how to format citations and the bibliography in a manuscript for Geosciences. For a complete guide how to prepare your manuscript refer to the journal's instructions to authors.

Using reference management software

Typically you don't format your citations and bibliography by hand. The easiest way is to use a reference manager:

PaperpileThe citation style is built in and you can choose it in Settings > Citation Style or Paperpile > Citation Style in Google Docs.
EndNoteFind the style here: output styles overview
Mendeley, Zotero, Papers, and othersThe style is either built in or you can download a CSL file that is supported by most references management programs.
BibTeXBibTeX syles are usually part of a LaTeX template. Check the instructions to authors if the publisher offers a LaTeX template for this journal.

Journal articles

Those examples are references to articles in scholarly journals and how they are supposed to appear in your bibliography.

Not all journals organize their published articles in volumes and issues, so these fields are optional. Some electronic journals do not provide a page range, but instead list an article identifier. In a case like this it's safe to use the article identifier instead of the page range.

A journal article with 1 author
Hellemans, A. Beating the European brain drain. Nature 2001, 414, 4–5.
A journal article with 2 authors
Marmottant, P.; Hilgenfeldt, S. Controlled vesicle deformation and lysis by single oscillating bubbles. Nature 2003, 423, 153–156.
A journal article with 3 authors
Jeffrey, J.L.; Terrett, J.A.; MacMillan, D.W.C. O-H hydrogen bonding promotes H-atom transfer from α C-H bonds for C-alkylation of alcohols. Science 2015, 349, 1532–1536.
A journal article with 4 or more authors
Lu, Y.-H.; Yang, C.-W.; Fang, C.-K.; Ko, H.-C.; Hwang, I.-S. Interface-induced ordering of gas molecules confined in a small space. Sci. Rep. 2014, 4, 7189.

Books and book chapters

Here are examples of references for authored and edited books as well as book chapters.

An authored book
Liu, S.-C.; Delbruck, T.; Indiveri, G.; Whatley, A.; Douglas, R. Event-Based Neuromorphic Systems; John Wiley & Sons, Ltd: Chichester, UK, 2015; ISBN 9781118927601.
An edited book
Klockars, C.B. Enhancing Police Integrity; Ivković, S.K., Haberfeld, M.R., Eds.; Springer: New York, NY, 2007; ISBN 9780387369549.
A chapter in an edited book
Burgher, F.; Mathieu, L.; Blomet, J.; Gilpin, S.J.; Maibach, H.I.; Whaby, A.; Hall, A.H.; Rhavar, M.; Hui, X.; Jacquemin, D.; et al. Damaged Skin. In Chemical Skin Injury: Mechanisms, Prevention, Decontamination, Treatment; Maibach, H.I., Hall, A.H., Eds.; Springer: Berlin, Heidelberg, 2014; pp. 73–196 ISBN 9783642397783.

Web sites

Sometimes references to web sites should appear directly in the text rather than in the bibliography. Refer to the Instructions to authors for Geosciences.

Blog post
Fang, J. Meet the New Blue and Purple Crayfish from Indonesia (accessed on Oct 30, 2018).


This example shows the general structure used for government reports, technical reports, and scientific reports. If you can't locate the report number then it might be better to cite the report as a book. For reports it is usually not individual people that are credited as authors, but a governmental department or agency like "U. S. Food and Drug Administration" or "National Cancer Institute".

Government report
Government Accountability Office Year 2000 Computing Challenge: FBI Needs to Complete Business Continuity Plans; U.S. Government Printing Office: Washington, DC, 1999;

Theses and dissertations

Theses including Ph.D. dissertations, Master's theses or Bachelor theses follow the basic format outlined below.

Doctoral dissertation
Obakhume, D.A. An aftercare program for female survivors of domestic abuse: A grant proposal. Doctoral dissertation, California State University, Long Beach: Long Beach, CA, 2013.

News paper articles

Unlike scholarly journals, news papers do not usually have a volume and issue number. Instead, the full date and page number is required for a correct reference.

New York Times article
Waldstein, D. Cleveland’s Renaissance Reaches the World Series. New York Times 2016, B12.

In-text citations

References should be cited in the text by sequential numbers in square brackets:

This sentence cites one reference [1].
This sentence cites two references [1,2].
This sentence cites four references [1–4].

About the journal

Full journal titleGeosciences
AbbreviationGeosciences (Basel)
ISSN (online)2076-3263

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