How to format your references using the Geosciences citation style

This is a short guide how to format citations and the bibliography in a manuscript for Geosciences. For a complete guide how to prepare your manuscript refer to the journal's instructions to authors.

Using reference management software

Typically you don't format your citations and bibliography by hand. The easiest way is to use a reference manager:

PaperpileThe citation style is built in and you can choose it in Settings > Citation Style or Paperpile > Citation Style in Google Docs.
EndNoteFind the style here: output styles overview
Mendeley, Zotero, Papers, and othersThe style is either built in or you can download a CSL file that is supported by most references management programs.
BibTeXBibTeX syles are usually part of a LaTeX template. Check the instructions to authors if the publisher offers a LaTeX template for this journal.

Journal articles

Those examples are references to articles in scholarly journals and how they are supposed to appear in your bibliography.

Not all journals organize their published articles in volumes and issues, so these fields are optional. Some electronic journals do not provide a page range, but instead list an article identifier. In a case like this it's safe to use the article identifier instead of the page range.

A journal article with 1 author
Yahia, M. Global Health: A Uniquely Egyptian Epidemic. Nature 2011, 474, S12-3.
A journal article with 2 authors
Sahin, M.; Sur, M. Genes, Circuits, and Precision Therapies for Autism and Related Neurodevelopmental Disorders. Science 2015, 350.
A journal article with 3 authors
Heymann, D.L.; Sutter, R.W.; Aylward, R.B. A Global Call for New Polio Vaccines. Nature 2005, 434, 699–700.
A journal article with 4 or more authors
Ng, C.K.; Carr, K.; McAinsh, M.R.; Powell, B.; Hetherington, A.M. Drought-Induced Guard Cell Signal Transduction Involves Sphingosine-1-Phosphate. Nature 2001, 410, 596–599.

Books and book chapters

Here are examples of references for authored and edited books as well as book chapters.

An authored book
Kulkarni, S.; Harman, G. An Elementary Introduction to Statistical Learning Theory: Kulkarni/Statistical Learning Theory; Wiley Series in Probability and Statistics; John Wiley & Sons, Inc.: Hoboken, NJ, 2011; ISBN 9781118023471.
An edited book
Millman, R.S. Problems and Proofs in Numbers and Algebra; Shiue, P.J., Kahn, E.B., Eds.; Springer International Publishing: Cham, 2015; ISBN 9783319144269.
A chapter in an edited book
Zigmond, N.; Kloo, A.; Lemons, C.J. IEP Team Decision-Making for More Inclusive Assessments: Policies, Percentages, and Personal Decisions. In Handbook of Accessible Achievement Tests for All Students: Bridging the Gaps Between Research, Practice, and Policy; Elliott, S.N., Kettler, R.J., Beddow, P.A., Kurz, A., Eds.; Springer: New York, NY, 2011; pp. 69–81 ISBN 9781441993557.

Web sites

Sometimes references to web sites should appear directly in the text rather than in the bibliography. Refer to the Instructions to authors for Geosciences.

Blog post
Taub, B. Sign Language Produces Color Visions In People With Synaesthesia Available online: (accessed on 30 October 2018).


This example shows the general structure used for government reports, technical reports, and scientific reports. If you can't locate the report number then it might be better to cite the report as a book. For reports it is usually not individual people that are credited as authors, but a governmental department or agency like "U. S. Food and Drug Administration" or "National Cancer Institute".

Government report
Government Accountability Office Telecommunications: Preliminary Information on the Federal Communications Commission’s Spectrum Allocation and Assignment Process; U.S. Government Printing Office: Washington, DC, 2005;

Theses and dissertations

Theses including Ph.D. dissertations, Master's theses or Bachelor theses follow the basic format outlined below.

Doctoral dissertation
Smith, S.M. The Relationship Between Political Affiliation and Student Achievement in the Areas of Reading and Mathematics, with Respect to Black Students. Doctoral dissertation, Lindenwood University: St. Charles, MO, 2017.

News paper articles

Unlike scholarly journals, news papers do not usually have a volume and issue number. Instead, the full date and page number is required for a correct reference.

New York Times article
Higgins, A. $24 Million Insurance Paid on Stolen Art. New York Times 2013, A11.

In-text citations

References should be cited in the text by sequential numbers in square brackets:

This sentence cites one reference [1].
This sentence cites two references [1,2].
This sentence cites four references [1–4].

About the journal

Full journal titleGeosciences
AbbreviationGeosciences (Basel)
ISSN (online)2076-3263

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