How to format your references using the Geosciences citation style

This is a short guide how to format citations and the bibliography in a manuscript for Geosciences. For a complete guide how to prepare your manuscript refer to the journal's instructions to authors.

Using reference management software

Typically you don't format your citations and bibliography by hand. The easiest way is to use a reference manager:

PaperpileThe citation style is built in and you can choose it in Settings > Citation Style or Paperpile > Citation Style in Google Docs.
EndNoteFind the style here: output styles overview
Mendeley, Zotero, Papers, and othersThe style is either built in or you can download a CSL file that is supported by most references management programs.
BibTeXBibTeX syles are usually part of a LaTeX template. Check the instructions to authors if the publisher offers a LaTeX template for this journal.

Journal articles

Those examples are references to articles in scholarly journals and how they are supposed to appear in your bibliography.

Not all journals organize their published articles in volumes and issues, so these fields are optional. Some electronic journals do not provide a page range, but instead list an article identifier. In a case like this it's safe to use the article identifier instead of the page range.

A journal article with 1 author
Dalton, R. Dinosaur curators plot mating game. Nature 2002, 420, 259.
A journal article with 2 authors
Bochman, M.L.; Schwacha, A. DNA replication: Strand separation unravelled. Nature 2015, 524, 166–167.
A journal article with 3 authors
Hilgenkamp, H.; Moshchalkov, V.V.; Kes, P. Physics. Flux quanta on the move. Science 2003, 302, 1159–1160.
A journal article with 4 or more authors
Phillips, B.L.; Brown, G.P.; Webb, J.K.; Shine, R. Invasion and the evolution of speed in toads. Nature 2006, 439, 803.

Books and book chapters

Here are examples of references for authored and edited books as well as book chapters.

An authored book
Hopkins, B.R. Starting and Managing a Nonprofit Organization; John Wiley & Sons, Inc.: Hoboken, NJ, 2009; ISBN 9781118402542.
An edited book
Design, User Experience, and Usability: Design Discourse: 4th International Conference, DUXU 2015, Held as Part of HCI International 2015, Los Angeles, CA, USA, August 2-7, 2015, Proceedings, Part I; Marcus, A., Ed.; Lecture Notes in Computer Science; Springer International Publishing: Cham, 2015; Vol. 9186; ISBN 9783319208855.
A chapter in an edited book
Braune, N.; Braune, J. Erich Fromm’s Socialist Program and Prophetic Messianism, in Two Parts. In Reclaiming the Sane Society: Essays on Erich Fromm’s Thought; Miri, S.J., Lake, R., Kress, T.M., Eds.; SensePublishers: Rotterdam, 2014; pp. 59–91 ISBN 9789462096073.

Web sites

Sometimes references to web sites should appear directly in the text rather than in the bibliography. Refer to the Instructions to authors for Geosciences.

Blog post
Hale, T. Here Are The Answers To Some Of The Weirdest Google Searches Available online: (accessed on Oct 30, 2018).


This example shows the general structure used for government reports, technical reports, and scientific reports. If you can't locate the report number then it might be better to cite the report as a book. For reports it is usually not individual people that are credited as authors, but a governmental department or agency like "U. S. Food and Drug Administration" or "National Cancer Institute".

Government report
Government Accountability Office New Alien Identification System--Little Help in Stopping Illegal Aliens; U.S. Government Printing Office: Washington, DC, 1979;

Theses and dissertations

Theses including Ph.D. dissertations, Master's theses or Bachelor theses follow the basic format outlined below.

Doctoral dissertation
Jensen, D. Functional Analysis of Calmodulin’s Calcium Dependent Inactivation of Orai1. Doctoral dissertation, Southern Illinois University: Edwardsville, IL, 2015.

News paper articles

Unlike scholarly journals, news papers do not usually have a volume and issue number. Instead, the full date and page number is required for a correct reference.

New York Times article
Kelly, D.A. Staying in Touch, for Less. New York Times 2010, TR3.

In-text citations

References should be cited in the text by sequential numbers in square brackets:

This sentence cites one reference [1].
This sentence cites two references [1,2].
This sentence cites four references [1–4].

About the journal

Full journal titleGeosciences
AbbreviationGeosciences (Basel)
ISSN (online)2076-3263

Other styles