How to format your references using the Geosciences citation style

This is a short guide how to format citations and the bibliography in a manuscript for Geosciences. For a complete guide how to prepare your manuscript refer to the journal's instructions to authors.

Using reference management software

Typically you don't format your citations and bibliography by hand. The easiest way is to use a reference manager:

PaperpileThe citation style is built in and you can choose it in Settings > Citation Style or Paperpile > Citation Style in Google Docs.
EndNoteFind the style here: output styles overview
Mendeley, Zotero, Papers, and othersThe style is either built in or you can download a CSL file that is supported by most references management programs.
BibTeXBibTeX syles are usually part of a LaTeX template. Check the instructions to authors if the publisher offers a LaTeX template for this journal.

Journal articles

Those examples are references to articles in scholarly journals and how they are supposed to appear in your bibliography.

Not all journals organize their published articles in volumes and issues, so these fields are optional. Some electronic journals do not provide a page range, but instead list an article identifier. In a case like this it's safe to use the article identifier instead of the page range.

A journal article with 1 author
Dalton, R. Los Alamos Labs Are Safe from Fire. Nature 2000, 405, 264.
A journal article with 2 authors
Steinle, A.; Cerwenka, A. Immunology. MULT1plying Cancer Immunity. Science 2015, 348, 45–46.
A journal article with 3 authors
Bence, N.F.; Sampat, R.M.; Kopito, R.R. Impairment of the Ubiquitin-Proteasome System by Protein Aggregation. Science 2001, 292, 1552–1555.
A journal article with 4 or more authors
Beaugrand, G.; Brander, K.M.; Alistair Lindley, J.; Souissi, S.; Reid, P.C. Plankton Effect on Cod Recruitment in the North Sea. Nature 2003, 426, 661–664.

Books and book chapters

Here are examples of references for authored and edited books as well as book chapters.

An authored book
Sigrist, J.-F. Fluid-Structure Interaction; John Wiley & Sons, Ltd: Chichester, UK, 2015; ISBN 9781118927762.
An edited book
Complex Systems Design & Management: Proceedings of the Fourth International Conference on Complex Systems Design & Management CSD&M 2013; Aiguier, M., Boulanger, F., Krob, D., Marchal, C., Eds.; Springer International Publishing: Cham, 2014; ISBN 9783319028118.
A chapter in an edited book
Messaoudi, I.; Young, J.E.; Colman, R.J.; Handy, A.M.; Roth, G.S.; Ingram, D.K.; Mattison, J.A. Aging and the Effect of Calorie Restriction in Rhesus Monkeys. In Calorie Restriction, Aging and Longevity; Everitt, A.V., Rattan, S.I.S., Couteur, D.G. le, Cabo, R. de, Eds.; Springer Netherlands: Dordrecht, 2010; pp. 55–78 ISBN 9789048185559.

Web sites

Sometimes references to web sites should appear directly in the text rather than in the bibliography. Refer to the Instructions to authors for Geosciences.

Blog post
Davis, J. First Malaria Vaccine Trial Results Are In Available online: (accessed on 30 October 2018).


This example shows the general structure used for government reports, technical reports, and scientific reports. If you can't locate the report number then it might be better to cite the report as a book. For reports it is usually not individual people that are credited as authors, but a governmental department or agency like "U. S. Food and Drug Administration" or "National Cancer Institute".

Government report
Government Accountability Office Mass Transit: Review of the Bay Area Rapid Transit District’s Airport Extension Finance Plan; U.S. Government Printing Office: Washington, DC, 2000;

Theses and dissertations

Theses including Ph.D. dissertations, Master's theses or Bachelor theses follow the basic format outlined below.

Doctoral dissertation
McKenzie, N.J. African/Black Psychology: A Qualitative Investigation of Distinguished Black Psychologists. Doctoral dissertation, Pepperdine University: Malibu, CA, 2012.

News paper articles

Unlike scholarly journals, news papers do not usually have a volume and issue number. Instead, the full date and page number is required for a correct reference.

New York Times article
Brantley, B. The Dystopia Next Door. New York Times 2017, C14.

In-text citations

References should be cited in the text by sequential numbers in square brackets:

This sentence cites one reference [1].
This sentence cites two references [1,2].
This sentence cites four references [1–4].

About the journal

Full journal titleGeosciences
AbbreviationGeosciences (Basel)
ISSN (online)2076-3263

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