How to format your references using the Genome Biology and Evolution citation style

This is a short guide how to format citations and the bibliography in a manuscript for Genome Biology and Evolution. For a complete guide how to prepare your manuscript refer to the journal's instructions to authors.

Using reference management software

Typically you don't format your citations and bibliography by hand. The easiest way is to use a reference manager:

PaperpileThe citation style is built in and you can choose it in Settings > Citation Style or Paperpile > Citation Style in Google Docs.
EndNoteDownload the output style file
Mendeley, Zotero, Papers, and othersThe style is either built in or you can download a CSL file that is supported by most references management programs.
BibTeXBibTeX syles are usually part of a LaTeX template. Check the instructions to authors if the publisher offers a LaTeX template for this journal.

Journal articles

Those examples are references to articles in scholarly journals and how they are supposed to appear in your bibliography.

Not all journals organize their published articles in volumes and issues, so these fields are optional. Some electronic journals do not provide a page range, but instead list an article identifier. In a case like this it's safe to use the article identifier instead of the page range.

A journal article with 1 author
Maureille B. 2002. A lost Neanderthal neonate found. Nature. 419:33–34.
A journal article with 2 authors
Steig EJ, Wolfe AP. 2008. Atmospheric science. Sprucing up Greenland. Science. 320:1595–1596.
A journal article with 3 authors
Zilberman D, Cao X, Jacobsen SE. 2003. ARGONAUTE4 control of locus-specific siRNA accumulation and DNA and histone methylation. Science. 299:716–719.
A journal article with 6 or more authors
Schneider R, Ferrara A, Salvaterra R, Omukai K, Bromm V. 2003. Low-mass relics of early star formation. Nature. 422:869–871.

Books and book chapters

Here are examples of references for authored and edited books as well as book chapters.

An authored book
Collins D. 2008. Magic in the Ancient Greek World. Blackwell Publishing Ltd: Oxford, UK.
An edited book
Jezic G, Kusek M, Nguyen N-T, Howlett RJ, Jain LC, eds. 2012. Agent and Multi-Agent Systems. Technologies and Applications: 6th KES International Conference, KES-AMSTA 2012,Dubrovnik, Croatia, June 25-27, 2012. Proceedings. Springer: Berlin, Heidelberg.
A chapter in an edited book
Nordström L, Babazadeh D. 2015. Cyber Physical Approach to HVDC Grid Control. In: Cyber Physical Systems Approach to Smart Electric Power Grid. Khaitan, SK, McCalley, JD, & Liu, CC, editors. Power Systems Springer: Berlin, Heidelberg pp. 75–101.

Web sites

Sometimes references to web sites should appear directly in the text rather than in the bibliography. Refer to the Instructions to authors for Genome Biology and Evolution.

Blog post
Hale T. 2016. Richard Branson’s New Plane Will Fly You From The US To Europe In 3 Hours. IFLScience. (Accessed October 30, 2018).


This example shows the general structure used for government reports, technical reports, and scientific reports. If you can't locate the report number then it might be better to cite the report as a book. For reports it is usually not individual people that are credited as authors, but a governmental department or agency like "U. S. Food and Drug Administration" or "National Cancer Institute".

Government report
Government Accountability Office. 1995. Combined Fund Update. U.S. Government Printing Office: Washington, DC.

Theses and dissertations

Theses including Ph.D. dissertations, Master's theses or Bachelor theses follow the basic format outlined below.

Doctoral dissertation
Owsiak NK. 2008. Teacher quality accountability measures: Perceptions of degree and direction of influence on university -based teacher education programs. Doctoral dissertation, George Washington University: Washington, DC.

News paper articles

Unlike scholarly journals, news papers do not usually have a volume and issue number. Instead, the full date and page number is required for a correct reference.

New York Times article
Crow K. 2002. The Bus Doesn’t Stop Here Anymore. New York Times, December 8.

In-text citations

References should be cited in the text by name and year in parentheses:

This sentence cites one reference (Maureille 2002).
This sentence cites two references (Maureille 2002; Steig & Wolfe 2008).

Here are examples of in-text citations with multiple authors:

  • Two authors: (Steig & Wolfe 2008)
  • Three or more authors: (Schneider et al. 2003)

About the journal

Full journal titleGenome Biology and Evolution
AbbreviationGenome Biol. Evol.
ISSN (online)1759-6653
ScopeEcology, Evolution, Behavior and Systematics

Other styles