How to format your references using the Genome Biology and Evolution citation style

This is a short guide how to format citations and the bibliography in a manuscript for Genome Biology and Evolution. For a complete guide how to prepare your manuscript refer to the journal's instructions to authors.

Using reference management software

Typically you don't format your citations and bibliography by hand. The easiest way is to use a reference manager:

PaperpileThe citation style is built in and you can choose it in Settings > Citation Style or Paperpile > Citation Style in Google Docs.
EndNoteDownload the output style file
Mendeley, Zotero, Papers, and othersThe style is either built in or you can download a CSL file that is supported by most references management programs.
BibTeXBibTeX syles are usually part of a LaTeX template. Check the instructions to authors if the publisher offers a LaTeX template for this journal.

Journal articles

Those examples are references to articles in scholarly journals and how they are supposed to appear in your bibliography.

Not all journals organize their published articles in volumes and issues, so these fields are optional. Some electronic journals do not provide a page range, but instead list an article identifier. In a case like this it's safe to use the article identifier instead of the page range.

A journal article with 1 author
Polman A. 2008. Applied physics. Plasmonics applied. Science. 322:868–869.
A journal article with 2 authors
Hwang J, Druffel ERM. 2003. Lipid-like material as the source of the uncharacterized organic carbon in the ocean? Science. 299:881–884.
A journal article with 3 authors
Kim J, Park S-M, Cho K-H. 2013. Discovery of a kernel for controlling biomolecular regulatory networks. Sci. Rep. 3:2223.
A journal article with 6 or more authors
Prucca CG et al. 2008. Antigenic variation in Giardia lamblia is regulated by RNA interference. Nature. 456:750–754.

Books and book chapters

Here are examples of references for authored and edited books as well as book chapters.

An authored book
Groves E. 2009. The Constant Contact Guide to Email Marketing. John Wiley & Sons, Inc.: Hoboken, NJ.
An edited book
Ivancevic T. 2015. Enhancing Performance and Reducing Stress in Sports: Technological Advances. Springer: Berlin, Heidelberg.
A chapter in an edited book
Duponnois R et al. 2012. The Impact of Mycorrhizosphere Bacterial Communities on Soil Biofunctioning in Tropical and Mediterranean Forest Ecosystems. In: Bacteria in Agrobiology: Plant Probiotics. Maheshwari, DK, editor. Springer: Berlin, Heidelberg pp. 79–95.

Web sites

Sometimes references to web sites should appear directly in the text rather than in the bibliography. Refer to the Instructions to authors for Genome Biology and Evolution.

Blog post
Hale T. 2017. Stick Man Drawing Moves Around When Splashed With Water. IFLScience. (Accessed October 30, 2018).


This example shows the general structure used for government reports, technical reports, and scientific reports. If you can't locate the report number then it might be better to cite the report as a book. For reports it is usually not individual people that are credited as authors, but a governmental department or agency like "U. S. Food and Drug Administration" or "National Cancer Institute".

Government report
Government Accountability Office. 1998. Charter Schools: Recent Experiences in Accessing Federal Funds. U.S. Government Printing Office: Washington, DC.

Theses and dissertations

Theses including Ph.D. dissertations, Master's theses or Bachelor theses follow the basic format outlined below.

Doctoral dissertation
Stone MA. 2008. A quantitative study of perceptions of female Air Force leaders. Doctoral dissertation, University of Phoenix: Phoenix, AZ.

News paper articles

Unlike scholarly journals, news papers do not usually have a volume and issue number. Instead, the full date and page number is required for a correct reference.

New York Times article
Plumer B. 2017. Meeting Climate Goals Was Always Hard. Without the U.S., It’s Far Harder. New York Times, June 3.

In-text citations

References should be cited in the text by name and year in parentheses:

This sentence cites one reference (Polman 2008).
This sentence cites two references (Polman 2008; Hwang & Druffel 2003).

Here are examples of in-text citations with multiple authors:

  • Two authors: (Hwang & Druffel 2003)
  • Three or more authors: (Prucca et al. 2008)

About the journal

Full journal titleGenome Biology and Evolution
AbbreviationGenome Biol. Evol.
ISSN (online)1759-6653
ScopeEcology, Evolution, Behavior and Systematics

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