How to format your references using the Genome Biology and Evolution citation style

This is a short guide how to format citations and the bibliography in a manuscript for Genome Biology and Evolution. For a complete guide how to prepare your manuscript refer to the journal's instructions to authors.

Using reference management software

Typically you don't format your citations and bibliography by hand. The easiest way is to use a reference manager:

PaperpileThe citation style is built in and you can choose it in Settings > Citation Style or Paperpile > Citation Style in Google Docs.
EndNoteDownload the output style file
Mendeley, Zotero, Papers, and othersThe style is either built in or you can download a CSL file that is supported by most references management programs.
BibTeXBibTeX syles are usually part of a LaTeX template. Check the instructions to authors if the publisher offers a LaTeX template for this journal.

Journal articles

Those examples are references to articles in scholarly journals and how they are supposed to appear in your bibliography.

Not all journals organize their published articles in volumes and issues, so these fields are optional. Some electronic journals do not provide a page range, but instead list an article identifier. In a case like this it's safe to use the article identifier instead of the page range.

A journal article with 1 author
Rose S. 2009. Darwin 200: Should scientists study race and IQ? NO: Science and society do not benefit. Nature. 457:786–788.
A journal article with 2 authors
Goette L, Meier S. 2011. Economics. Can integration tame conflicts? Science. 334:1356–1357.
A journal article with 3 authors
Storch D, Keil P, Jetz W. 2012. Universal species-area and endemics-area relationships at continental scales. Nature. 488:78–81.
A journal article with 6 or more authors
Bahr C et al. 2018. Author Correction: A Myc enhancer cluster regulates normal and leukaemic haematopoietic stem cell hierarchies. Nature. 558:E4.

Books and book chapters

Here are examples of references for authored and edited books as well as book chapters.

An authored book
Good PI, Hardin JW. 2006. Common Errors in Statistics (and How to Avoid Them). John Wiley & Sons, Inc.: Hoboken, NJ.
An edited book
Macieira-Coelho A, ed. 2005. Developmental Biology of Neoplastic Growth. Springer: Berlin, Heidelberg.
A chapter in an edited book
Carpenter D. 2016. Billing and Coding for Procedures. In: Interventional Critical Care: A Manual for Advanced Care Practitioners. Taylor, DA, Sherry, SP, & Sing, RF, editors. Springer International Publishing: Cham pp. 31–39.

Web sites

Sometimes references to web sites should appear directly in the text rather than in the bibliography. Refer to the Instructions to authors for Genome Biology and Evolution.

Blog post
Andrew E. 2016. Ketamine: Painkiller, Party Drug – And Possibly Next-Generation Antidepressant. IFLScience. (Accessed October 30, 2018).


This example shows the general structure used for government reports, technical reports, and scientific reports. If you can't locate the report number then it might be better to cite the report as a book. For reports it is usually not individual people that are credited as authors, but a governmental department or agency like "U. S. Food and Drug Administration" or "National Cancer Institute".

Government report
Government Accountability Office. 2006. Internet Infrastructure: Challenges in Developing a Public/Private Recovery Plan. U.S. Government Printing Office: Washington, DC.

Theses and dissertations

Theses including Ph.D. dissertations, Master's theses or Bachelor theses follow the basic format outlined below.

Doctoral dissertation
Wilson EM. 2017. Lessons Learned from the Gender Wage Gap in the Federal Workforce: Structural Changes and Temporal Flexibility are Only the First Step to Equality. Doctoral dissertation, George Washington University: Washington, DC.

News paper articles

Unlike scholarly journals, news papers do not usually have a volume and issue number. Instead, the full date and page number is required for a correct reference.

New York Times article
Billard M. 2010. Check In /Check Out; MIAMI BEACH, FLA.: Soho Beach House. New York Times, November 28.

In-text citations

References should be cited in the text by name and year in parentheses:

This sentence cites one reference (Rose 2009).
This sentence cites two references (Rose 2009; Goette & Meier 2011).

Here are examples of in-text citations with multiple authors:

  • Two authors: (Goette & Meier 2011)
  • Three or more authors: (Bahr et al. 2018)

About the journal

Full journal titleGenome Biology and Evolution
AbbreviationGenome Biol. Evol.
ISSN (online)1759-6653
ScopeEcology, Evolution, Behavior and Systematics

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