How to format your references using the Fuzzy Information and Engineering citation style

This is a short guide how to format citations and the bibliography in a manuscript for Fuzzy Information and Engineering. For a complete guide how to prepare your manuscript refer to the journal's instructions to authors.

Using reference management software

Typically you don't format your citations and bibliography by hand. The easiest way is to use a reference manager:

PaperpileThe citation style is built in and you can choose it in Settings > Citation Style or Paperpile > Citation Style in Google Docs.
EndNoteFind the style here: output styles overview
Mendeley, Zotero, Papers, and othersThe style is either built in or you can download a CSL file that is supported by most references management programs.
BibTeXBibTeX syles are usually part of a LaTeX template. Check the instructions to authors if the publisher offers a LaTeX template for this journal.

Journal articles

Those examples are references to articles in scholarly journals and how they are supposed to appear in your bibliography.

Not all journals organize their published articles in volumes and issues, so these fields are optional. Some electronic journals do not provide a page range, but instead list an article identifier. In a case like this it's safe to use the article identifier instead of the page range.

A journal article with 1 author
V. Ambros, Development. Dicing up RNAs, Science. 293 (2001) 811–813.
A journal article with 2 authors
J. Gan, T. Appenzeller, 2013 Visualization Challenge. Introduction, Science. 343 (2014) 599.
A journal article with 3 authors
J.-B. Ma, K. Ye, D.J. Patel, Structural basis for overhang-specific small interfering RNA recognition by the PAZ domain, Nature. 429 (2004) 318–322.
A journal article with 4 or more authors
S.M. Avdoshenko, P. Koskinen, H. Sevinçli, A.A. Popov, C.G. Rocha, Topological signatures in the electronic structure of graphene spirals, Sci. Rep. 3 (2013) 1632.

Books and book chapters

Here are examples of references for authored and edited books as well as book chapters.

An authored book
K.D. Keegan, Biotechnology Valuation, John Wiley & Sons Ltd, Oxford, UK, 2008.
An edited book
I.W. Fong, K. Alibek, eds., Bioterrorism and Infectious Agents: A New Dilemma for the 21st Century, Springer, New York, NY, 2009.
A chapter in an edited book
A.C.M. Oliveira, L.A.N. Lorena, Hybrid Evolutionary Algorithms and Clustering Search, in: A. Abraham, C. Grosan, H. Ishibuchi (Eds.), Hybrid Evolutionary Algorithms, Springer, Berlin, Heidelberg, 2007: pp. 77–99.

Web sites

Sometimes references to web sites should appear directly in the text rather than in the bibliography. Refer to the Instructions to authors for Fuzzy Information and Engineering.

Blog post
E. Andrew, A Beginner’s Guide To Understanding Stem Cells, IFLScience. (2015). (accessed October 30, 2018).


This example shows the general structure used for government reports, technical reports, and scientific reports. If you can't locate the report number then it might be better to cite the report as a book. For reports it is usually not individual people that are credited as authors, but a governmental department or agency like "U. S. Food and Drug Administration" or "National Cancer Institute".

Government report
Government Accountability Office, Space Transportation: The Content and Uses of Shuttle Cost Estimates, U.S. Government Printing Office, Washington, DC, 1993.

Theses and dissertations

Theses including Ph.D. dissertations, Master's theses or Bachelor theses follow the basic format outlined below.

Doctoral dissertation
R.A. Wilson, Spectroelectrochemical Sensing and Detection of Zinc in Serum by Anodic Stripping Voltammerty on a Bismuth Film Electrode, Doctoral dissertation, University of Cincinnati, 2011.

News paper articles

Unlike scholarly journals, news papers do not usually have a volume and issue number. Instead, the full date and page number is required for a correct reference.

New York Times article
S. Kelly, CHILDREN’S BOOKS, New York Times. (1993) 717.

In-text citations

References should be cited in the text by sequential numbers in square brackets:

This sentence cites one reference [1].
This sentence cites two references [1,2].
This sentence cites four references [1–4].

About the journal

Full journal titleFuzzy Information and Engineering
AbbreviationFuzzy Inf. Eng.
ISSN (print)1616-8658

Other styles