How to format your references using the Frontiers in Zoology citation style

This is a short guide how to format citations and the bibliography in a manuscript for Frontiers in Zoology. For a complete guide how to prepare your manuscript refer to the journal's instructions to authors.

Using reference management software

Typically you don't format your citations and bibliography by hand. The easiest way is to use a reference manager:

PaperpileThe citation style is built in and you can choose it in Settings > Citation Style or Paperpile > Citation Style in Google Docs.
EndNoteDownload the output style file
Mendeley, Zotero, Papers, and othersThe style is either built in or you can download a CSL file that is supported by most references management programs.
BibTeXBibTeX syles are usually part of a LaTeX template. Check the instructions to authors if the publisher offers a LaTeX template for this journal.

Journal articles

Those examples are references to articles in scholarly journals and how they are supposed to appear in your bibliography.

Not all journals organize their published articles in volumes and issues, so these fields are optional. Some electronic journals do not provide a page range, but instead list an article identifier. In a case like this it's safe to use the article identifier instead of the page range.

A journal article with 1 author
1. Morgan B. Research impact: income for outcome. Nature. 2014;511:S72-5.
A journal article with 2 authors
1. Penner-Hahn JE, Yocum CF. Biochemistry. The photosynthesis “oxygen clock” gets a new number. Science. 2005;310:982–3.
A journal article with 3 authors
1. Bania TM, Rood RT, Balser DS. The cosmological density of baryons from observations of 3He+ in the Milky Way. Nature. 2002;415:54–7.
A journal article with 7 or more authors
1. Vasileiadis T, Dracopoulos V, Kollia M, Yannopoulos SN. Laser-assisted growth of t-Te nanotubes and their controlled photo-induced unzipping to ultrathin core-Te/sheath-TeO(2) nanowires. Sci Rep. 2013;3:1209.

Books and book chapters

Here are examples of references for authored and edited books as well as book chapters.

An authored book
1. Iacus SM. Option Pricing and Estimation of Financial Models with R. Chichester, UK: John Wiley & Sons, Ltd; 2011.
An edited book
1. Moritz EF. The Engineering of Sport 6: Volume 2: Developments for Disciplines. Haake S, editor. New York, NY: Springer; 2006.
A chapter in an edited book
1. Hemani A, Klapproth P. TRENDS IN SOC ARCHITECTURES. In: Ismail M, González DRDEL, editors. Radio Design in Nanometer Technologies. Dordrecht: Springer Netherlands; 2006. p. 59–81.

Web sites

Sometimes references to web sites should appear directly in the text rather than in the bibliography. Refer to the Instructions to authors for Frontiers in Zoology.

Blog post
1. Andrews R. Ancient Book Reveals Entire Himalayan Arc Can Produce Massive Earthquakes [Internet]. IFLScience. IFLScience; 2016 [cited 2018 Oct 30]. Available from:


This example shows the general structure used for government reports, technical reports, and scientific reports. If you can't locate the report number then it might be better to cite the report as a book. For reports it is usually not individual people that are credited as authors, but a governmental department or agency like "U. S. Food and Drug Administration" or "National Cancer Institute".

Government report
1. Government Accountability Office. Identification of NASA Research and Development Programs Subject to Benefit-Cost Analysis. Washington, DC: U.S. Government Printing Office; 1972 Jun. Report No.: B-176104.

Theses and dissertations

Theses including Ph.D. dissertations, Master's theses or Bachelor theses follow the basic format outlined below.

Doctoral dissertation
1. Ramirez BN. Middle School English Language Learner Electronic Media Usage and Its Relationship to Reading [Doctoral dissertation]. [Phoenix, AZ]: University of Phoenix; 2012.

News paper articles

Unlike scholarly journals, news papers do not usually have a volume and issue number. Instead, the full date and page number is required for a correct reference.

New York Times article
1. Grundfest JA, Lemley MA, Triantis GG. Getting More Bang for the Fed’s Buck. New York Times. 2012 Oct 24;A25.

In-text citations

References should be cited in the text by sequential numbers in square brackets:

This sentence cites one reference [1].
This sentence cites two references [1,2].
This sentence cites four references [1–4].

About the journal

Full journal titleFrontiers in Zoology
AbbreviationFront. Zool.
ISSN (online)1742-9994
ScopeAnimal Science and Zoology
Ecology, Evolution, Behavior and Systematics

Other styles