How to format your references using the Frontiers in Zoology citation style

This is a short guide how to format citations and the bibliography in a manuscript for Frontiers in Zoology. For a complete guide how to prepare your manuscript refer to the journal's instructions to authors.

Using reference management software

Typically you don't format your citations and bibliography by hand. The easiest way is to use a reference manager:

PaperpileThe citation style is built in and you can choose it in Settings > Citation Style or Paperpile > Citation Style in Google Docs.
EndNoteDownload the output style file
Mendeley, Zotero, Papers, and othersThe style is either built in or you can download a CSL file that is supported by most references management programs.
BibTeXBibTeX syles are usually part of a LaTeX template. Check the instructions to authors if the publisher offers a LaTeX template for this journal.

Journal articles

Those examples are references to articles in scholarly journals and how they are supposed to appear in your bibliography.

Not all journals organize their published articles in volumes and issues, so these fields are optional. Some electronic journals do not provide a page range, but instead list an article identifier. In a case like this it's safe to use the article identifier instead of the page range.

A journal article with 1 author
1. Pain E. Science careers. Measuring the impact of invasive plants. Science. 2008;320:1516.
A journal article with 2 authors
1. Pedersen TR, Gerken EA. Creation of visible artificial optical emissions in the aurora by high-power radio waves. Nature. 2005;433:498–500.
A journal article with 3 authors
1. Yonekura K, Maki-Yonekura S, Namba K. Complete atomic model of the bacterial flagellar filament by electron cryomicroscopy. Nature. 2003;424:643–50.
A journal article with 7 or more authors
1. Bos KI, Schuenemann VJ, Golding GB, Burbano HA, Waglechner N, Coombes BK, et al. A draft genome of Yersinia pestis from victims of the Black Death. Nature. 2011;478:506–10.

Books and book chapters

Here are examples of references for authored and edited books as well as book chapters.

An authored book
1. Botsai E, Kaneshiro C, Cuccia P, Pajo H. The Architect’s Guide to Preventing Water Infiltration. Hoboken, NJ: John Wiley & Sons, Inc.; 2010.
An edited book
1. Barni M, Herrera-Joancomartí J, Katzenbeisser S, Pérez-González F, editors. Information Hiding: 7th International Workshop, IH 2005, Barcelona, Spain, June 6-8, 2005. Revised Selected Papers. Berlin, Heidelberg: Springer; 2005.
A chapter in an edited book
1. Stadler K. Chunking Constructions. In: Steels L, editor. Computational Issues in Fluid Construction Grammar: A New Formalism for the Representation of Lexicons and Grammars. Berlin, Heidelberg: Springer; 2012. p. 75–88.

Web sites

Sometimes references to web sites should appear directly in the text rather than in the bibliography. Refer to the Instructions to authors for Frontiers in Zoology.

Blog post
1. Luntz S. Marijuana Provides Pain Relief For Men But Not Women [Internet]. IFLScience. IFLScience; 2016 [cited 2018 Oct 30]. Available from: https://www.iflscience.com/health-and-medicine/marijuana-provides-pain-relief-for-men-but-not-women/

Reports

This example shows the general structure used for government reports, technical reports, and scientific reports. If you can't locate the report number then it might be better to cite the report as a book. For reports it is usually not individual people that are credited as authors, but a governmental department or agency like "U. S. Food and Drug Administration" or "National Cancer Institute".

Government report
1. Government Accountability Office. Agriculture ADP Procurement: Contracting and Market Share Information. Washington, DC: U.S. Government Printing Office; 1990 Jun. Report No.: IMTEC-90-62FS.

Theses and dissertations

Theses including Ph.D. dissertations, Master's theses or Bachelor theses follow the basic format outlined below.

Doctoral dissertation
1. Moreau GA. Touch and psychotherapy: A journey to the depths of the unconscious and back again [Doctoral dissertation]. [Carpinteria, CA]: Pacifica Graduate Institute; 2009.

News paper articles

Unlike scholarly journals, news papers do not usually have a volume and issue number. Instead, the full date and page number is required for a correct reference.

New York Times article
1. Wilson M. A Gadget Is Favored by Fingers Both Restless and Sticky. New York Times. 2017 May 22;A22.

In-text citations

References should be cited in the text by sequential numbers in square brackets:

This sentence cites one reference [1].
This sentence cites two references [1,2].
This sentence cites four references [1–4].

About the journal

Full journal titleFrontiers in Zoology
AbbreviationFront. Zool.
ISSN (online)1742-9994
ScopeAnimal Science and Zoology
Ecology, Evolution, Behavior and Systematics

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