How to format your references using the Frontiers in Zoology citation style

This is a short guide how to format citations and the bibliography in a manuscript for Frontiers in Zoology. For a complete guide how to prepare your manuscript refer to the journal's instructions to authors.

Using reference management software

Typically you don't format your citations and bibliography by hand. The easiest way is to use a reference manager:

PaperpileThe citation style is built in and you can choose it in Settings > Citation Style or Paperpile > Citation Style in Google Docs.
EndNoteDownload the output style file
Mendeley, Zotero, Papers, and othersThe style is either built in or you can download a CSL file that is supported by most references management programs.
BibTeXBibTeX syles are usually part of a LaTeX template. Check the instructions to authors if the publisher offers a LaTeX template for this journal.

Journal articles

Those examples are references to articles in scholarly journals and how they are supposed to appear in your bibliography.

Not all journals organize their published articles in volumes and issues, so these fields are optional. Some electronic journals do not provide a page range, but instead list an article identifier. In a case like this it's safe to use the article identifier instead of the page range.

A journal article with 1 author
1. Bagenal F. Planetary science. A new spin on Saturn’s rotation. Science. 2007;316:380–1.
A journal article with 2 authors
1. Pati AK, Braunstein SL. Impossibility of deleting an unknown quantum state. Nature. 2000;404:164–5.
A journal article with 3 authors
1. Xiao Y, Wang Y, Felleman DJ. A spatially organized representation of colour in macaque cortical area V2. Nature. 2003;421:535–9.
A journal article with 7 or more authors
1. Wang W, Zhang W, Fang X, Huang Y, Liu Q, Gu J, et al. Demonstration of higher colour response with ambient refractive index in Papilio blumei as compared to Morpho rhetenor. Sci Rep. 2014;4:5591.

Books and book chapters

Here are examples of references for authored and edited books as well as book chapters.

An authored book
1. Kasper S, Montgomery S. Treatment-resistant Depression. Oxford: John Wiley & Sons; 2013.
An edited book
1. Lirkov I, Margenov S, Waśniewski J, editors. Large-Scale Scientific Computing: 5th International Conference, LSSC 2005, Sozopol, Bulgaria, June 6-10, 2005. Revised Papers. Berlin, Heidelberg: Springer; 2006.
A chapter in an edited book
1. Xi W, He P. Prediction of Urban Heat Island Intensity in Chuxiong City with Backpropagation Neural Network. In: Zeng Z, Wang J, editors. Advances in Neural Network Research and Applications. Berlin, Heidelberg: Springer; 2010. p. 29–36.

Web sites

Sometimes references to web sites should appear directly in the text rather than in the bibliography. Refer to the Instructions to authors for Frontiers in Zoology.

Blog post
1. Luntz S. Galapagos Eruption Threatens Rare Iguanas. IFLScience. IFLScience; 2015.

Reports

This example shows the general structure used for government reports, technical reports, and scientific reports. If you can't locate the report number then it might be better to cite the report as a book. For reports it is usually not individual people that are credited as authors, but a governmental department or agency like "U. S. Food and Drug Administration" or "National Cancer Institute".

Government report
1. Government Accountability Office. Follow Through: Lessons Learned From Its Evaluation and Need To Improve Its Administration. Washington, DC: U.S. Government Printing Office; 1975 Oct. Report No.: MWD-75-34.

Theses and dissertations

Theses including Ph.D. dissertations, Master's theses or Bachelor theses follow the basic format outlined below.

Doctoral dissertation
1. Chiu Y-YL. Multicultural educational policies: A correlational investigation of cultural competencies and feelings of inclusion [Doctoral dissertation]. [Phoenix, AZ]: University of Phoenix; 2012.

News paper articles

Unlike scholarly journals, news papers do not usually have a volume and issue number. Instead, the full date and page number is required for a correct reference.

New York Times article
1. Belson K, Medina J, Pérez-Peña R. Sniper Inflicts ‘Total Chaos’ in Las Vegas; Police Seek a Motive as Death Toll Hits 59. New York Times. 2017 Oct 2;A1.

In-text citations

References should be cited in the text by sequential numbers in square brackets:

This sentence cites one reference [1].
This sentence cites two references [1,2].
This sentence cites four references [1–4].

About the journal

Full journal titleFrontiers in Zoology
AbbreviationFront. Zool.
ISSN (online)1742-9994
ScopeAnimal Science and Zoology
Ecology, Evolution, Behavior and Systematics

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