How to format your references using the Frontiers in Sports Neurology citation style

This is a short guide how to format citations and the bibliography in a manuscript for Frontiers in Sports Neurology. For a complete guide how to prepare your manuscript refer to the journal's instructions to authors.

Using reference management software

Typically you don't format your citations and bibliography by hand. The easiest way is to use a reference manager:

PaperpileThe citation style is built in and you can choose it in Settings > Citation Style or Paperpile > Citation Style in Google Docs.
EndNoteFind the style here: output styles overview
Mendeley, Zotero, Papers, and othersThe style is either built in or you can download a CSL file that is supported by most references management programs.
BibTeXBibTeX syles are usually part of a LaTeX template. Check the instructions to authors if the publisher offers a LaTeX template for this journal.

Journal articles

Those examples are references to articles in scholarly journals and how they are supposed to appear in your bibliography.

Not all journals organize their published articles in volumes and issues, so these fields are optional. Some electronic journals do not provide a page range, but instead list an article identifier. In a case like this it's safe to use the article identifier instead of the page range.

A journal article with 1 author
Ball, P. (2014). Culture: Artistic alchemy. Nature 512, 26–27.
A journal article with 2 authors
Prasad, A., and Pospíšil, P. (2013). Towards the two-dimensional imaging of spontaneous ultra-weak photon emission from microbial, plant and animal cells. Sci. Rep. 3, 1211.
A journal article with 3 authors
Bascom-Slack, C. A., Arnold, A. E., and Strobel, S. A. (2012). IBI series winner. Student-directed discovery of the plant microbiome and its products. Science 338, 485–486.
A journal article with 7 or more authors
Cox, P. M., Betts, R. A., Jones, C. D., Spall, S. A., and Totterdell, I. J. (2000). Acceleration of global warming due to carbon-cycle feedbacks in a coupled climate model. Nature 408, 184–187.

Books and book chapters

Here are examples of references for authored and edited books as well as book chapters.

An authored book
Bojowald, M. (2012). The Universe: A View from Classical and Quantum Gravity. Weinheim, Germany: Wiley-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA.
An edited book
Chakravarthi, V. S., Shirur, Y. J. M., and Prasad, R. eds. (2013). Proceedings of International Conference on VLSI, Communication, Advanced Devices, Signals & Systems and Networking (VCASAN-2013). New Delhi: Springer India.
A chapter in an edited book
Anton, T., Lackes, R., and Siepermann, M. (2016). “Integration of Risk Aspects into Business Process Modeling,” in Innovations in Enterprise Information Systems Management and Engineering: 4th International Conference, ERP Future 2015 - Research, Munich, Germany, November 16-17, 2015, Revised Papers Lecture Notes in Business Information Processing., eds. M. Felderer, F. Piazolo, W. Ortner, L. Brehm, and H.-J. Hof (Cham: Springer International Publishing), 46–61.

Web sites

Sometimes references to web sites should appear directly in the text rather than in the bibliography. Refer to the Instructions to authors for Frontiers in Sports Neurology.

Blog post
Andrew, E. (2013). Video shows that seahorses are master assassins of the ocean. IFLScience.


This example shows the general structure used for government reports, technical reports, and scientific reports. If you can't locate the report number then it might be better to cite the report as a book. For reports it is usually not individual people that are credited as authors, but a governmental department or agency like "U. S. Food and Drug Administration" or "National Cancer Institute".

Government report
Government Accountability Office (1994). Highway Planning: Agencies Are Attempting to Expedite Environmental Reviews, but Barriers Remain. Washington, DC: U.S. Government Printing Office.

Theses and dissertations

Theses including Ph.D. dissertations, Master's theses or Bachelor theses follow the basic format outlined below.

Doctoral dissertation
Palmer, C. M. (2010). Intramural scheduling time preferences to increase student participation.

News paper articles

Unlike scholarly journals, news papers do not usually have a volume and issue number. Instead, the full date and page number is required for a correct reference.

New York Times article
Kelly, M. (1993). CLINTON’S ECONOMIC PLAN: The Campaign; Gambling That a Tax-Cut Promise Was Not Taken Seriously. New York Times, A16.

In-text citations

References should be cited in the text by name and year in parentheses:

This sentence cites one reference (Ball, 2014).
This sentence cites two references (Prasad and Pospíšil, 2013; Ball, 2014).

Here are examples of in-text citations with multiple authors:

  • Two authors: (Prasad and Pospíšil, 2013)
  • Three or more authors: (Cox et al., 2000)

About the journal

Full journal titleFrontiers in Sports Neurology
AbbreviationFront. Neurol.
ISSN (online)1664-2295
ScopeClinical Neurology

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