How to format your references using the Frontiers in Sports Neurology citation style

This is a short guide how to format citations and the bibliography in a manuscript for Frontiers in Sports Neurology. For a complete guide how to prepare your manuscript refer to the journal's instructions to authors.

Using reference management software

Typically you don't format your citations and bibliography by hand. The easiest way is to use a reference manager:

PaperpileThe citation style is built in and you can choose it in Settings > Citation Style or Paperpile > Citation Style in Google Docs.
EndNoteFind the style here: output styles overview
Mendeley, Zotero, Papers, and othersThe style is either built in or you can download a CSL file that is supported by most references management programs.
BibTeXBibTeX syles are usually part of a LaTeX template. Check the instructions to authors if the publisher offers a LaTeX template for this journal.

Journal articles

Those examples are references to articles in scholarly journals and how they are supposed to appear in your bibliography.

Not all journals organize their published articles in volumes and issues, so these fields are optional. Some electronic journals do not provide a page range, but instead list an article identifier. In a case like this it's safe to use the article identifier instead of the page range.

A journal article with 1 author
Smith, C. L. (2007). How the LHC came to be. Nature 448, 281–284.
A journal article with 2 authors
Kang, T. M., and Hilgemann, D. W. (2004). Multiple transport modes of the cardiac Na+/Ca2+ exchanger. Nature 427, 544–548.
A journal article with 3 authors
Jackson, B. A., Bikson, T. K., and Gunn, P. P. (2013). Science and law. Human subjects protection and research on terrorism and conflict. Science 340, 434–435.
A journal article with 7 or more authors
Mills, L. S., Bragina, E. V., Kumar, A. V., Zimova, M., Lafferty, D. J. R., Feltner, J., et al. (2018). Winter color polymorphisms identify global hot spots for evolutionary rescue from climate change. Science 359, 1033–1036.

Books and book chapters

Here are examples of references for authored and edited books as well as book chapters.

An authored book
Wang, J.-J. (2014). Hydraulic Fracturing in Earth-Rock Fill DAMS. Singapore: John Wiley & Sons, Singapore Pte. Ltd.
An edited book
Olsson, M.-O., and Sjöstedt, G. eds. (2005). Systems Approaches and Their Application: Examples from Sweden. Dordrecht: Springer Netherlands.
A chapter in an edited book
Su, B., Xu, Q., and Xiao, P. (2007). “Finding the Anti-block Vital Edge of a Shortest Path Between Two Nodes,” in Combinatorial Optimization and Applications: First International Conference, COCOA 2007, Xi’an, China, August 14-16, 2007. Proceedings Lecture Notes in Computer Science., eds. A. Dress, Y. Xu, and B. Zhu (Berlin, Heidelberg: Springer), 11–19.

Web sites

Sometimes references to web sites should appear directly in the text rather than in the bibliography. Refer to the Instructions to authors for Frontiers in Sports Neurology.

Blog post
Andrew, E. (2015). 23,000 People In The US End Up In ER Every Year Because Of Supplements. IFLScience. Available at: [Accessed October 30, 2018].


This example shows the general structure used for government reports, technical reports, and scientific reports. If you can't locate the report number then it might be better to cite the report as a book. For reports it is usually not individual people that are credited as authors, but a governmental department or agency like "U. S. Food and Drug Administration" or "National Cancer Institute".

Government report
Government Accountability Office (1990). Competitiveness of Federal Computer Procurements. Washington, DC: U.S. Government Printing Office.

Theses and dissertations

Theses including Ph.D. dissertations, Master's theses or Bachelor theses follow the basic format outlined below.

Doctoral dissertation
Biermann, J. L. (2009). The distribution of Callinectes sapidus megalopae at the mouths of Chesapeake and Delaware Bays: Implications for larval ingress.

News paper articles

Unlike scholarly journals, news papers do not usually have a volume and issue number. Instead, the full date and page number is required for a correct reference.

New York Times article
Billard, M. (2010). Scouting Report. New York Times, E5.

In-text citations

References should be cited in the text by name and year in parentheses:

This sentence cites one reference (Smith, 2007).
This sentence cites two references (Kang and Hilgemann, 2004; Smith, 2007).

Here are examples of in-text citations with multiple authors:

  • Two authors: (Kang and Hilgemann, 2004)
  • Three or more authors: (Mills et al., 2018)

About the journal

Full journal titleFrontiers in Sports Neurology
AbbreviationFront. Neurol.
ISSN (online)1664-2295
ScopeClinical Neurology

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