How to format your references using the Frontiers in Sports Neurology citation style

This is a short guide how to format citations and the bibliography in a manuscript for Frontiers in Sports Neurology. For a complete guide how to prepare your manuscript refer to the journal's instructions to authors.

Using reference management software

Typically you don't format your citations and bibliography by hand. The easiest way is to use a reference manager:

PaperpileThe citation style is built in and you can choose it in Settings > Citation Style or Paperpile > Citation Style in Google Docs.
EndNoteFind the style here: output styles overview
Mendeley, Zotero, Papers, and othersThe style is either built in or you can download a CSL file that is supported by most references management programs.
BibTeXBibTeX syles are usually part of a LaTeX template. Check the instructions to authors if the publisher offers a LaTeX template for this journal.

Journal articles

Those examples are references to articles in scholarly journals and how they are supposed to appear in your bibliography.

Not all journals organize their published articles in volumes and issues, so these fields are optional. Some electronic journals do not provide a page range, but instead list an article identifier. In a case like this it's safe to use the article identifier instead of the page range.

A journal article with 1 author
Heyworth, M. F. (2000). Sky was not the limit for music-loving Herschel. Nature 407, 286.
A journal article with 2 authors
Oreskes, N., and Conway, E. M. (2010). Defeating the merchants of doubt. Nature 465, 686–687.
A journal article with 3 authors
Adkins, J. F., McIntyre, K., and Schrag, D. P. (2002). The salinity, temperature, and delta18O of the glacial deep ocean. Science 298, 1769–1773.
A journal article with 7 or more authors
Kim, A. S., Kakalis, L. T., Abdul-Manan, N., Liu, G. A., and Rosen, M. K. (2000). Autoinhibition and activation mechanisms of the Wiskott-Aldrich syndrome protein. Nature 404, 151–158.

Books and book chapters

Here are examples of references for authored and edited books as well as book chapters.

An authored book
Kassapoglou, C. (2010). Design and Analysis of Composite Structures. Chichester, UK: John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.
An edited book
Müller, K. A., and Bussmann-Holder, A. eds. (2005). Superconductivity in Complex Systems: -/-. Berlin, Heidelberg: Springer.
A chapter in an edited book
Buchmayr, M., Kurschl, W., and Küng, J. (2013). “Customized Situation Verification in Ambient Assisted Living Environments,” in Ambient Intelligence: 4th International Joint Conference, AmI 2013, Dublin, Ireland, December 3-5, 2013. Proceedings Lecture Notes in Computer Science., eds. J. C. Augusto, R. Wichert, R. Collier, D. Keyson, A. A. Salah, and A.-H. Tan (Cham: Springer International Publishing), 48–61.

Web sites

Sometimes references to web sites should appear directly in the text rather than in the bibliography. Refer to the Instructions to authors for Frontiers in Sports Neurology.

Blog post
Andrew, E. (2015). Latest Beautiful Photo From NASA Shows The Moon And The ISS. IFLScience.


This example shows the general structure used for government reports, technical reports, and scientific reports. If you can't locate the report number then it might be better to cite the report as a book. For reports it is usually not individual people that are credited as authors, but a governmental department or agency like "U. S. Food and Drug Administration" or "National Cancer Institute".

Government report
Government Accountability Office (2010). Postsecondary Education: College and University Endowments Have Shown Long-Term Growth, While Size, Restrictions, and Distributions Vary. Washington, DC: U.S. Government Printing Office.

Theses and dissertations

Theses including Ph.D. dissertations, Master's theses or Bachelor theses follow the basic format outlined below.

Doctoral dissertation
Robinson, L. M. (2001). Using Time-Resolved Photoluminescence Spectroscopy to Examine Exciton Dynamics in II-VI Semiconductor Nanostructures.

News paper articles

Unlike scholarly journals, news papers do not usually have a volume and issue number. Instead, the full date and page number is required for a correct reference.

New York Times article
Kelly, C. (2013). ‘Cowboy Stuntman’ Was an Olympic Medalist, Too. New York Times, A21B.

In-text citations

References should be cited in the text by name and year in parentheses:

This sentence cites one reference (Heyworth, 2000).
This sentence cites two references (Heyworth, 2000; Oreskes and Conway, 2010).

Here are examples of in-text citations with multiple authors:

  • Two authors: (Oreskes and Conway, 2010)
  • Three or more authors: (Kim et al., 2000)

About the journal

Full journal titleFrontiers in Sports Neurology
AbbreviationFront. Neurol.
ISSN (online)1664-2295
ScopeClinical Neurology

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