How to format your references using the Frontiers in Neuropsychiatric Imaging and Stimulation citation style

This is a short guide how to format citations and the bibliography in a manuscript for Frontiers in Neuropsychiatric Imaging and Stimulation. For a complete guide how to prepare your manuscript refer to the journal's instructions to authors.

Using reference management software

Typically you don't format your citations and bibliography by hand. The easiest way is to use a reference manager:

PaperpileThe citation style is built in and you can choose it in Settings > Citation Style or Paperpile > Citation Style in Google Docs.
EndNoteFind the style here: output styles overview
Mendeley, Zotero, Papers, and othersThe style is either built in or you can download a CSL file that is supported by most references management programs.
BibTeXBibTeX syles are usually part of a LaTeX template. Check the instructions to authors if the publisher offers a LaTeX template for this journal.

Journal articles

Those examples are references to articles in scholarly journals and how they are supposed to appear in your bibliography.

Not all journals organize their published articles in volumes and issues, so these fields are optional. Some electronic journals do not provide a page range, but instead list an article identifier. In a case like this it's safe to use the article identifier instead of the page range.

A journal article with 1 author
Fiete, G. A. (2011). Physics. How do you want that insulator? Science 332, 546–547.
A journal article with 2 authors
Sabatini, B. L., and Svoboda, K. (2000). Analysis of calcium channels in single spines using optical fluctuation analysis. Nature 408, 589–593.
A journal article with 3 authors
Yamamoto, T., Inui, T., and Tsuji, T. (2013). The odor of Osmanthus fragrans attenuates food intake. Sci. Rep. 3, 1518.
A journal article with 7 or more authors
Liphardt, J., Dumont, S., Smith, S. B., Tinoco, I., Jr, and Bustamante, C. (2002). Equilibrium information from nonequilibrium measurements in an experimental test of Jarzynski’s equality. Science 296, 1832–1835.

Books and book chapters

Here are examples of references for authored and edited books as well as book chapters.

An authored book
Belsey, C. (2011). A Future for Criticism. Oxford, UK: Wiley-Blackwell.
An edited book
Das, S., and Uehara, R. eds. (2009). WALCOM: Algorithms and Computation: Third International Workshop, WALCOM 2009, Kolkata, India, February 18-20, 2009. Proceedings. Berlin, Heidelberg: Springer.
A chapter in an edited book
Abrahams, C. (2008). “Climate change and lakeshore conservation: a model and review of management techniques,” in Ecological Effects of Water-Level Fluctuations in Lakes, eds. K. M. Wantzen, K.-O. Rothhaupt, M. Mörtl, M. Cantonati, L. G. -Tóth, and P. Fischer (Dordrecht: Springer Netherlands), 33–43.

Web sites

Sometimes references to web sites should appear directly in the text rather than in the bibliography. Refer to the Instructions to authors for Frontiers in Neuropsychiatric Imaging and Stimulation.

Blog post
O`Callaghan, J. (2015). Molecules Have Been Built Using a Laser Beam for the First Time. IFLScience. Available at: [Accessed October 30, 2018].


This example shows the general structure used for government reports, technical reports, and scientific reports. If you can't locate the report number then it might be better to cite the report as a book. For reports it is usually not individual people that are credited as authors, but a governmental department or agency like "U. S. Food and Drug Administration" or "National Cancer Institute".

Government report
Government Accountability Office (1997). Higher Education: Verification Helps Prevent Student Aid Payments to Ineligible Noncitizens. Washington, DC: U.S. Government Printing Office.

Theses and dissertations

Theses including Ph.D. dissertations, Master's theses or Bachelor theses follow the basic format outlined below.

Doctoral dissertation
Dues, P. M. (2010). Quantitative correlation of enterprise resource planning type, success, and technology leadership style in local government.

News paper articles

Unlike scholarly journals, news papers do not usually have a volume and issue number. Instead, the full date and page number is required for a correct reference.

New York Times article
Vecsey, G. (2010). Go Figure the American League East, Inside and Out. New York Times, D3.

In-text citations

References should be cited in the text by name and year in parentheses:

This sentence cites one reference (Fiete, 2011).
This sentence cites two references (Sabatini and Svoboda, 2000; Fiete, 2011).

Here are examples of in-text citations with multiple authors:

  • Two authors: (Sabatini and Svoboda, 2000)
  • Three or more authors: (Liphardt et al., 2002)

About the journal

Full journal titleFrontiers in Neuropsychiatric Imaging and Stimulation
AbbreviationFront. Psychiatry
ISSN (online)1664-0640
ScopePsychiatry and Mental health

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