How to format your references using the Frontiers in Neuropsychiatric Imaging and Stimulation citation style

This is a short guide how to format citations and the bibliography in a manuscript for Frontiers in Neuropsychiatric Imaging and Stimulation. For a complete guide how to prepare your manuscript refer to the journal's instructions to authors.

Using reference management software

Typically you don't format your citations and bibliography by hand. The easiest way is to use a reference manager:

PaperpileThe citation style is built in and you can choose it in Settings > Citation Style or Paperpile > Citation Style in Google Docs.
EndNoteFind the style here: output styles overview
Mendeley, Zotero, Papers, and othersThe style is either built in or you can download a CSL file that is supported by most references management programs.
BibTeXBibTeX syles are usually part of a LaTeX template. Check the instructions to authors if the publisher offers a LaTeX template for this journal.

Journal articles

Those examples are references to articles in scholarly journals and how they are supposed to appear in your bibliography.

Not all journals organize their published articles in volumes and issues, so these fields are optional. Some electronic journals do not provide a page range, but instead list an article identifier. In a case like this it's safe to use the article identifier instead of the page range.

A journal article with 1 author
Dalcanton, J. J. (2009). 18 years of science with the Hubble Space Telescope. Nature 457, 41–50.
A journal article with 2 authors
Hudson, P. J., and Bjørnstad, O. N. (2003). Ecology. Vole stranglers and lemming cycles. Science 302, 797–798.
A journal article with 3 authors
Schmidt, W. H., Houang, R., and Cogan, L. S. (2011). Education. Preparing future math teachers. Science 332, 1266–1267.
A journal article with 7 or more authors
Boto, E., Holmes, N., Leggett, J., Roberts, G., Shah, V., Meyer, S. S., et al. (2018). Moving magnetoencephalography towards real-world applications with a wearable system. Nature 555, 657–661.

Books and book chapters

Here are examples of references for authored and edited books as well as book chapters.

An authored book
Wren, C. (2011). Concise Guide to Pediatric Arrhythmias. Oxford, UK: Wiley-Blackwell.
An edited book
Jiang, Z. ed. (2005). Shock Waves: Proceedings of the 24th International Symposium on Shock Waves Beijing, China July 11–16, 2004. Berlin, Heidelberg: Springer.
A chapter in an edited book
Rubin, A., and Riznichenko, G. (2014). “Model of Impact of a Weak Electric Field on Nonlinear System of Transmembrane Ion Transport potential electric potential transmembrane ion flux,” in Mathematical Biophysics Biological and Medical Physics, Biomedical Engineering., ed. G. Riznichenko (Boston, MA: Springer US), 55–66.

Web sites

Sometimes references to web sites should appear directly in the text rather than in the bibliography. Refer to the Instructions to authors for Frontiers in Neuropsychiatric Imaging and Stimulation.

Blog post
Andrew, E. (2015). Dark Grape Compound May Help The Body Burn Fat. IFLScience. Available at: [Accessed October 30, 2018].


This example shows the general structure used for government reports, technical reports, and scientific reports. If you can't locate the report number then it might be better to cite the report as a book. For reports it is usually not individual people that are credited as authors, but a governmental department or agency like "U. S. Food and Drug Administration" or "National Cancer Institute".

Government report
Government Accountability Office (1975). Administration of the Emergency School Aid Act by OE. Washington, DC: U.S. Government Printing Office.

Theses and dissertations

Theses including Ph.D. dissertations, Master's theses or Bachelor theses follow the basic format outlined below.

Doctoral dissertation
Carrier, T. H. (2017). Using Grunig’s Situational Theory for Analysis of Frames in Human Trafficking Awareness Organizations’ YouTube Videos.

News paper articles

Unlike scholarly journals, news papers do not usually have a volume and issue number. Instead, the full date and page number is required for a correct reference.

New York Times article
Kenigsberg, B. (2016). Review: ‘Finding Babel’ Retraces a Celebrated Grandfather’s Footsteps. New York Times, C7.

In-text citations

References should be cited in the text by name and year in parentheses:

This sentence cites one reference (Dalcanton, 2009).
This sentence cites two references (Hudson and Bjørnstad, 2003; Dalcanton, 2009).

Here are examples of in-text citations with multiple authors:

  • Two authors: (Hudson and Bjørnstad, 2003)
  • Three or more authors: (Boto et al., 2018)

About the journal

Full journal titleFrontiers in Neuropsychiatric Imaging and Stimulation
AbbreviationFront. Psychiatry
ISSN (online)1664-0640
ScopePsychiatry and Mental health

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