How to format your references using the Frontiers in Neuropsychiatric Imaging and Stimulation citation style

This is a short guide how to format citations and the bibliography in a manuscript for Frontiers in Neuropsychiatric Imaging and Stimulation. For a complete guide how to prepare your manuscript refer to the journal's instructions to authors.

Using reference management software

Typically you don't format your citations and bibliography by hand. The easiest way is to use a reference manager:

PaperpileThe citation style is built in and you can choose it in Settings > Citation Style or Paperpile > Citation Style in Google Docs.
EndNoteFind the style here: output styles overview
Mendeley, Zotero, Papers, and othersThe style is either built in or you can download a CSL file that is supported by most references management programs.
BibTeXBibTeX syles are usually part of a LaTeX template. Check the instructions to authors if the publisher offers a LaTeX template for this journal.

Journal articles

Those examples are references to articles in scholarly journals and how they are supposed to appear in your bibliography.

Not all journals organize their published articles in volumes and issues, so these fields are optional. Some electronic journals do not provide a page range, but instead list an article identifier. In a case like this it's safe to use the article identifier instead of the page range.

A journal article with 1 author
Seewald, J. S. (2003). Organic-inorganic interactions in petroleum-producing sedimentary basins. Nature 426, 327–333.
A journal article with 2 authors
de Waal, F. B., and Berger, M. L. (2000). Payment for labour in monkeys. Nature 404, 563.
A journal article with 3 authors
Rebbeck, C. A., Leroi, A. M., and Burt, A. (2011). Mitochondrial capture by a transmissible cancer. Science 331, 303.
A journal article with 7 or more authors
Wessberg, J., Stambaugh, C. R., Kralik, J. D., Beck, P. D., Laubach, M., Chapin, J. K., et al. (2000). Real-time prediction of hand trajectory by ensembles of cortical neurons in primates. Nature 408, 361–365.

Books and book chapters

Here are examples of references for authored and edited books as well as book chapters.

An authored book
Hopkins, B. R. (2009). Fundraising Law Made Easy. Hoboken, NJ: John Wiley & Sons, Inc.
An edited book
Yager, R. R., Reformat, M. Z., and Alajlan, N. eds. (2015). Intelligent Methods for Cyber Warfare. Cham: Springer International Publishing.
A chapter in an edited book
Innocentini-Mei, L. H., and Fakhouri, F. M. (2013). “Recent Studies on Soy Protein Based Blends, Composites and Nanocomposites,” in Advances in Natural Polymers: Composites and Nanocomposites Advanced Structured Materials., eds. S. Thomas, P. M. Visakh, and A. P. Mathew (Berlin, Heidelberg: Springer), 155–168.

Web sites

Sometimes references to web sites should appear directly in the text rather than in the bibliography. Refer to the Instructions to authors for Frontiers in Neuropsychiatric Imaging and Stimulation.

Blog post
Andrew, E. (2015). Mass Grave Reveals Organised Violence Among Europe’s First Farmers. IFLScience. Available at: [Accessed October 30, 2018].


This example shows the general structure used for government reports, technical reports, and scientific reports. If you can't locate the report number then it might be better to cite the report as a book. For reports it is usually not individual people that are credited as authors, but a governmental department or agency like "U. S. Food and Drug Administration" or "National Cancer Institute".

Government report
Government Accountability Office (1987). Compensatory Education: Chapter 1’s Comparability of Services Provision. Washington, DC: U.S. Government Printing Office.

Theses and dissertations

Theses including Ph.D. dissertations, Master's theses or Bachelor theses follow the basic format outlined below.

Doctoral dissertation
Francom, C. (2012). Análisis sociolingüístico de eleccion de lengua en encuentros de servicio: Una perspectiva etnográfica y experimental.

News paper articles

Unlike scholarly journals, news papers do not usually have a volume and issue number. Instead, the full date and page number is required for a correct reference.

New York Times article
Detrick, B. (2017). Following a Giant’s Flamin’ Hot Footsteps. New York Times, ST8.

In-text citations

References should be cited in the text by name and year in parentheses:

This sentence cites one reference (Seewald, 2003).
This sentence cites two references (de Waal and Berger, 2000; Seewald, 2003).

Here are examples of in-text citations with multiple authors:

  • Two authors: (de Waal and Berger, 2000)
  • Three or more authors: (Wessberg et al., 2000)

About the journal

Full journal titleFrontiers in Neuropsychiatric Imaging and Stimulation
AbbreviationFront. Psychiatry
ISSN (online)1664-0640
ScopePsychiatry and Mental health

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