How to format your references using the Frontiers in Neuropsychiatric Imaging and Stimulation citation style

This is a short guide how to format citations and the bibliography in a manuscript for Frontiers in Neuropsychiatric Imaging and Stimulation. For a complete guide how to prepare your manuscript refer to the journal's instructions to authors.

Using reference management software

Typically you don't format your citations and bibliography by hand. The easiest way is to use a reference manager:

PaperpileThe citation style is built in and you can choose it in Settings > Citation Style or Paperpile > Citation Style in Google Docs.
EndNoteFind the style here: output styles overview
Mendeley, Zotero, Papers, and othersThe style is either built in or you can download a CSL file that is supported by most references management programs.
BibTeXBibTeX syles are usually part of a LaTeX template. Check the instructions to authors if the publisher offers a LaTeX template for this journal.

Journal articles

Those examples are references to articles in scholarly journals and how they are supposed to appear in your bibliography.

Not all journals organize their published articles in volumes and issues, so these fields are optional. Some electronic journals do not provide a page range, but instead list an article identifier. In a case like this it's safe to use the article identifier instead of the page range.

A journal article with 1 author
Muindi, F. (2014). Tell the negative committee to shut up. Science 345, 350.
A journal article with 2 authors
Sriver, R. L., and Huber, M. (2007). Observational evidence for an ocean heat pump induced by tropical cyclones. Nature 447, 577–580.
A journal article with 3 authors
Horsewill, A. J., Jones, N. H., and Caciuffo, R. (2001). Evidence for coherent proton tunneling in a hydrogen bond network. Science 291, 100–103.
A journal article with 7 or more authors
Gogolla, N., Caroni, P., Lüthi, A., and Herry, C. (2009). Perineuronal nets protect fear memories from erasure. Science 325, 1258–1261.

Books and book chapters

Here are examples of references for authored and edited books as well as book chapters.

An authored book
Ryan, T. P. (2007). Modern Engineering Statistics. Hoboken, NJ: John Wiley & Sons, Inc.
An edited book
Dennis, L., Boissier, O., and Bordini, R. H. eds. (2012). Programming Multi-Agent Systems: 9th International Workshop, ProMAS 2011, Taipei, Taiwan, May 3, 2011, Revised Selected Papers. Berlin, Heidelberg: Springer.
A chapter in an edited book
Chen, X., Liu, Y., and Tu, D. (2014). “Optical Spectroscopy of Lanthanide-Doped Nanoparticles,” in Lanthanide-Doped Luminescent Nanomaterials: From Fundamentals to Bioapplications Nanomedicine and Nanotoxicology., eds. Y. Liu and D. Tu (Berlin, Heidelberg: Springer), 75–123.

Web sites

Sometimes references to web sites should appear directly in the text rather than in the bibliography. Refer to the Instructions to authors for Frontiers in Neuropsychiatric Imaging and Stimulation.

Blog post
Andrew, E. (2015). Climate Change Means We Can’t Keep Living (And Working) In Glass Houses. IFLScience.


This example shows the general structure used for government reports, technical reports, and scientific reports. If you can't locate the report number then it might be better to cite the report as a book. For reports it is usually not individual people that are credited as authors, but a governmental department or agency like "U. S. Food and Drug Administration" or "National Cancer Institute".

Government report
Government Accountability Office (2003). Transportation Security Research: Coordination Needed in Selecting and Implementing Infrastructure Vulnerability Assessments. Washington, DC: U.S. Government Printing Office.

Theses and dissertations

Theses including Ph.D. dissertations, Master's theses or Bachelor theses follow the basic format outlined below.

Doctoral dissertation
Yaceczko, S. D. (2017). A Telehealth Nutrition Manual for an Online Intensive Behavioral Weight Management Program.

News paper articles

Unlike scholarly journals, news papers do not usually have a volume and issue number. Instead, the full date and page number is required for a correct reference.

New York Times article
Barron, J. (2016). Everyone Knows Peter, Paul and Mary. But What About Bob? New York Times, A21.

In-text citations

References should be cited in the text by name and year in parentheses:

This sentence cites one reference (Muindi, 2014).
This sentence cites two references (Sriver and Huber, 2007; Muindi, 2014).

Here are examples of in-text citations with multiple authors:

  • Two authors: (Sriver and Huber, 2007)
  • Three or more authors: (Gogolla et al., 2009)

About the journal

Full journal titleFrontiers in Neuropsychiatric Imaging and Stimulation
AbbreviationFront. Psychiatry
ISSN (online)1664-0640
ScopePsychiatry and Mental health

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