How to format your references using the Frontiers in Neuropsychiatric Imaging and Stimulation citation style

This is a short guide how to format citations and the bibliography in a manuscript for Frontiers in Neuropsychiatric Imaging and Stimulation. For a complete guide how to prepare your manuscript refer to the journal's instructions to authors.

Using reference management software

Typically you don't format your citations and bibliography by hand. The easiest way is to use a reference manager:

PaperpileThe citation style is built in and you can choose it in Settings > Citation Style or Paperpile > Citation Style in Google Docs.
EndNoteFind the style here: output styles overview
Mendeley, Zotero, Papers, and othersThe style is either built in or you can download a CSL file that is supported by most references management programs.
BibTeXBibTeX syles are usually part of a LaTeX template. Check the instructions to authors if the publisher offers a LaTeX template for this journal.

Journal articles

Those examples are references to articles in scholarly journals and how they are supposed to appear in your bibliography.

Not all journals organize their published articles in volumes and issues, so these fields are optional. Some electronic journals do not provide a page range, but instead list an article identifier. In a case like this it's safe to use the article identifier instead of the page range.

A journal article with 1 author
Jacobson, M. Z. (2013). Comment on “Radiative absorption enhancements due to the mixing state of atmospheric black carbon.” Science 339, 393.
A journal article with 2 authors
Shibasaki, M., and Masataka, N. (2014). The color red distorts time perception for men, but not for women. Sci. Rep. 4, 5899.
A journal article with 3 authors
Caldeira, K., Jain, A. K., and Hoffert, M. I. (2003). Climate sensitivity uncertainty and the need for energy without CO2 emission. Science 299, 2052–2054.
A journal article with 7 or more authors
Watanabe, Y., Yokobayashi, S., Yamamoto, M., and Nurse, P. (2001). Pre-meiotic S phase is linked to reductional chromosome segregation and recombination. Nature 409, 359–363.

Books and book chapters

Here are examples of references for authored and edited books as well as book chapters.

An authored book
Caban, S., Mehlführer, C., Rupp, M., and Wrulich, M. (2011). Evaluation of HSDPA and LTE. Chichester, UK: John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.
An edited book
Peulvast, J.-P. (2015). Landforms and Landscape Evolution of the Equatorial Margin of Northeast Brazil: An Overview. , ed. F. Bétard Cham: Springer International Publishing.
A chapter in an edited book
Rosenberg, Z., and Dekel, E. (2016). “Plate Perforation,” in Terminal Ballistics, ed. E. Dekel (Singapore: Springer), 125–182.

Web sites

Sometimes references to web sites should appear directly in the text rather than in the bibliography. Refer to the Instructions to authors for Frontiers in Neuropsychiatric Imaging and Stimulation.

Blog post
Andrew, E. (2014). Philae Robot Makes Historic Landing On Comet. IFLScience. Available at: [Accessed October 30, 2018].


This example shows the general structure used for government reports, technical reports, and scientific reports. If you can't locate the report number then it might be better to cite the report as a book. For reports it is usually not individual people that are credited as authors, but a governmental department or agency like "U. S. Food and Drug Administration" or "National Cancer Institute".

Government report
Government Accountability Office (1981). Consistent Criteria Are Needed To Assess Small-Business Innovation Initiatives. Washington, DC: U.S. Government Printing Office.

Theses and dissertations

Theses including Ph.D. dissertations, Master's theses or Bachelor theses follow the basic format outlined below.

Doctoral dissertation
Cruz, S. (2014). Keeping families together: A grant proposal.

News paper articles

Unlike scholarly journals, news papers do not usually have a volume and issue number. Instead, the full date and page number is required for a correct reference.

New York Times article
Shear, M. D., and Gordon, M. R. (2017). With Tensions Rising, How U.S. Military Actions Could Play Out in North Korea. New York Times, A9.

In-text citations

References should be cited in the text by name and year in parentheses:

This sentence cites one reference (Jacobson, 2013).
This sentence cites two references (Jacobson, 2013; Shibasaki and Masataka, 2014).

Here are examples of in-text citations with multiple authors:

  • Two authors: (Shibasaki and Masataka, 2014)
  • Three or more authors: (Watanabe et al., 2001)

About the journal

Full journal titleFrontiers in Neuropsychiatric Imaging and Stimulation
AbbreviationFront. Psychiatry
ISSN (online)1664-0640
ScopePsychiatry and Mental health

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