How to format your references using the Frontiers in Mitochondrial Research citation style

This is a short guide how to format citations and the bibliography in a manuscript for Frontiers in Mitochondrial Research. For a complete guide how to prepare your manuscript refer to the journal's instructions to authors.

Using reference management software

Typically you don't format your citations and bibliography by hand. The easiest way is to use a reference manager:

PaperpileThe citation style is built in and you can choose it in Settings > Citation Style or Paperpile > Citation Style in Google Docs.
EndNoteFind the style here: output styles overview
Mendeley, Zotero, Papers, and othersThe style is either built in or you can download a CSL file that is supported by most references management programs.
BibTeXBibTeX syles are usually part of a LaTeX template. Check the instructions to authors if the publisher offers a LaTeX template for this journal.

Journal articles

Those examples are references to articles in scholarly journals and how they are supposed to appear in your bibliography.

Not all journals organize their published articles in volumes and issues, so these fields are optional. Some electronic journals do not provide a page range, but instead list an article identifier. In a case like this it's safe to use the article identifier instead of the page range.

A journal article with 1 author
Chin, J. W. (2009). Journal club. A molecular biologist gets excited about making designer proteins in cells. Nature 457, 239.
A journal article with 2 authors
Otterstrom, J. J., and van Oijen, A. M. (2009). Biochemistry. Nudging through a nucleosome. Science 325, 547–548.
A journal article with 3 authors
Schmidt, D., Jiang, Q.-X., and MacKinnon, R. (2006). Phospholipids and the origin of cationic gating charges in voltage sensors. Nature 444, 775–779.
A journal article with 7 or more authors
Pecho-Vrieseling, E., Sigrist, M., Yoshida, Y., Jessell, T. M., and Arber, S. (2009). Specificity of sensory-motor connections encoded by Sema3e-Plxnd1 recognition. Nature 459, 842–846.

Books and book chapters

Here are examples of references for authored and edited books as well as book chapters.

An authored book
Harris, J. (2013). The Utopian Globalists. Oxford: Blackwell Publishing Ltd.
An edited book
Fernandes, P. R., and Bartolo, P. J. eds. (2014). Tissue Engineering: Computer Modeling, Biofabrication and Cell Behavior. Dordrecht: Springer Netherlands.
A chapter in an edited book
Epstein, B. (2014). “How Many Kinds of Glue Hold the Social World Together?,” in Perspectives on Social Ontology and Social Cognition, eds. M. Gallotti and J. Michael (Dordrecht: Springer Netherlands), 41–55.

Web sites

Sometimes references to web sites should appear directly in the text rather than in the bibliography. Refer to the Instructions to authors for Frontiers in Mitochondrial Research.

Blog post
Davis, J. (2015). Chimps Are Capable Of Cooking Food. IFLScience. Available at: [Accessed October 30, 2018].


This example shows the general structure used for government reports, technical reports, and scientific reports. If you can't locate the report number then it might be better to cite the report as a book. For reports it is usually not individual people that are credited as authors, but a governmental department or agency like "U. S. Food and Drug Administration" or "National Cancer Institute".

Government report
Government Accountability Office (1996). Federal Research: Preliminary Information on the Small Business Technology Transfer Program. Washington, DC: U.S. Government Printing Office.

Theses and dissertations

Theses including Ph.D. dissertations, Master's theses or Bachelor theses follow the basic format outlined below.

Doctoral dissertation
Mersch, C. (2012). Campus-based drunk-driving intervention program: A grant proposal project.

News paper articles

Unlike scholarly journals, news papers do not usually have a volume and issue number. Instead, the full date and page number is required for a correct reference.

New York Times article
MacFARQUHAR, N. (2017). A Developer and Kremlin Fixer With a Web of Trump Contacts. New York Times, A1.

In-text citations

References should be cited in the text by name and year in parentheses:

This sentence cites one reference (Chin, 2009).
This sentence cites two references (Chin, 2009; Otterstrom and van Oijen, 2009).

Here are examples of in-text citations with multiple authors:

  • Two authors: (Otterstrom and van Oijen, 2009)
  • Three or more authors: (Pecho-Vrieseling et al., 2009)

About the journal

Full journal titleFrontiers in Mitochondrial Research
AbbreviationFront. Physiol.
ISSN (online)1664-042X
Physiology (medical)

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