How to format your references using the Frontiers in Mitochondrial Research citation style

This is a short guide how to format citations and the bibliography in a manuscript for Frontiers in Mitochondrial Research. For a complete guide how to prepare your manuscript refer to the journal's instructions to authors.

Using reference management software

Typically you don't format your citations and bibliography by hand. The easiest way is to use a reference manager:

PaperpileThe citation style is built in and you can choose it in Settings > Citation Style or Paperpile > Citation Style in Google Docs.
EndNoteFind the style here: output styles overview
Mendeley, Zotero, Papers, and othersThe style is either built in or you can download a CSL file that is supported by most references management programs.
BibTeXBibTeX syles are usually part of a LaTeX template. Check the instructions to authors if the publisher offers a LaTeX template for this journal.

Journal articles

Those examples are references to articles in scholarly journals and how they are supposed to appear in your bibliography.

Not all journals organize their published articles in volumes and issues, so these fields are optional. Some electronic journals do not provide a page range, but instead list an article identifier. In a case like this it's safe to use the article identifier instead of the page range.

A journal article with 1 author
Trivedi, B. P. (2014). Neuroscience: Dissecting appetite. Nature 508, S64-5.
A journal article with 2 authors
Liao, S., and Seeman, N. C. (2004). Translation of DNA signals into polymer assembly instructions. Science 306, 2072–2074.
A journal article with 3 authors
Akbarzadeh, A., Qiu, C.-W., and Danner, A. J. (2013). Exploiting design freedom in biaxial dielectrics to enable spatially overlapping optical instruments. Sci. Rep. 3, 2055.
A journal article with 7 or more authors
Luo, B., Liu, J., Lü, J.-T., Gao, J.-H., and Yao, K.-L. (2014). Ultrahigh spin thermopower and pure spin current in a single-molecule magnet. Sci. Rep. 4, 4128.

Books and book chapters

Here are examples of references for authored and edited books as well as book chapters.

An authored book
Calloway, J. (2009). Becoming a Category of One. Hoboken, NJ: Wiley & Sons, Inc.
An edited book
Schättler, H. (2015). Optimal Control for Mathematical Models of Cancer Therapies: An Application of Geometric Methods. 1st ed. 2015. , ed. U. Ledzewicz New York, NY: Springer.
A chapter in an edited book
Andrade, W. L., Machado, P. D. L., Alves, E. L. G., and Almeida, D. R. (2009). “Test Case Generation of Embedded Real-Time Systems with Interruptions for FreeRTOS,” in Formal Methods: Foundations and Applications: 12th Brazilian Symposium on Formal Methods, SBMF 2009 Gramado, Brazil, August 19-21, 2009 Revised Selected Papers Lecture Notes in Computer Science., eds. M. V. M. Oliveira and J. Woodcock (Berlin, Heidelberg: Springer), 54–69.

Web sites

Sometimes references to web sites should appear directly in the text rather than in the bibliography. Refer to the Instructions to authors for Frontiers in Mitochondrial Research.

Blog post
Carpineti, A. (2016). Astronomers Have Discovered A Pulsating White Dwarf. IFLScience. Available at: [Accessed October 30, 2018].


This example shows the general structure used for government reports, technical reports, and scientific reports. If you can't locate the report number then it might be better to cite the report as a book. For reports it is usually not individual people that are credited as authors, but a governmental department or agency like "U. S. Food and Drug Administration" or "National Cancer Institute".

Government report
Government Accountability Office (2015). Unmanned Aerial Systems: FAA Continues Progress toward Integration into the National Airspace. Washington, DC: U.S. Government Printing Office.

Theses and dissertations

Theses including Ph.D. dissertations, Master's theses or Bachelor theses follow the basic format outlined below.

Doctoral dissertation
Rodriguez, E. P. (2014). Curriculum development for nursing assistants: Pressure ulcer prevention module.

News paper articles

Unlike scholarly journals, news papers do not usually have a volume and issue number. Instead, the full date and page number is required for a correct reference.

New York Times article
Leshy, J. D., and Squillace, M. (2017). The Endangered Antiquities Act. New York Times, A23.

In-text citations

References should be cited in the text by name and year in parentheses:

This sentence cites one reference (Trivedi, 2014).
This sentence cites two references (Liao and Seeman, 2004; Trivedi, 2014).

Here are examples of in-text citations with multiple authors:

  • Two authors: (Liao and Seeman, 2004)
  • Three or more authors: (Luo et al., 2014)

About the journal

Full journal titleFrontiers in Mitochondrial Research
AbbreviationFront. Physiol.
ISSN (online)1664-042X
Physiology (medical)

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