How to format your references using the Frontiers in Microbiotechnology, Ecotoxicology and Bioremediation citation style

This is a short guide how to format citations and the bibliography in a manuscript for Frontiers in Microbiotechnology, Ecotoxicology and Bioremediation. For a complete guide how to prepare your manuscript refer to the journal's instructions to authors.

Using reference management software

Typically you don't format your citations and bibliography by hand. The easiest way is to use a reference manager:

PaperpileThe citation style is built in and you can choose it in Settings > Citation Style or Paperpile > Citation Style in Google Docs.
EndNoteFind the style here: output styles overview
Mendeley, Zotero, Papers, and othersThe style is either built in or you can download a CSL file that is supported by most references management programs.
BibTeXBibTeX syles are usually part of a LaTeX template. Check the instructions to authors if the publisher offers a LaTeX template for this journal.

Journal articles

Those examples are references to articles in scholarly journals and how they are supposed to appear in your bibliography.

Not all journals organize their published articles in volumes and issues, so these fields are optional. Some electronic journals do not provide a page range, but instead list an article identifier. In a case like this it's safe to use the article identifier instead of the page range.

A journal article with 1 author
Basri, G. (2006). Astronomy. Big fields on small stars. Science 311, 618–619.
A journal article with 2 authors
Fesik, S. W., and Shi, Y. (2001). Structural biology. Controlling the caspases. Science 294, 1477–1478.
A journal article with 3 authors
Rajca, A., Wongsriratanakul, J., and Rajca, S. (2001). Magnetic ordering in an organic polymer. Science 294, 1503–1505.
A journal article with 7 or more authors
Temirov, R., Soubatch, S., Luican, A., and Tautz, F. S. (2006). Free-electron-like dispersion in an organic monolayer film on a metal substrate. Nature 444, 350–353.

Books and book chapters

Here are examples of references for authored and edited books as well as book chapters.

An authored book
Morris, A. S. (2006). ISO 14000 Environmental Management Standards. Chichester, UK: John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.
An edited book
Jelali, M., and Huang, B. eds. (2010). Detection and Diagnosis of Stiction in Control Loops: State of the Art and Advanced Methods. London: Springer.
A chapter in an edited book
Delle Fave, A., Massimini, F., and Bassi, M. (2011). “Instruments and Methods in Flow Research,” in Psychological Selection and Optimal Experience Across Cultures: Social Empowerment through Personal Growth Cross-Cultural Advancements in Positive Psychology., eds. F. Massimini and M. Bassi (Dordrecht: Springer Netherlands), 59–87.

Web sites

Sometimes references to web sites should appear directly in the text rather than in the bibliography. Refer to the Instructions to authors for Frontiers in Microbiotechnology, Ecotoxicology and Bioremediation.

Blog post
Hale, T. (2016). This “Temporary Tattoo” Tells You If You Are Too Drunk. IFLScience. Available at: [Accessed October 30, 2018].


This example shows the general structure used for government reports, technical reports, and scientific reports. If you can't locate the report number then it might be better to cite the report as a book. For reports it is usually not individual people that are credited as authors, but a governmental department or agency like "U. S. Food and Drug Administration" or "National Cancer Institute".

Government report
Government Accountability Office (2011). General Aviation: Security Assessments at Selected Airports. Washington, DC: U.S. Government Printing Office.

Theses and dissertations

Theses including Ph.D. dissertations, Master's theses or Bachelor theses follow the basic format outlined below.

Doctoral dissertation
Mannar, N. K. (2017). Hri-Tech Consultants, LLC.

News paper articles

Unlike scholarly journals, news papers do not usually have a volume and issue number. Instead, the full date and page number is required for a correct reference.

New York Times article
Billard, M. (2013). Out of Character, but in His Element. New York Times, E7.

In-text citations

References should be cited in the text by name and year in parentheses:

This sentence cites one reference (Basri, 2006).
This sentence cites two references (Fesik and Shi, 2001; Basri, 2006).

Here are examples of in-text citations with multiple authors:

  • Two authors: (Fesik and Shi, 2001)
  • Three or more authors: (Temirov et al., 2006)

About the journal

Full journal titleFrontiers in Microbiotechnology, Ecotoxicology and Bioremediation
AbbreviationFront. Microbiol.
ISSN (online)1664-302X
Microbiology (medical)

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