How to format your references using the Frontiers in Microbiotechnology, Ecotoxicology and Bioremediation citation style

This is a short guide how to format citations and the bibliography in a manuscript for Frontiers in Microbiotechnology, Ecotoxicology and Bioremediation. For a complete guide how to prepare your manuscript refer to the journal's instructions to authors.

Using reference management software

Typically you don't format your citations and bibliography by hand. The easiest way is to use a reference manager:

PaperpileThe citation style is built in and you can choose it in Settings > Citation Style or Paperpile > Citation Style in Google Docs.
EndNoteFind the style here: output styles overview
Mendeley, Zotero, Papers, and othersThe style is either built in or you can download a CSL file that is supported by most references management programs.
BibTeXBibTeX syles are usually part of a LaTeX template. Check the instructions to authors if the publisher offers a LaTeX template for this journal.

Journal articles

Those examples are references to articles in scholarly journals and how they are supposed to appear in your bibliography.

Not all journals organize their published articles in volumes and issues, so these fields are optional. Some electronic journals do not provide a page range, but instead list an article identifier. In a case like this it's safe to use the article identifier instead of the page range.

A journal article with 1 author
Kociak, M. (2015). Microscopy: Quantum control of free electrons. Nature 521, 166–167.
A journal article with 2 authors
Yedid, G., and Bell, G. (2002). Macroevolution simulated with autonomously replicating computer programs. Nature 420, 810–812.
A journal article with 3 authors
Wellman, C. H., Osterloff, P. L., and Mohiuddin, U. (2003). Fragments of the earliest land plants. Nature 425, 282–285.
A journal article with 7 or more authors
Kim, H.-S., Oh, S.-S., Ha, H.-S., Youm, D., Moon, S.-H., Kim, J. H., et al. (2014). Ultra-high performance, high-temperature superconducting wires via cost-effective, scalable, co-evaporation process. Sci. Rep. 4, 4744.

Books and book chapters

Here are examples of references for authored and edited books as well as book chapters.

An authored book
Boussabaine, A. (2013). Risk Pricing Strategies for Public-Private Partnerships Projects. Oxford: John Wiley & Sons.
An edited book
Rocha, Á., Correia, A. M., Tan, F. B., and Stroetmann, K. A. eds. (2014). New Perspectives in Information Systems and Technologies, Volume 2. Cham: Springer International Publishing.
A chapter in an edited book
Pagliari, D. J., Poncino, M., and Macii, E. (2016). “Energy-Efficient Digital Processing via Approximate Computing,” in Smart Systems Integration and Simulation, eds. N. Bombieri, M. Poncino, and G. Pravadelli (Cham: Springer International Publishing), 55–89.

Web sites

Sometimes references to web sites should appear directly in the text rather than in the bibliography. Refer to the Instructions to authors for Frontiers in Microbiotechnology, Ecotoxicology and Bioremediation.

Blog post
Hale, T. (2015). Stunning Drone Footage Of A Paddleboarder’s Encounter With Two Whales. IFLScience. Available at: [Accessed October 30, 2018].


This example shows the general structure used for government reports, technical reports, and scientific reports. If you can't locate the report number then it might be better to cite the report as a book. For reports it is usually not individual people that are credited as authors, but a governmental department or agency like "U. S. Food and Drug Administration" or "National Cancer Institute".

Government report
Government Accountability Office (2014). School-Meals Programs: USDA Has Enhanced Controls, but Additional Verification Could Help Ensure Legitimate Program Access. Washington, DC: U.S. Government Printing Office.

Theses and dissertations

Theses including Ph.D. dissertations, Master's theses or Bachelor theses follow the basic format outlined below.

Doctoral dissertation
Mhatre, A. B. (2009). Zone-Clipper.

News paper articles

Unlike scholarly journals, news papers do not usually have a volume and issue number. Instead, the full date and page number is required for a correct reference.

New York Times article
Gustines, G. G. (2010). Graphic Evidence Of Comics Fanatics. New York Times, C25.

In-text citations

References should be cited in the text by name and year in parentheses:

This sentence cites one reference (Kociak, 2015).
This sentence cites two references (Yedid and Bell, 2002; Kociak, 2015).

Here are examples of in-text citations with multiple authors:

  • Two authors: (Yedid and Bell, 2002)
  • Three or more authors: (Kim et al., 2014)

About the journal

Full journal titleFrontiers in Microbiotechnology, Ecotoxicology and Bioremediation
AbbreviationFront. Microbiol.
ISSN (online)1664-302X
Microbiology (medical)

Other styles