How to format your references using the Frontiers in Microbiotechnology, Ecotoxicology and Bioremediation citation style

This is a short guide how to format citations and the bibliography in a manuscript for Frontiers in Microbiotechnology, Ecotoxicology and Bioremediation. For a complete guide how to prepare your manuscript refer to the journal's instructions to authors.

Using reference management software

Typically you don't format your citations and bibliography by hand. The easiest way is to use a reference manager:

PaperpileThe citation style is built in and you can choose it in Settings > Citation Style or Paperpile > Citation Style in Google Docs.
EndNoteFind the style here: output styles overview
Mendeley, Zotero, Papers, and othersThe style is either built in or you can download a CSL file that is supported by most references management programs.
BibTeXBibTeX syles are usually part of a LaTeX template. Check the instructions to authors if the publisher offers a LaTeX template for this journal.

Journal articles

Those examples are references to articles in scholarly journals and how they are supposed to appear in your bibliography.

Not all journals organize their published articles in volumes and issues, so these fields are optional. Some electronic journals do not provide a page range, but instead list an article identifier. In a case like this it's safe to use the article identifier instead of the page range.

A journal article with 1 author
Sloboda, J. (2008). Science and Music: the ear of the beholder. Nature 454, 32–33.
A journal article with 2 authors
McConnell, J. R., and Barton, M. K. (2003). Botany. Leaf development takes shape. Science 299, 1328–1329.
A journal article with 3 authors
Weisz, C., Glowatzki, E., and Fuchs, P. (2009). The postsynaptic function of type II cochlear afferents. Nature 461, 1126–1129.
A journal article with 7 or more authors
Mower, J. P., Stefanović, S., Young, G. J., and Palmer, J. D. (2004). Plant genetics: gene transfer from parasitic to host plants. Nature 432, 165–166.

Books and book chapters

Here are examples of references for authored and edited books as well as book chapters.

An authored book
Perez, A. (2016). VoLTE and ViLTE. Hoboken, NJ: John Wiley & Sons, Inc.
An edited book
Larvor, B. ed. (2016). Mathematical Cultures: The London Meetings 2012-2014. Cham: Springer International Publishing.
A chapter in an edited book
Ganter, B., and Obiedkov, S. (2016). “Attribute exploration,” in Conceptual Exploration, ed. S. Obiedkov (Berlin, Heidelberg: Springer), 125–185.

Web sites

Sometimes references to web sites should appear directly in the text rather than in the bibliography. Refer to the Instructions to authors for Frontiers in Microbiotechnology, Ecotoxicology and Bioremediation.

Blog post
Andrew, E. (2015). Self-Building 3D Printed Bricks Hint At Future Without Assembly Lines. IFLScience.


This example shows the general structure used for government reports, technical reports, and scientific reports. If you can't locate the report number then it might be better to cite the report as a book. For reports it is usually not individual people that are credited as authors, but a governmental department or agency like "U. S. Food and Drug Administration" or "National Cancer Institute".

Government report
Government Accountability Office (1979). Automated Systems Security--Federal Agencies Should Strengthen Safeguards Over Personal and Other Sensitive Data. Washington, DC: U.S. Government Printing Office.

Theses and dissertations

Theses including Ph.D. dissertations, Master's theses or Bachelor theses follow the basic format outlined below.

Doctoral dissertation
Schmidt, M. P. (2013). Being here.

News paper articles

Unlike scholarly journals, news papers do not usually have a volume and issue number. Instead, the full date and page number is required for a correct reference.

New York Times article
Feeney, K. (2010). World’s Fare for Soccer Fans. New York Times, NJ8.

In-text citations

References should be cited in the text by name and year in parentheses:

This sentence cites one reference (Sloboda, 2008).
This sentence cites two references (Sloboda, 2008, 2008).

Here are examples of in-text citations with multiple authors:

  • Two authors: (McConnell and Barton, 2003)
  • Three or more authors: (Mower et al., 2004)

About the journal

Full journal titleFrontiers in Microbiotechnology, Ecotoxicology and Bioremediation
AbbreviationFront. Microbiol.
ISSN (online)1664-302X
Microbiology (medical)

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