How to format your references using the Frontiers in Microbiotechnology, Ecotoxicology and Bioremediation citation style

This is a short guide how to format citations and the bibliography in a manuscript for Frontiers in Microbiotechnology, Ecotoxicology and Bioremediation. For a complete guide how to prepare your manuscript refer to the journal's instructions to authors.

Using reference management software

Typically you don't format your citations and bibliography by hand. The easiest way is to use a reference manager:

PaperpileThe citation style is built in and you can choose it in Settings > Citation Style or Paperpile > Citation Style in Google Docs.
EndNoteFind the style here: output styles overview
Mendeley, Zotero, Papers, and othersThe style is either built in or you can download a CSL file that is supported by most references management programs.
BibTeXBibTeX syles are usually part of a LaTeX template. Check the instructions to authors if the publisher offers a LaTeX template for this journal.

Journal articles

Those examples are references to articles in scholarly journals and how they are supposed to appear in your bibliography.

Not all journals organize their published articles in volumes and issues, so these fields are optional. Some electronic journals do not provide a page range, but instead list an article identifier. In a case like this it's safe to use the article identifier instead of the page range.

A journal article with 1 author
Street, R. A. (2013). Materials science. Unraveling charge transport in conjugated polymers. Science 341, 1072–1073.
A journal article with 2 authors
Hudson, K. L., and Collins, F. S. (2013). Biospecimen policy: Family matters. Nature 500, 141–142.
A journal article with 3 authors
Lee, S., Bluemle, M. J., and Bates, F. S. (2010). Discovery of a Frank-Kasper sigma phase in sphere-forming block copolymer melts. Science 330, 349–353.
A journal article with 7 or more authors
Tsukahara, S., Kobayashi, A., Kawabe, A., Mathieu, O., Miura, A., and Kakutani, T. (2009). Bursts of retrotransposition reproduced in Arabidopsis. Nature 461, 423–426.

Books and book chapters

Here are examples of references for authored and edited books as well as book chapters.

An authored book
Sab, K., and Lebée, A. (2015). Homogenization of Heterogeneous Thin and Thick Plates. Hoboken, NJ: John Wiley & Sons, Inc.
An edited book
Gao, S. ed. (2015). Molecular Nanomagnets and Related Phenomena. Berlin, Heidelberg: Springer.
A chapter in an edited book
Ohnuma*, T., and Holland, J. F. (2009). “Anorexia and Cachexia,” in Supportive Care in Cancer Therapy, ed. D. S. Ettinger (Totowa, NJ: Humana Press), 47–86.

Web sites

Sometimes references to web sites should appear directly in the text rather than in the bibliography. Refer to the Instructions to authors for Frontiers in Microbiotechnology, Ecotoxicology and Bioremediation.

Blog post
Andrew, E. (2014). Nearby Exoplanet Is Best Candidate For Supporting Life. IFLScience. Available at: [Accessed October 30, 2018].


This example shows the general structure used for government reports, technical reports, and scientific reports. If you can't locate the report number then it might be better to cite the report as a book. For reports it is usually not individual people that are credited as authors, but a governmental department or agency like "U. S. Food and Drug Administration" or "National Cancer Institute".

Government report
Government Accountability Office (2002). District of Columbia: Planned Funding and Schedule for D.C. Public Schools’ Modernization Program Are Unrealistic. Washington, DC: U.S. Government Printing Office.

Theses and dissertations

Theses including Ph.D. dissertations, Master's theses or Bachelor theses follow the basic format outlined below.

Doctoral dissertation
Sandoval, V. (2013). Preventing chronic truancy among Latino high school students: A grant proposal.

News paper articles

Unlike scholarly journals, news papers do not usually have a volume and issue number. Instead, the full date and page number is required for a correct reference.
New York Times article
Chira, S., Abrams, R., and Rogers, K. (2017). A Strike by Women, but Turnout Is Modest. New York Times, A11.

In-text citations

References should be cited in the text by name and year in parentheses:

This sentence cites one reference (Street, 2013).
This sentence cites two references (Hudson and Collins, 2013; Street, 2013).

Here are examples of in-text citations with multiple authors:

  • Two authors: (Hudson and Collins, 2013)
  • Three or more authors: (Tsukahara et al., 2009)

About the journal

Full journal titleFrontiers in Microbiotechnology, Ecotoxicology and Bioremediation
AbbreviationFront. Microbiol.
ISSN (online)1664-302X
Microbiology (medical)

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