How to format your references using the Frontiers in Microbiotechnology, Ecotoxicology and Bioremediation citation style

This is a short guide how to format citations and the bibliography in a manuscript for Frontiers in Microbiotechnology, Ecotoxicology and Bioremediation. For a complete guide how to prepare your manuscript refer to the journal's instructions to authors.

Using reference management software

Typically you don't format your citations and bibliography by hand. The easiest way is to use a reference manager:

PaperpileThe citation style is built in and you can choose it in Settings > Citation Style or Paperpile > Citation Style in Google Docs.
EndNoteFind the style here: output styles overview
Mendeley, Zotero, Papers, and othersThe style is either built in or you can download a CSL file that is supported by most references management programs.
BibTeXBibTeX syles are usually part of a LaTeX template. Check the instructions to authors if the publisher offers a LaTeX template for this journal.

Journal articles

Those examples are references to articles in scholarly journals and how they are supposed to appear in your bibliography.

Not all journals organize their published articles in volumes and issues, so these fields are optional. Some electronic journals do not provide a page range, but instead list an article identifier. In a case like this it's safe to use the article identifier instead of the page range.

A journal article with 1 author
Caplan, A. (2004). Bioethics. Is biomedical research too dangerous to pursue? Science 303, 1142.
A journal article with 2 authors
Lee, S. W. S., and Schwarz, N. (2010). Washing away postdecisional dissonance. Science 328, 709.
A journal article with 3 authors
Pelli, D. G., Farell, B., and Moore, D. C. (2003). The remarkable inefficiency of word recognition. Nature 423, 752–756.
A journal article with 7 or more authors
Siegert, M. J., Ellis-Evans, J. C., Tranter, M., Mayer, C., Petit, J. R., Salamatin, A., et al. (2001). Physical, chemical and biological processes in Lake Vostok and other Antarctic subglacial lakes. Nature 414, 603–609.

Books and book chapters

Here are examples of references for authored and edited books as well as book chapters.

An authored book
Verma, J. P. (2016). Sports Research with Analytical Solution Using SPSS®. Hoboken, NJ: John Wiley & Sons, Inc.
An edited book
Bigerna, S. (2015). The Sustainability of Renewable Energy in Europe. , eds. C. A. Bollino and S. Micheli Cham: Springer International Publishing.
A chapter in an edited book
Fisch, M. J. (2009). “Fatigue,” in Supportive Care in Cancer Therapy, ed. D. S. Ettinger (Totowa, NJ: Humana Press), 87–107.

Web sites

Sometimes references to web sites should appear directly in the text rather than in the bibliography. Refer to the Instructions to authors for Frontiers in Microbiotechnology, Ecotoxicology and Bioremediation.

Blog post
Andrew, E. (2015). Dark Energy Survey Reveals 8 Dwarf Galaxies Orbiting The Milky Way. IFLScience. Available at: [Accessed October 30, 2018].


This example shows the general structure used for government reports, technical reports, and scientific reports. If you can't locate the report number then it might be better to cite the report as a book. For reports it is usually not individual people that are credited as authors, but a governmental department or agency like "U. S. Food and Drug Administration" or "National Cancer Institute".

Government report
Government Accountability Office (1989). ADP Budget: Potential Reductions to the Department of the Army’s Budget Request. Washington, DC: U.S. Government Printing Office.

Theses and dissertations

Theses including Ph.D. dissertations, Master's theses or Bachelor theses follow the basic format outlined below.

Doctoral dissertation
Hsu, Y.-C. (2009). A cultural psychosocial model for depression in elder care institutions: The roles of Socially Supportive Activity and self-transcendence.

News paper articles

Unlike scholarly journals, news papers do not usually have a volume and issue number. Instead, the full date and page number is required for a correct reference.

New York Times article
Crawford, S. (2014). The Wire Next Time. New York Times, A21.

In-text citations

References should be cited in the text by name and year in parentheses:

This sentence cites one reference (Caplan, 2004).
This sentence cites two references (Caplan, 2004; Lee and Schwarz, 2010).

Here are examples of in-text citations with multiple authors:

  • Two authors: (Lee and Schwarz, 2010)
  • Three or more authors: (Siegert et al., 2001)

About the journal

Full journal titleFrontiers in Microbiotechnology, Ecotoxicology and Bioremediation
AbbreviationFront. Microbiol.
ISSN (online)1664-302X
Microbiology (medical)

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