How to format your references using the Frontiers in Microbiotechnology, Ecotoxicology and Bioremediation citation style

This is a short guide how to format citations and the bibliography in a manuscript for Frontiers in Microbiotechnology, Ecotoxicology and Bioremediation. For a complete guide how to prepare your manuscript refer to the journal's instructions to authors.

Using reference management software

Typically you don't format your citations and bibliography by hand. The easiest way is to use a reference manager:

PaperpileThe citation style is built in and you can choose it in Settings > Citation Style or Paperpile > Citation Style in Google Docs.
EndNoteFind the style here: output styles overview
Mendeley, Zotero, Papers, and othersThe style is either built in or you can download a CSL file that is supported by most references management programs.
BibTeXBibTeX syles are usually part of a LaTeX template. Check the instructions to authors if the publisher offers a LaTeX template for this journal.

Journal articles

Those examples are references to articles in scholarly journals and how they are supposed to appear in your bibliography.

Not all journals organize their published articles in volumes and issues, so these fields are optional. Some electronic journals do not provide a page range, but instead list an article identifier. In a case like this it's safe to use the article identifier instead of the page range.

A journal article with 1 author
Rogers, K. C. (2002). Nuclear research. The past and future of University research reactors. Science 295, 2217–2218.
A journal article with 2 authors
Meyer, J. R., and Kassen, R. (2007). The effects of competition and predation on diversification in a model adaptive radiation. Nature 446, 432–435.
A journal article with 3 authors
Ginzberg, M. B., Kafri, R., and Kirschner, M. (2015). Cell biology. On being the right (cell) size. Science 348, 1245075.
A journal article with 7 or more authors
Greaves, S. J., Wrede, E., Goldberg, N. T., Zhang, J., Miller, D. J., and Zare, R. N. (2008). Vibrational excitation through tug-of-war inelastic collisions. Nature 454, 88–91.

Books and book chapters

Here are examples of references for authored and edited books as well as book chapters.

An authored book
Park, S., and Guille-Escuret, G. (2017). Sociobiology vs Socioecology. Hoboken, NJ: John Wiley & Sons, Inc.
An edited book
Demirkan, H., Spohrer, J. C., and Krishna, V. eds. (2011). The Science of Service Systems. Boston, MA: Springer US.
A chapter in an edited book
Kosmaoglou, M., Novoselova, T. V., and Cheetham, M. E. (2008). “The Role of Chaperones and Co-Chaperones in Retinal Degenerative Diseases,” in Heat Shock Proteins and the Brain: Implications for Neurodegenerative Diseases and Neuroprotection, eds. A. A. A. Asea and I. R. Brown (Dordrecht: Springer Netherlands), 109–123.

Web sites

Sometimes references to web sites should appear directly in the text rather than in the bibliography. Refer to the Instructions to authors for Frontiers in Microbiotechnology, Ecotoxicology and Bioremediation.

Blog post
Davis, J. (2017). The World’s Oceans Are Warming 13% Faster Than Previously Thought. IFLScience. Available at: [Accessed October 30, 2018].


This example shows the general structure used for government reports, technical reports, and scientific reports. If you can't locate the report number then it might be better to cite the report as a book. For reports it is usually not individual people that are credited as authors, but a governmental department or agency like "U. S. Food and Drug Administration" or "National Cancer Institute".

Government report
Government Accountability Office (1975). Agricultural Attache Role Overseas: What He Does and How He Can Be More Effective for the United States. Washington, DC: U.S. Government Printing Office.

Theses and dissertations

Theses including Ph.D. dissertations, Master's theses or Bachelor theses follow the basic format outlined below.

Doctoral dissertation
Koval, B. C. (2016). Undergraduate Students in Paraprofessional Roles and their Use of Online Social Networks.

News paper articles

Unlike scholarly journals, news papers do not usually have a volume and issue number. Instead, the full date and page number is required for a correct reference.

New York Times article
Feeney, K. (2010). Southern Barbecue, Up North. New York Times, NJ13.

In-text citations

References should be cited in the text by name and year in parentheses:

This sentence cites one reference (Rogers, 2002).
This sentence cites two references (Meyer and Kassen, 2007; Rogers, 2002).

Here are examples of in-text citations with multiple authors:

  • Two authors: (Meyer and Kassen, 2007)
  • Three or more authors: (Greaves et al., 2008)

About the journal

Full journal titleFrontiers in Microbiotechnology, Ecotoxicology and Bioremediation
AbbreviationFront. Microbiol.
ISSN (online)1664-302X
Microbiology (medical)

Other styles