How to format your references using the Frontiers in Microbial Immunology citation style

This is a short guide how to format citations and the bibliography in a manuscript for Frontiers in Microbial Immunology. For a complete guide how to prepare your manuscript refer to the journal's instructions to authors.

Using reference management software

Typically you don't format your citations and bibliography by hand. The easiest way is to use a reference manager:

PaperpileThe citation style is built in and you can choose it in Settings > Citation Style or Paperpile > Citation Style in Google Docs.
EndNoteFind the style here: output styles overview
Mendeley, Zotero, Papers, and othersThe style is either built in or you can download a CSL file that is supported by most references management programs.
BibTeXBibTeX syles are usually part of a LaTeX template. Check the instructions to authors if the publisher offers a LaTeX template for this journal.

Journal articles

Those examples are references to articles in scholarly journals and how they are supposed to appear in your bibliography.

Not all journals organize their published articles in volumes and issues, so these fields are optional. Some electronic journals do not provide a page range, but instead list an article identifier. In a case like this it's safe to use the article identifier instead of the page range.

A journal article with 1 author
Trivedi, B. (2010). Learning from the elite. Nature 466, S4.
A journal article with 2 authors
Fier, P. S., and Hartwig, J. F. (2013). Selective C-H fluorination of pyridines and diazines inspired by a classic amination reaction. Science 342, 956–960.
A journal article with 3 authors
Bongard, J., Zykov, V., and Lipson, H. (2006). Resilient machines through continuous self-modeling. Science 314, 1118–1121.
A journal article with 7 or more authors
Naveiras, O., Nardi, V., Wenzel, P. L., Hauschka, P. V., Fahey, F., and Daley, G. Q. (2009). Bone-marrow adipocytes as negative regulators of the haematopoietic microenvironment. Nature 460, 259–263.

Books and book chapters

Here are examples of references for authored and edited books as well as book chapters.

An authored book
Batten, L. M. (2013). Public Key Cryptography. Hoboken, NJ: John Wiley & Sons, Inc.
An edited book
Ebbin, S. A., Håkon Hoel, A., and Sydnes, A. K. eds. (2005). A Sea Change: The Exclusive Economic Zone and Governance Institutions for Living Marine Resources. Dordrecht: Springer Netherlands.
A chapter in an edited book
Kikuchi, M., and Azumi, M. (2015). “Collisional Transport in Tokamak,” in Frontiers in Fusion Research II: Introduction to Modern Tokamak Physics, ed. M. Azumi (Cham: Springer International Publishing), 63–114.

Web sites

Sometimes references to web sites should appear directly in the text rather than in the bibliography. Refer to the Instructions to authors for Frontiers in Microbial Immunology.

Blog post
Andrew, E. (2015). Young People And E-Cigarettes: What We Know So Far. IFLScience. Available at: [Accessed October 30, 2018].


This example shows the general structure used for government reports, technical reports, and scientific reports. If you can't locate the report number then it might be better to cite the report as a book. For reports it is usually not individual people that are credited as authors, but a governmental department or agency like "U. S. Food and Drug Administration" or "National Cancer Institute".

Government report
Government Accountability Office (2005). Vocational Rehabilitation: Better Measures and Monitoring Could Improve the Performance of the VR Program. Washington, DC: U.S. Government Printing Office.

Theses and dissertations

Theses including Ph.D. dissertations, Master's theses or Bachelor theses follow the basic format outlined below.

Doctoral dissertation
Danso Odei, P. K. (2017). Effective Resolution of The Bibiani-Anhwianso-Bekwai District Healthcare Delivery System: An Outcome-Based Evaluative Case.

News paper articles

Unlike scholarly journals, news papers do not usually have a volume and issue number. Instead, the full date and page number is required for a correct reference.

New York Times article
Pilon, M. (2012). Coaching The Kayakers On 2 Wheels. New York Times, B17.

In-text citations

References should be cited in the text by name and year in parentheses:

This sentence cites one reference (Trivedi, 2010).
This sentence cites two references (Trivedi, 2010; Fier and Hartwig, 2013).

Here are examples of in-text citations with multiple authors:

  • Two authors: (Fier and Hartwig, 2013)
  • Three or more authors: (Naveiras et al., 2009)

About the journal

Full journal titleFrontiers in Microbial Immunology
AbbreviationFront. Immunol.
ISSN (online)1664-3224

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