How to format your references using the Frontiers in Microbial Immunology citation style

This is a short guide how to format citations and the bibliography in a manuscript for Frontiers in Microbial Immunology. For a complete guide how to prepare your manuscript refer to the journal's instructions to authors.

Using reference management software

Typically you don't format your citations and bibliography by hand. The easiest way is to use a reference manager:

PaperpileThe citation style is built in and you can choose it in Settings > Citation Style or Paperpile > Citation Style in Google Docs.
EndNoteFind the style here: output styles overview
Mendeley, Zotero, Papers, and othersThe style is either built in or you can download a CSL file that is supported by most references management programs.
BibTeXBibTeX syles are usually part of a LaTeX template. Check the instructions to authors if the publisher offers a LaTeX template for this journal.

Journal articles

Those examples are references to articles in scholarly journals and how they are supposed to appear in your bibliography.

Not all journals organize their published articles in volumes and issues, so these fields are optional. Some electronic journals do not provide a page range, but instead list an article identifier. In a case like this it's safe to use the article identifier instead of the page range.

A journal article with 1 author
Halliwell, B. (2003). Plasma antioxidants: health benefits of eating chocolate? Nature 426, 787; discussion 788.
A journal article with 2 authors
Blander, J. M., and Medzhitov, R. (2004). Regulation of phagosome maturation by signals from toll-like receptors. Science 304, 1014–1018.
A journal article with 3 authors
Nielsen, H., Westhof, E., and Johansen, S. (2005). An mRNA is capped by a 2’, 5’ lariat catalyzed by a group I-like ribozyme. Science 309, 1584–1587.
A journal article with 7 or more authors
Fabbri, F., Rotunno, E., Lazzarini, L., Fukata, N., and Salviati, G. (2014). Visible and infra-red light emission in boron-doped wurtzite silicon nanowires. Sci. Rep. 4, 3603.

Books and book chapters

Here are examples of references for authored and edited books as well as book chapters.

An authored book
Callahan, K. R., Stetz, G. S., and Brooks, L. M. (2011). Project Management Accounting. Hoboken, NJ: John Wiley & Sons, Inc.
An edited book
Wicks, A. ed. (2014). Structural Health Monitoring, Volume 5: Proceedings of the 32nd IMAC, A Conference and Exposition on Structural Dynamics, 2014. Cham: Springer International Publishing.
A chapter in an edited book
Granberg, T. A. (2013). “Preparedness Measures for Emergency and Disaster Response,” in Humanitarian and Relief Logistics: Research Issues, Case Studies and Future Trends Operations Research/Computer Science Interfaces Series., eds. V. Zeimpekis, S. Ichoua, and I. Minis (New York, NY: Springer), 59–75.

Web sites

Sometimes references to web sites should appear directly in the text rather than in the bibliography. Refer to the Instructions to authors for Frontiers in Microbial Immunology.

Blog post
Hamilton, K. (2014). How To Make A Rocket That Can Shoot 700 Metres Using Sugar And Kitty Litter. IFLScience. Available at: [Accessed October 30, 2018].


This example shows the general structure used for government reports, technical reports, and scientific reports. If you can't locate the report number then it might be better to cite the report as a book. For reports it is usually not individual people that are credited as authors, but a governmental department or agency like "U. S. Food and Drug Administration" or "National Cancer Institute".

Government report
Government Accountability Office (2006). Head Start: Progress and Challenges in Implementing Transportation Regulations. Washington, DC: U.S. Government Printing Office.

Theses and dissertations

Theses including Ph.D. dissertations, Master's theses or Bachelor theses follow the basic format outlined below.

Doctoral dissertation
Luse, K. M. (2008). Invariants of knots, graphs, and Feynman diagrams.

News paper articles

Unlike scholarly journals, news papers do not usually have a volume and issue number. Instead, the full date and page number is required for a correct reference.

New York Times article
Walsh, M. W. (2016). Lew Visits Puerto Rico and Urges Federal Help. New York Times, B3.

In-text citations

References should be cited in the text by name and year in parentheses:

This sentence cites one reference (Halliwell, 2003).
This sentence cites two references (Blander and Medzhitov, 2004; Halliwell, 2003).

Here are examples of in-text citations with multiple authors:

  • Two authors: (Blander and Medzhitov, 2004)
  • Three or more authors: (Fabbri et al., 2014)

About the journal

Full journal titleFrontiers in Microbial Immunology
AbbreviationFront. Immunol.
ISSN (online)1664-3224

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