How to format your references using the Frontiers in Microbial Immunology citation style

This is a short guide how to format citations and the bibliography in a manuscript for Frontiers in Microbial Immunology. For a complete guide how to prepare your manuscript refer to the journal's instructions to authors.

Using reference management software

Typically you don't format your citations and bibliography by hand. The easiest way is to use a reference manager:

PaperpileThe citation style is built in and you can choose it in Settings > Citation Style or Paperpile > Citation Style in Google Docs.
EndNoteFind the style here: output styles overview
Mendeley, Zotero, Papers, and othersThe style is either built in or you can download a CSL file that is supported by most references management programs.
BibTeXBibTeX syles are usually part of a LaTeX template. Check the instructions to authors if the publisher offers a LaTeX template for this journal.

Journal articles

Those examples are references to articles in scholarly journals and how they are supposed to appear in your bibliography.

Not all journals organize their published articles in volumes and issues, so these fields are optional. Some electronic journals do not provide a page range, but instead list an article identifier. In a case like this it's safe to use the article identifier instead of the page range.

A journal article with 1 author
Smaglik, P. (2004). Bricks & mortar. Nature 430, 384.
A journal article with 2 authors
Lopes, W. A., and Jaeger, H. M. (2001). Hierarchical self-assembly of metal nanostructures on diblock copolymer scaffolds. Nature 414, 735–738.
A journal article with 3 authors
MacAlister, C. A., Ohashi-Ito, K., and Bergmann, D. C. (2007). Transcription factor control of asymmetric cell divisions that establish the stomatal lineage. Nature 445, 537–540.
A journal article with 7 or more authors
Bi, H., Yin, K., Xie, X., Ji, J., Wan, S., Sun, L., et al. (2013). Ultrahigh humidity sensitivity of graphene oxide. Sci. Rep. 3, 2714.

Books and book chapters

Here are examples of references for authored and edited books as well as book chapters.

An authored book
Cuddy-Keane, M., Hammond, A., and Peat, A. (2014). Modernism: Keywords. Chichester, UK: John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.
An edited book
Wittevrongel, S., and Phung-Duc, T. eds. (2016). Analytical and Stochastic Modelling Techniques and Applications: 23rd International Conference, ASMTA 2016, Cardiff, UK, August 24-26, 2016, Proceedings. Cham: Springer International Publishing.
A chapter in an edited book
Laxmi, B. P., and Chilambuchelvan, A. (2012). “Secured Two Phase Geographic Forwarding with GSS Algorithm,” in Advances in Communication, Network, and Computing: Third International Conference, CNC 2012, Chennai, India, February 24-25, 2012, Revised Selected Papers Lecture Notes of the Institute for Computer Sciences, Social Informatics and Telecommunications Engineering., eds. V. V. Das and J. Stephen (Berlin, Heidelberg: Springer), 25–30.

Web sites

Sometimes references to web sites should appear directly in the text rather than in the bibliography. Refer to the Instructions to authors for Frontiers in Microbial Immunology.

Blog post
Luntz, S. (2015). Bees Get A Buzz From Caffeinated Flowers. IFLScience. Available at: [Accessed October 30, 2018].


This example shows the general structure used for government reports, technical reports, and scientific reports. If you can't locate the report number then it might be better to cite the report as a book. For reports it is usually not individual people that are credited as authors, but a governmental department or agency like "U. S. Food and Drug Administration" or "National Cancer Institute".

Government report
Government Accountability Office (2016). High-Containment Laboratories: Improved Oversight of Dangerous Pathogens Needed to Mitigate Risk. Washington, DC: U.S. Government Printing Office.

Theses and dissertations

Theses including Ph.D. dissertations, Master's theses or Bachelor theses follow the basic format outlined below.

Doctoral dissertation
Li, S. (2009). Semiconductor and metal oxide nanoparticles: Synthesis, physical properties and industrial application.

News paper articles

Unlike scholarly journals, news papers do not usually have a volume and issue number. Instead, the full date and page number is required for a correct reference.

New York Times article
Lee, L. (2007). Coziness, With Good Lines. New York Times, F3.

In-text citations

References should be cited in the text by name and year in parentheses:

This sentence cites one reference (Smaglik, 2004).
This sentence cites two references (Lopes and Jaeger, 2001; Smaglik, 2004).

Here are examples of in-text citations with multiple authors:

  • Two authors: (Lopes and Jaeger, 2001)
  • Three or more authors: (Bi et al., 2013)

About the journal

Full journal titleFrontiers in Microbial Immunology
AbbreviationFront. Immunol.
ISSN (online)1664-3224

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