How to format your references using the Frontiers in Microbial Immunology citation style

This is a short guide how to format citations and the bibliography in a manuscript for Frontiers in Microbial Immunology. For a complete guide how to prepare your manuscript refer to the journal's instructions to authors.

Using reference management software

Typically you don't format your citations and bibliography by hand. The easiest way is to use a reference manager:

PaperpileThe citation style is built in and you can choose it in Settings > Citation Style or Paperpile > Citation Style in Google Docs.
EndNoteFind the style here: output styles overview
Mendeley, Zotero, Papers, and othersThe style is either built in or you can download a CSL file that is supported by most references management programs.
BibTeXBibTeX syles are usually part of a LaTeX template. Check the instructions to authors if the publisher offers a LaTeX template for this journal.

Journal articles

Those examples are references to articles in scholarly journals and how they are supposed to appear in your bibliography.

Not all journals organize their published articles in volumes and issues, so these fields are optional. Some electronic journals do not provide a page range, but instead list an article identifier. In a case like this it's safe to use the article identifier instead of the page range.

A journal article with 1 author
Regalbuto, J. R. (2009). Engineering. Cellulosic biofuels--got gasoline? Science 325, 822–824.
A journal article with 2 authors
Simmons, L. W., and Roberts, B. (2005). Bacterial immunity traded for sperm viability in male crickets. Science 309, 2031.
A journal article with 3 authors
Lintunen, A., Hölttä, T., and Kulmala, M. (2013). Anatomical regulation of ice nucleation and cavitation helps trees to survive freezing and drought stress. Sci. Rep. 3, 2031.
A journal article with 7 or more authors
Han, J.-H., Kushner, S. A., Yiu, A. P., Hsiang, H.-L. L., Buch, T., Waisman, A., et al. (2009). Selective erasure of a fear memory. Science 323, 1492–1496.

Books and book chapters

Here are examples of references for authored and edited books as well as book chapters.

An authored book
Chitty, J., and Raftery, A. (2013). Essentials of Tortoise Medicine and Surgery. Oxford: John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.
An edited book
Terris, D. J., and Singer, M. C. eds. (2014). Minimally Invasive and Robotic Thyroid and Parathyroid Surgery. New York, NY: Springer.
A chapter in an edited book
Seredynski, M., Ignac, T., and Bouvry, P. (2010). “Probabilistic Packet Relaying in Wireless Mobile Ad Hoc Networks,” in Parallel Processing and Applied Mathematics: 8th International Conference, PPAM 2009, Wroclaw, Poland, September 13-16, 2009. Revised Selected Papers, Part I Lecture Notes in Computer Science., eds. R. Wyrzykowski, J. Dongarra, K. Karczewski, and J. Wasniewski (Berlin, Heidelberg: Springer), 31–40.

Web sites

Sometimes references to web sites should appear directly in the text rather than in the bibliography. Refer to the Instructions to authors for Frontiers in Microbial Immunology.

Blog post
Carpineti, A. (2017). Astronomers Finally See The Faint Swirling Halo Surrounding An Active Galaxy. IFLScience. Available at: [Accessed October 30, 2018].


This example shows the general structure used for government reports, technical reports, and scientific reports. If you can't locate the report number then it might be better to cite the report as a book. For reports it is usually not individual people that are credited as authors, but a governmental department or agency like "U. S. Food and Drug Administration" or "National Cancer Institute".

Government report
Government Accountability Office (2008). Surface Transportation: Principles Can Guide Efforts to Restructure and Fund Federal Programs. Washington, DC: U.S. Government Printing Office.

Theses and dissertations

Theses including Ph.D. dissertations, Master's theses or Bachelor theses follow the basic format outlined below.

Doctoral dissertation
Herrera, E. C. (2010). Emancipating youth from foster care: A content analysis of existing literature.

News paper articles

Unlike scholarly journals, news papers do not usually have a volume and issue number. Instead, the full date and page number is required for a correct reference.

New York Times article
Pilon, M. (2012). Solitary Refinement: A Runner’s Quest. New York Times, D1.

In-text citations

References should be cited in the text by name and year in parentheses:

This sentence cites one reference (Regalbuto, 2009).
This sentence cites two references (Simmons and Roberts, 2005; Regalbuto, 2009).

Here are examples of in-text citations with multiple authors:

  • Two authors: (Simmons and Roberts, 2005)
  • Three or more authors: (Han et al., 2009)

About the journal

Full journal titleFrontiers in Microbial Immunology
AbbreviationFront. Immunol.
ISSN (online)1664-3224

Other styles