How to format your references using the Frontiers in Immunotherapies and Vaccines citation style

This is a short guide how to format citations and the bibliography in a manuscript for Frontiers in Immunotherapies and Vaccines. For a complete guide how to prepare your manuscript refer to the journal's instructions to authors.

Using reference management software

Typically you don't format your citations and bibliography by hand. The easiest way is to use a reference manager:

PaperpileThe citation style is built in and you can choose it in Settings > Citation Style or Paperpile > Citation Style in Google Docs.
EndNoteFind the style here: output styles overview
Mendeley, Zotero, Papers, and othersThe style is either built in or you can download a CSL file that is supported by most references management programs.
BibTeXBibTeX syles are usually part of a LaTeX template. Check the instructions to authors if the publisher offers a LaTeX template for this journal.

Journal articles

Those examples are references to articles in scholarly journals and how they are supposed to appear in your bibliography.

Not all journals organize their published articles in volumes and issues, so these fields are optional. Some electronic journals do not provide a page range, but instead list an article identifier. In a case like this it's safe to use the article identifier instead of the page range.

A journal article with 1 author
Vicsek, T. (2002). The bigger picture. Nature 418, 131.
A journal article with 2 authors
Ginther, D. K., and Kahn, S. (2015). WOMEN IN SCIENCE. Comment on “Expectations of brilliance underlie gender distributions across academic disciplines.” Science 349, 391.
A journal article with 3 authors
Hayashi, K., de Sousa Lopes, S. M. C., and Surani, M. A. (2007). Germ cell specification in mice. Science 316, 394–396.
A journal article with 7 or more authors
Gu, W., Li, H., Zhao, P., Yu, R., Pan, G., Gao, S., et al. (2014). Quantitative proteomic analysis of thylakoid from two microalgae (Haematococcus pluvialis and Dunaliella salina) reveals two different high light-responsive strategies. Sci. Rep. 4, 6661.

Books and book chapters

Here are examples of references for authored and edited books as well as book chapters.

An authored book
Giesbrecht, F. G., and Gumpertz, M. L. (2005). Planning, Construction, and Statistical Analysis of Comparative Experiments: Giesbrecht/Comparative Experiments. Hoboken, NJ: John Wiley & Sons, Inc.
An edited book
Eppstein, D., and Gansner, E. R. eds. (2010). Graph Drawing: 17th International Symposium, GD 2009, Chicago, IL, USA, September 22-25, 2009. Revised Papers. Berlin, Heidelberg: Springer.
A chapter in an edited book
Antsaklis, P. J., and Michel, A. N. (2007). “Stability,” in A Linear Systems Primer, ed. A. N. Michel (Boston, MA: Birkhäuser), 141–194.

Web sites

Sometimes references to web sites should appear directly in the text rather than in the bibliography. Refer to the Instructions to authors for Frontiers in Immunotherapies and Vaccines.

Blog post
Hamilton, K. (2016). Up To 40% Of Some Herbal Supplements Are Mislabelled Or Contain Adulterants. IFLScience.


This example shows the general structure used for government reports, technical reports, and scientific reports. If you can't locate the report number then it might be better to cite the report as a book. For reports it is usually not individual people that are credited as authors, but a governmental department or agency like "U. S. Food and Drug Administration" or "National Cancer Institute".

Government report
Government Accountability Office (1978). Shifting the Government’s Automatic Data Processing Requirements to the Private Sector: Further Study and Better Guidance Needed. Washington, DC: U.S. Government Printing Office.

Theses and dissertations

Theses including Ph.D. dissertations, Master's theses or Bachelor theses follow the basic format outlined below.

Doctoral dissertation
Magda, B. (2009). Increasing efficacy of emergency departments through systems analysis of enterprise architecture: Mitigating the impact of technological change.

News paper articles

Unlike scholarly journals, news papers do not usually have a volume and issue number. Instead, the full date and page number is required for a correct reference.

New York Times article
(nyt), S. K. (2001). World Briefing | Outer Space: Workout For Spacewalkers. New York Times, A14.

In-text citations

References should be cited in the text by name and year in parentheses:

This sentence cites one reference (Vicsek, 2002).
This sentence cites two references (Vicsek, 2002; Ginther and Kahn, 2015).

Here are examples of in-text citations with multiple authors:

  • Two authors: (Ginther and Kahn, 2015)
  • Three or more authors: (Gu et al., 2014)

About the journal

Full journal titleFrontiers in Immunotherapies and Vaccines
AbbreviationFront. Immunol.
ISSN (online)1664-3224

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