How to format your references using the Frontiers in Immunotherapies and Vaccines citation style

This is a short guide how to format citations and the bibliography in a manuscript for Frontiers in Immunotherapies and Vaccines. For a complete guide how to prepare your manuscript refer to the journal's instructions to authors.

Using reference management software

Typically you don't format your citations and bibliography by hand. The easiest way is to use a reference manager:

PaperpileThe citation style is built in and you can choose it in Settings > Citation Style or Paperpile > Citation Style in Google Docs.
EndNoteFind the style here: output styles overview
Mendeley, Zotero, Papers, and othersThe style is either built in or you can download a CSL file that is supported by most references management programs.
BibTeXBibTeX syles are usually part of a LaTeX template. Check the instructions to authors if the publisher offers a LaTeX template for this journal.

Journal articles

Those examples are references to articles in scholarly journals and how they are supposed to appear in your bibliography.

Not all journals organize their published articles in volumes and issues, so these fields are optional. Some electronic journals do not provide a page range, but instead list an article identifier. In a case like this it's safe to use the article identifier instead of the page range.

A journal article with 1 author
Batson, P. E. (2012). Applied physics. Plasmonic modes revealed. Science 335, 47–48.
A journal article with 2 authors
Bouibes, A., and Zaoui, A. (2014). High-pressure polymorphs of ZnCO₃: evolutionary crystal structure prediction. Sci. Rep. 4, 5172.
A journal article with 3 authors
Dahl, C. D., Chen, C.-C., and Rasch, M. J. (2014). Own-race and own-species advantages in face perception: a computational view. Sci. Rep. 4, 6654.
A journal article with 7 or more authors
Li, Y., Guo, Q., Kalb, J. A., and Thompson, C. V. (2008). Matching glass-forming ability with the density of the amorphous phase. Science 322, 1816–1819.

Books and book chapters

Here are examples of references for authored and edited books as well as book chapters.

An authored book
Chappell, D. (2008). The JCT Design and Build Contract 2005. Oxford, UK: Blackwell Publishing Ltd.
An edited book
Öechsner, A., and Augustin, C. eds. (2009). Multifunctional Metallic Hollow Sphere Structures: Manufacturing, Properties and Application. Berlin, Heidelberg: Springer.
A chapter in an edited book
Ravines, P., Li, L., Chan, L., and McElroy, R. (2016). “Some Science Behind the Daguerreotype: Nanometer and Sub-micrometer Realities On and Beneath the Surface,” in Nanoscience and Cultural Heritage, eds. P. Dillmann, L. Bellot-Gurlet, and I. Nenner (Paris: Atlantis Press), 123–158.

Web sites

Sometimes references to web sites should appear directly in the text rather than in the bibliography. Refer to the Instructions to authors for Frontiers in Immunotherapies and Vaccines.

Blog post
Carpineti, A. (2017). Breakthrough Computer Could Survive Extreme Conditions On Venus. IFLScience. Available at: [Accessed October 30, 2018].


This example shows the general structure used for government reports, technical reports, and scientific reports. If you can't locate the report number then it might be better to cite the report as a book. For reports it is usually not individual people that are credited as authors, but a governmental department or agency like "U. S. Food and Drug Administration" or "National Cancer Institute".

Government report
Government Accountability Office (1991). Financial Management: Actions Needed to Ensure Effective Implementation of NASA’s Accounting System. Washington, DC: U.S. Government Printing Office.

Theses and dissertations

Theses including Ph.D. dissertations, Master's theses or Bachelor theses follow the basic format outlined below.

Doctoral dissertation
Jalali Farahani, B. (2005). Adaptive Digital Calibration Techniques for High Speed, High Resolution Sigma Delta ADCs for Broadband Wireless Applications.

News paper articles

Unlike scholarly journals, news papers do not usually have a volume and issue number. Instead, the full date and page number is required for a correct reference.

New York Times article
Gordon, M. R. (2017). U.S. Plan for Afghanistan May Help, but Few Expect ‘Outright Victory.’ New York Times, A11.

In-text citations

References should be cited in the text by name and year in parentheses:

This sentence cites one reference (Batson, 2012).
This sentence cites two references (Batson, 2012; Bouibes and Zaoui, 2014).

Here are examples of in-text citations with multiple authors:

  • Two authors: (Bouibes and Zaoui, 2014)
  • Three or more authors: (Li et al., 2008)

About the journal

Full journal titleFrontiers in Immunotherapies and Vaccines
AbbreviationFront. Immunol.
ISSN (online)1664-3224

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