How to format your references using the Frontiers in Immunotherapies and Vaccines citation style

This is a short guide how to format citations and the bibliography in a manuscript for Frontiers in Immunotherapies and Vaccines. For a complete guide how to prepare your manuscript refer to the journal's instructions to authors.

Using reference management software

Typically you don't format your citations and bibliography by hand. The easiest way is to use a reference manager:

PaperpileThe citation style is built in and you can choose it in Settings > Citation Style or Paperpile > Citation Style in Google Docs.
EndNoteFind the style here: output styles overview
Mendeley, Zotero, Papers, and othersThe style is either built in or you can download a CSL file that is supported by most references management programs.
BibTeXBibTeX syles are usually part of a LaTeX template. Check the instructions to authors if the publisher offers a LaTeX template for this journal.

Journal articles

Those examples are references to articles in scholarly journals and how they are supposed to appear in your bibliography.

Not all journals organize their published articles in volumes and issues, so these fields are optional. Some electronic journals do not provide a page range, but instead list an article identifier. In a case like this it's safe to use the article identifier instead of the page range.

A journal article with 1 author
Lucht, R. P. (2007). Chemistry. Femtosecond lasers for molecular measurements. Science 316, 207–208.
A journal article with 2 authors
Clubb, R., and Mason, G. (2003). Animal welfare: captivity effects on wide-ranging carnivores. Nature 425, 473–474.
A journal article with 3 authors
Logvenov, G., Gozar, A., and Bozovic, I. (2009). High-temperature superconductivity in a single copper-oxygen plane. Science 326, 699–702.
A journal article with 7 or more authors
Neil, H., Malabat, C., d’Aubenton-Carafa, Y., Xu, Z., Steinmetz, L. M., and Jacquier, A. (2009). Widespread bidirectional promoters are the major source of cryptic transcripts in yeast. Nature 457, 1038–1042.

Books and book chapters

Here are examples of references for authored and edited books as well as book chapters.

An authored book
Beach, G. J. (2013). The U.S. Technology Skills Gap. Hoboken, NJ: John Wiley & Sons, Inc.
An edited book
Tosti, A., Beer, K., and De Padova, M. P. eds. (2012). Management of Complications of Cosmetic Procedures: Handling Common and More Uncommon Problems. Berlin, Heidelberg: Springer.
A chapter in an edited book
Namera, A., and Yashiki, M. (2005). “Pretreatments of human specimens,” in Drugs and Poisons in Humans: A Handbook of Practical Analysis, ed. K. Watanabe (Berlin, Heidelberg: Springer), 25–31.

Web sites

Sometimes references to web sites should appear directly in the text rather than in the bibliography. Refer to the Instructions to authors for Frontiers in Immunotherapies and Vaccines.

Blog post
Davis, J. (2015). High Stomach Acidity Might Help Animals Protect Against Gut Infection. IFLScience. Available at: [Accessed October 30, 2018].


This example shows the general structure used for government reports, technical reports, and scientific reports. If you can't locate the report number then it might be better to cite the report as a book. For reports it is usually not individual people that are credited as authors, but a governmental department or agency like "U. S. Food and Drug Administration" or "National Cancer Institute".

Government report
Government Accountability Office (1986). Weather Satellites: User Views on the Consequences of Eliminating a Civilian Polar Orbiter. Washington, DC: U.S. Government Printing Office.

Theses and dissertations

Theses including Ph.D. dissertations, Master's theses or Bachelor theses follow the basic format outlined below.

Doctoral dissertation
Kwon, Y. (2009). Extreme value estimators: Their long memory feature and forecasting performances in the U.S. stock indexes.

News paper articles

Unlike scholarly journals, news papers do not usually have a volume and issue number. Instead, the full date and page number is required for a correct reference.

New York Times article
Kenigsberg, B. (2016). Review: Another Look at Donald Trump’s Scottish Dealings. New York Times, C7.

In-text citations

References should be cited in the text by name and year in parentheses:

This sentence cites one reference (Lucht, 2007).
This sentence cites two references (Clubb and Mason, 2003; Lucht, 2007).

Here are examples of in-text citations with multiple authors:

  • Two authors: (Clubb and Mason, 2003)
  • Three or more authors: (Neil et al., 2009)

About the journal

Full journal titleFrontiers in Immunotherapies and Vaccines
AbbreviationFront. Immunol.
ISSN (online)1664-3224

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