How to format your references using the Frontiers in Immunotherapies and Vaccines citation style

This is a short guide how to format citations and the bibliography in a manuscript for Frontiers in Immunotherapies and Vaccines. For a complete guide how to prepare your manuscript refer to the journal's instructions to authors.

Using reference management software

Typically you don't format your citations and bibliography by hand. The easiest way is to use a reference manager:

PaperpileThe citation style is built in and you can choose it in Settings > Citation Style or Paperpile > Citation Style in Google Docs.
EndNoteFind the style here: output styles overview
Mendeley, Zotero, Papers, and othersThe style is either built in or you can download a CSL file that is supported by most references management programs.
BibTeXBibTeX syles are usually part of a LaTeX template. Check the instructions to authors if the publisher offers a LaTeX template for this journal.

Journal articles

Those examples are references to articles in scholarly journals and how they are supposed to appear in your bibliography.

Not all journals organize their published articles in volumes and issues, so these fields are optional. Some electronic journals do not provide a page range, but instead list an article identifier. In a case like this it's safe to use the article identifier instead of the page range.

A journal article with 1 author
Guenin, L. M. (2001). Essays on science and society. Morals and primordials. Science 292, 1659–1660.
A journal article with 2 authors
Mabuchi, H., and Doherty, A. C. (2002). Cavity quantum electrodynamics: coherence in context. Science 298, 1372–1377.
A journal article with 3 authors
van de Waal, E., Borgeaud, C., and Whiten, A. (2013). Potent social learning and conformity shape a wild primate’s foraging decisions. Science 340, 483–485.
A journal article with 7 or more authors
Schiller, J., Major, G., Koester, H. J., and Schiller, Y. (2000). NMDA spikes in basal dendrites of cortical pyramidal neurons. Nature 404, 285–289.

Books and book chapters

Here are examples of references for authored and edited books as well as book chapters.

An authored book
Webb, R. C. (2005). Tele-Visionaries. Hoboken, NJ: John Wiley & Sons, Inc.
An edited book
Cimiano, P., and Pinto, H. S. eds. (2010). Knowledge Engineering and Management by the Masses: 17th International Conference, EKAW 2010, Lisbon, Portugal, October 11-15, 2010. Proceedings. Berlin, Heidelberg: Springer.
A chapter in an edited book
Sernhede, O., Thörn, C., and Thörn, H. (2016). “The Stockholm Uprising in Context: Urban Social Movements in the Rise and Demise of the Swedish Welfare-State City,” in Urban Uprisings: Challenging Neoliberal Urbanism in Europe, eds. M. Mayer, C. Thörn, and H. Thörn (London: Palgrave Macmillan UK), 149–173.

Web sites

Sometimes references to web sites should appear directly in the text rather than in the bibliography. Refer to the Instructions to authors for Frontiers in Immunotherapies and Vaccines.

Blog post
Andrew, E. (2014). Image From Curiosity Rover Reveals Mysterious Light. IFLScience. Available at: [Accessed October 30, 2018].


This example shows the general structure used for government reports, technical reports, and scientific reports. If you can't locate the report number then it might be better to cite the report as a book. For reports it is usually not individual people that are credited as authors, but a governmental department or agency like "U. S. Food and Drug Administration" or "National Cancer Institute".

Government report
Government Accountability Office (2009). Higher Education: Approaches to Attract and Fund International Students in the United States and Abroad. Washington, DC: U.S. Government Printing Office.

Theses and dissertations

Theses including Ph.D. dissertations, Master's theses or Bachelor theses follow the basic format outlined below.

Doctoral dissertation
Currano, L. J. (2010). Latching microelectromechanical shock sensor systems: Design, modeling, and experiments.

News paper articles

Unlike scholarly journals, news papers do not usually have a volume and issue number. Instead, the full date and page number is required for a correct reference.

New York Times article
Kelly, M. (1993). PRESIDENT MOVES IN FAVOR OF LABOR. New York Times, A17.

In-text citations

References should be cited in the text by name and year in parentheses:

This sentence cites one reference (Guenin, 2001).
This sentence cites two references (Guenin, 2001; Mabuchi and Doherty, 2002).

Here are examples of in-text citations with multiple authors:

  • Two authors: (Mabuchi and Doherty, 2002)
  • Three or more authors: (Schiller et al., 2000)

About the journal

Full journal titleFrontiers in Immunotherapies and Vaccines
AbbreviationFront. Immunol.
ISSN (online)1664-3224

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