How to format your references using the Frontiers in Immunotherapies and Vaccines citation style

This is a short guide how to format citations and the bibliography in a manuscript for Frontiers in Immunotherapies and Vaccines. For a complete guide how to prepare your manuscript refer to the journal's instructions to authors.

Using reference management software

Typically you don't format your citations and bibliography by hand. The easiest way is to use a reference manager:

PaperpileThe citation style is built in and you can choose it in Settings > Citation Style or Paperpile > Citation Style in Google Docs.
EndNoteFind the style here: output styles overview
Mendeley, Zotero, Papers, and othersThe style is either built in or you can download a CSL file that is supported by most references management programs.
BibTeXBibTeX syles are usually part of a LaTeX template. Check the instructions to authors if the publisher offers a LaTeX template for this journal.

Journal articles

Those examples are references to articles in scholarly journals and how they are supposed to appear in your bibliography.

Not all journals organize their published articles in volumes and issues, so these fields are optional. Some electronic journals do not provide a page range, but instead list an article identifier. In a case like this it's safe to use the article identifier instead of the page range.

A journal article with 1 author
Misumi, K. (2015). Biogeochemistry: Iron’s voyage from the abyss. Nature 523, 160–161.
A journal article with 2 authors
Kelliher, T., and Walbot, V. (2012). Hypoxia triggers meiotic fate acquisition in maize. Science 337, 345–348.
A journal article with 3 authors
Hempson, G. P., Archibald, S., and Bond, W. J. (2015). A continent-wide assessment of the form and intensity of large mammal herbivory in Africa. Science 350, 1056–1061.
A journal article with 7 or more authors
Jonietz, F., Mühlbauer, S., Pfleiderer, C., Neubauer, A., Münzer, W., Bauer, A., et al. (2010). Spin transfer torques in MnSi at ultralow current densities. Science 330, 1648–1651.

Books and book chapters

Here are examples of references for authored and edited books as well as book chapters.

An authored book
Wiens, J. A. (2016). Ecological Challenges and Conservation Conundrums. Chichester, UK: John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.
An edited book
Drislane, F. W. ed. (2005). Status Epilepticus: A Clinical Perspective. Totowa, NJ: Humana Press.
A chapter in an edited book
Flesca, S., Furfaro, F., and Parisi, F. (2011). “Computing Card-minimal Repairs,” in Repairing and Querying Databases under Aggregate Constraints SpringerBriefs in Computer Science., eds. F. Furfaro and F. Parisi (New York, NY: Springer), 33–45.

Web sites

Sometimes references to web sites should appear directly in the text rather than in the bibliography. Refer to the Instructions to authors for Frontiers in Immunotherapies and Vaccines.

Blog post
Davis, J. (2016). FDA Bans The Sale Of Antibacterial Soaps. IFLScience. Available at: [Accessed October 30, 2018].


This example shows the general structure used for government reports, technical reports, and scientific reports. If you can't locate the report number then it might be better to cite the report as a book. For reports it is usually not individual people that are credited as authors, but a governmental department or agency like "U. S. Food and Drug Administration" or "National Cancer Institute".

Government report
Government Accountability Office (2012). Commercial Space Launches: FAA Should Update How It Assesses Federal Liability Risk. Washington, DC: U.S. Government Printing Office.

Theses and dissertations

Theses including Ph.D. dissertations, Master's theses or Bachelor theses follow the basic format outlined below.

Doctoral dissertation
Kim, S. A. (2009). Development of an age-appropriate, facility-specific nutrition screening and assessment tool for the elderly.

News paper articles

Unlike scholarly journals, news papers do not usually have a volume and issue number. Instead, the full date and page number is required for a correct reference.

New York Times article
Novick, S. M. (2015). When the Brew Is as Crucial as the Bean. New York Times, LI8.

In-text citations

References should be cited in the text by name and year in parentheses:

This sentence cites one reference (Misumi, 2015).
This sentence cites two references (Kelliher and Walbot, 2012; Misumi, 2015).

Here are examples of in-text citations with multiple authors:

  • Two authors: (Kelliher and Walbot, 2012)
  • Three or more authors: (Jonietz et al., 2010)

About the journal

Full journal titleFrontiers in Immunotherapies and Vaccines
AbbreviationFront. Immunol.
ISSN (online)1664-3224

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