How to format your references using the Frontiers in Dementia citation style

This is a short guide how to format citations and the bibliography in a manuscript for Frontiers in Dementia. For a complete guide how to prepare your manuscript refer to the journal's instructions to authors.

Using reference management software

Typically you don't format your citations and bibliography by hand. The easiest way is to use a reference manager:

PaperpileThe citation style is built in and you can choose it in Settings > Citation Style or Paperpile > Citation Style in Google Docs.
EndNoteFind the style here: output styles overview
Mendeley, Zotero, Papers, and othersThe style is either built in or you can download a CSL file that is supported by most references management programs.
BibTeXBibTeX syles are usually part of a LaTeX template. Check the instructions to authors if the publisher offers a LaTeX template for this journal.

Journal articles

Those examples are references to articles in scholarly journals and how they are supposed to appear in your bibliography.

Not all journals organize their published articles in volumes and issues, so these fields are optional. Some electronic journals do not provide a page range, but instead list an article identifier. In a case like this it's safe to use the article identifier instead of the page range.

A journal article with 1 author
Brune, H. (2015). CHEMISTRY. In the wake of collision. Science 350, 1321.
A journal article with 2 authors
Premkumar, L. S., and Ahern, G. P. (2000). Induction of vanilloid receptor channel activity by protein kinase C. Nature 408, 985–990.
A journal article with 3 authors
Zhao, M., Dong, W., and Wang, A. (2013). Two-dimensional carbon topological insulators superior to graphene. Sci. Rep. 3, 3532.
A journal article with 7 or more authors
Shi, G., Liu, J., Wang, C., Song, B., Tu, Y., Hu, J., et al. (2013). Ion enrichment on the hydrophobic carbon-based surface in aqueous salt solutions due to cation-π interactions. Sci. Rep. 3, 3436.

Books and book chapters

Here are examples of references for authored and edited books as well as book chapters.

An authored book
Lhabitant, F.-S. (2004). Hedge Funds. Oxford, UK: John Wiley & Sons Ltd.
An edited book
Nirenberg, L. ed. (2011). Pseudo-differential Operators. Berlin, Heidelberg: Springer.
A chapter in an edited book
de Lemos Almada, C. (2015). “Genetic Algorithms Based on the Principles of Grundgestalt and Developing Variation,” in Mathematics and Computation in Music: 5th International Conference, MCM 2015, London, UK, June 22-25, 2015, Proceedings Lecture Notes in Computer Science., eds. T. Collins, D. Meredith, and A. Volk (Cham: Springer International Publishing), 42–51.

Web sites

Sometimes references to web sites should appear directly in the text rather than in the bibliography. Refer to the Instructions to authors for Frontiers in Dementia.

Blog post
Andrew, D. (2016). Solved Mystery Of The Deep-Sea Mushroom Just Raises New Questions. IFLScience. Available at: [Accessed October 30, 2018].


This example shows the general structure used for government reports, technical reports, and scientific reports. If you can't locate the report number then it might be better to cite the report as a book. For reports it is usually not individual people that are credited as authors, but a governmental department or agency like "U. S. Food and Drug Administration" or "National Cancer Institute".

Government report
Government Accountability Office (1981). Stronger Actions Needed To Recover $730 Million in Defaulted National Direct Student Loans. Washington, DC: U.S. Government Printing Office.

Theses and dissertations

Theses including Ph.D. dissertations, Master's theses or Bachelor theses follow the basic format outlined below.

Doctoral dissertation
Phongprasert, A. V. (2010). MSW students’ perceived knowledge and perceptions of effectiveness of the child welfare system.

News paper articles

Unlike scholarly journals, news papers do not usually have a volume and issue number. Instead, the full date and page number is required for a correct reference.

New York Times article
Rothenberg, B. (2017). Djokovic Keeps Title Defense Alive, but Not Without an Early Scare. New York Times, D3.

In-text citations

References should be cited in the text by name and year in parentheses:

This sentence cites one reference (Brune, 2015).
This sentence cites two references (Premkumar and Ahern, 2000; Brune, 2015).

Here are examples of in-text citations with multiple authors:

  • Two authors: (Premkumar and Ahern, 2000)
  • Three or more authors: (Shi et al., 2013)

About the journal

Full journal titleFrontiers in Dementia
AbbreviationFront. Neurol.
ISSN (online)1664-2295
ScopeClinical Neurology

Other styles