How to format your references using the Frontiers in Dementia citation style

This is a short guide how to format citations and the bibliography in a manuscript for Frontiers in Dementia. For a complete guide how to prepare your manuscript refer to the journal's instructions to authors.

Using reference management software

Typically you don't format your citations and bibliography by hand. The easiest way is to use a reference manager:

PaperpileThe citation style is built in and you can choose it in Settings > Citation Style or Paperpile > Citation Style in Google Docs.
EndNoteFind the style here: output styles overview
Mendeley, Zotero, Papers, and othersThe style is either built in or you can download a CSL file that is supported by most references management programs.
BibTeXBibTeX syles are usually part of a LaTeX template. Check the instructions to authors if the publisher offers a LaTeX template for this journal.

Journal articles

Those examples are references to articles in scholarly journals and how they are supposed to appear in your bibliography.

Not all journals organize their published articles in volumes and issues, so these fields are optional. Some electronic journals do not provide a page range, but instead list an article identifier. In a case like this it's safe to use the article identifier instead of the page range.

A journal article with 1 author
Koen, D. (2005). Nuts and bolts. International ventures. Nature 434, 804.
A journal article with 2 authors
Vernot, B., and Akey, J. M. (2014). Resurrecting surviving Neandertal lineages from modern human genomes. Science 343, 1017–1021.
A journal article with 3 authors
Andersson, J. O., Doolittle, W. F., and Nesbø, C. L. (2001). Genomics. Are there bugs in our genome? Science 292, 1848–1850.
A journal article with 7 or more authors
Baek, S.-Y., Kaneda, F., Ozawa, M., and Edamatsu, K. (2013). Experimental violation and reformulation of the Heisenberg’s error-disturbance uncertainty relation. Sci. Rep. 3, 2221.

Books and book chapters

Here are examples of references for authored and edited books as well as book chapters.

An authored book
Tms (2011). Engineering Solutions for Sustainability. Hoboken, NJ: John Wiley & Sons, Inc.
An edited book
Gavrilova, M., Gervasi, O., Kumar, V., Tan, C. J. K., Taniar, D., Laganá, A., et al. eds. (2006). Computational Science and Its Applications - ICCSA 2006: International Conference, Glasgow, UK, May 8-11, 2006. Proceedings, Part I. Berlin, Heidelberg: Springer.
A chapter in an edited book
Kruys, J., and Qian, L. (2011). “The Physics of Spectrum Sharing,” in Sharing RF Spectrum with Commodity Wireless Technologies: Theory and Practice Signals and Communication Technology., ed. L. Qian (Dordrecht: Springer Netherlands), 71–95.

Web sites

Sometimes references to web sites should appear directly in the text rather than in the bibliography. Refer to the Instructions to authors for Frontiers in Dementia.

Blog post
O`Callaghan, J. (2017). Watch Water Droplets Explode As They Freeze From The Outside In. IFLScience. Available at: [Accessed October 30, 2018].


This example shows the general structure used for government reports, technical reports, and scientific reports. If you can't locate the report number then it might be better to cite the report as a book. For reports it is usually not individual people that are credited as authors, but a governmental department or agency like "U. S. Food and Drug Administration" or "National Cancer Institute".

Government report
Government Accountability Office (1989). Space Funding: NASA and DOD Activities for Fiscal Years 1981 Through 1989. Washington, DC: U.S. Government Printing Office.

Theses and dissertations

Theses including Ph.D. dissertations, Master's theses or Bachelor theses follow the basic format outlined below.

Doctoral dissertation
Schmittel, M. (2013). The Children First Foundation Parenting Education Program: A Study on the Effectiveness of a Divorce Parenting Education Program.

News paper articles

Unlike scholarly journals, news papers do not usually have a volume and issue number. Instead, the full date and page number is required for a correct reference.

New York Times article
Hu, W. (2017). Navigating A City Forest: 280 Miles Of Scaffolding. New York Times, A22.

In-text citations

References should be cited in the text by name and year in parentheses:

This sentence cites one reference (Koen, 2005).
This sentence cites two references (Koen, 2005; Vernot and Akey, 2014).

Here are examples of in-text citations with multiple authors:

  • Two authors: (Vernot and Akey, 2014)
  • Three or more authors: (Baek et al., 2013)

About the journal

Full journal titleFrontiers in Dementia
AbbreviationFront. Neurol.
ISSN (online)1664-2295
ScopeClinical Neurology

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